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  • Purpose; This research is to recognize the importance of IT security, which increases in importance in international sports event security in the smart age due to technological development, to recognize the impact of IT security responsibilities of related agencies on risk reduction and organizational performance, and to inform the importance of expertise and work in sports event security field. To this end, this study conducted a survey using a self-evaluation method for 250 bodyguards who were working in sport event security companies, briefed on the purpose of the survey, and agreed to participate the survey. Among the collected data, 241 questionnaires were taken as valid samples, except for those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the responses were omitted. For data collected, frequency analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation analysis were conducted using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 18.0, and path analysis was conducted using a structural equation model to analyze IT security responsibilities, risk reduction, and organizational performance. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, IT security responsibilities affect risk reduction. Second, IT security responsibilities affect organizational performance. Third, risk reduction affects organizational performance. Combining the results of this study and prior studies, the successful hosting of sports events not only has a great impact on the image of the host country as well as social, cultural, economic, political, and diplomatic aspects but also on the existence of many enterprises and other related agencies or organizations. The importance of security for sports events is increasing due to the participation of celebrities and world-class sports stars, and the importance of security related to IT technology is increasing in the security field due to the development of the Internet, IT technology, and the popularization of smart devices. Therefore, in order for bodyguards and related organizations to be recognized as professionals and contribute to the successful hosting of sports events, it is necessary to make continuous efforts to develop a sense of responsibility and ethics for IT security as well as professional knowledge of IT technology.
    Keyword:IT Security, Risk Reduction, Sports Event, Security Organization, Responsibility
  • Recently the characteristics of those who committed serious terrorist crimes are not directly related to the direct command system of a specific terrorist organization(ex. IS) but are influenced by the political propaganda of terrorist organizations online, Terrorist crime under the loose form of the terrorist organization. Therefore, this study suggests ways to improve countermeasures against terrorism in metropolitan subways. Although it is important for the prevention of terrorism in the subway, it is important for the police officers of the subway police and the special police officers of the railway to have a physical limit to take charge of them, and after confirming that improvement measures are necessary, And pointed out the possibility of establishing independent security departments where judicial and administrative control is not feasible to grant police rights. In addition, I pointed out how to improve the safety of subways in the metropolitan area through the recruitment of core job candidates and the identity survey during the sub-way operation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that a special council on terrorism, which can take into consideration the characteristics of subway terrorism, such as airports and ports, is required to be established in charge of terrorism prevention under the current Anti-Terrorism Act. Finally, it is once again emphasized that the strengthening of the powers of the counterparts to terrorism must inevitably limit the basic rights of the people, so the principle of proportionality must be observed in their activities.
    Keyword:Terror Crime, Subway Terrorism, Act on Anti-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizen and Public Security, France 2016 Transportation Terrorism Prevention Act, Principle of Proportionality
  • Today's counter-terrorism policy means effectively excluding national threats, preventing them in advance, and responding appropriately to injustices. This means that the challenges faced must be solved by comprehensively operating all means of politics, diplomacy, economy, society, culture, military and science and technology in order to achieve national goals from various military and non-military threats at home and abroad. Especially in Korea, South Korea and North Korea are facing confrontation and are threatened by terrorism at the same time. Crimes such as espionage and terrorism transcend time and space, as well as being highly trained and mobile. It is also a representative national security risk crime by actors who comply with strict security rules. They are using advanced science and technology compared to the past, and they use cyber and terrorism, public relations and education using SNS, and propaganda, as well as the use of communication between the Internet and smartphones. In this situation, legal evidence gathering by intelligence agencies or investigative agencies is increasingly difficult and inevitable. Moreover, despite the fact that information and investigative agencies have arrested security offenders in spite of poor conditions, it is now a reality that they do not admit their ability to testify or convict of illegally collected evidence. Therefore, the state and nature of security crimes, including terrorism, must be grasped and the nation should protect the lives and property of the people through proactive responses.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Terrorism Threats, National Security Crimes, FTFs, Criminal Justice
  • Europe as a whole is suffering from invisible fear and terrorism obsessions. In recent years, new types of attack terrorism, such as truck terrorism, have frequently occurred, and many of them show the characteristics of "homegrown terrorism" and "lone wolf terrorism." In the United States, the threat of jihadist terrorism is relatively low compared to that of Europe, but attempts to terrorism continue. The jihad terrorist groups are divided into several factions, but they have created a loose network. In the West, they are preoccupied with showing off their power through violent means and promoting their ideology without engaging in public political and social activities and campaigns. The subject of jihadist terrorism is not specified. Although it is targeting soft targets with relatively weak protection, it is willing to attack them if the propaganda effects of terrorism, such as national important facilities, transportation, and tourist attractions, are sufficient targets. The ripple effect of ISIS after al-Qaida is still valid. Although not concentrated in the home base, it is dispersed into small groups in the Middle East, Southwest Asia, Europe and North Africa, recruiting sympathizers and encouraging and supporting extreme action. Following the large-scale terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations with thorough division of labor, expertise, and financial power, a small number of terrorist organizations are also moving closely.
    Keyword:Dispute, Jihadist, Extremism, Information Sharing, Counter-Terrorism Group
  • Recently, violence and violent protests such as the political revolution in the Middle East and Africa, an-ti-social resistance in Europe, and the occupation of Wall Street in the US have been heating up and spreading due to the global economic downturn and the heat of liberalization. Many countries, including the US, UK, and Spain, are experiencing homegrown terrorism, and Korea is also warned of the possibility of homegrown terrorism. In addition, the types of terrorism are changing in various ways due to the rapid development of science and technology. Biochemical weapons, high-performance bombs, and cyber terror-ism, which can kill a large number of lives, are possible, and the development of information and communication technology(ICT) enables close links among terrorist organizations, further strengthening the formation of an international terrorist network. Also, recent terrorism has been indiscriminately perpetrated against an unspecified number of citizens in various ways. In this context, the police's anti-terrorism mission to protect citizens' lives and property in the closest place to the people has emerged as an important task. In order for the police to carry out this mission, they must be trained as the first responders at the scene of terrorism, and it is important that they gather in-formation effectively and cooperate with various counterterrorism agencies. In addition, efforts are needed to prevent crimes in advance by patrolling areas where foreigners are concentrated and maintaining proper security. This is because the increase in crime by foreigners could serve as a factor that further destabilizes their status in Korean society. This will be useful not only for the prevention of crime but also for that of terrorism. Furthermore, in order to strengthen the ability to respond to international sex crimes, a joint investigation is essential, including the rapid exchange of information among related agencies and the expansion of information collection. All organizations related to countering international sex crimes, including the police, immigration authorities, the National Intelligence Service, the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, foreign diplomatic offices in Korea, and the Small and Medium Business Administration, should establish a close cooperation system to deal with them. As there are cases of fleeing to foreign countries immediately after committing international sex crimes, the government should maintain a system of rapid investigation cooperation with police stations in charge of checkpoints, airports, and ports to prevent culprits from escaping to foreign countries. As terrorism is a transnational crime that transcends borders, it is essential to exchange information with foreign intelligence and investigation agencies in terms of prevention and response. Finally, it is necessary to establish a social safety net. Securing a safety net to support the lives of the socially disadvantaged and easing inequality through structural reforms are key tasks that Korean society is faced with. Disasters like COVID-19, which has plagued the world, cause more pain for the weak. Disaster is never equal and is harsher for the poor. We need to secure a safety net to support the lives of those at stake and improve inequality. Even if the COVID-19 crisis is overcome well, it is likely to deepen the economic polarization and social inequality between the rich and the poor in the future. The distribution of welfare benefits for the vulnerable and the establishment of a new type of governance involving the government, businesses, and labor unions all to cope with the new era are required. This is also a countermeasure against indiscriminate terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Indiscriminate Terrorism, Homegrown Terrorism, Social Safety Net, National Security
  • This study aims to analyze Canada’s legal and institutional basis of counter-terrorism activities, re-sponse agencies and systems and its national policy framework for terrorism in order to find political impli-cations that can be applied to South Korea. This study revealed that Canada has recently granted top-level information gathering authority to coun-ter-terrorism organizations, such as the CSIS and the RCMP, based on the 『Anti-terrorism Act, 2015』 and other relevant laws on terrorism. In fact, the CSIS serves the role of the Integrated Terrorism Assess-ment Center(ITAC) of Canada by focusing most of the organization's capabilities on collecting intelligence information on domestic and international terrorism. In addition, through the Government Security Screen-ing Program, the CSIS has implemented strict human security checks and strengthened security screening on the US border, as well as radically blocking terrorists’ financial flow into Canada by working in conjunc-tion with the Canada Revenue Agency. In parallel, the RCMP has expanded its 'National Security Criminal Investigations Program' to focus on collecting evidences and investigating terrorists, making significant effort to strengthen investigative capacity towards suspected support for terrorist financing. Therefore, through such examples of Canada, the following measures can be considered for South Korea: First, in order to strengthen the capabilities of the National Police Agency, which is in charge of collect-ing information on domestic terrorism, the authority to collect information on terrorist suspects currently granted only to the head of the National Intelligence Service in accordance with the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 must be also granted to the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Moreover, the “Counter-Terrorism Division” under the National Police Agency's Security Bureau should be reorganized into the Counterterrorism Office/Counterterrorism Information Cen-ter directly under the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Second, Article 9 of the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 needs to be amended to strengthen the information gathering capabilities of the National Intelligence Ser-vice and the National Police Agency while enabling strict legal control over various information collection activities. This will ensure that information gathering activities for terrorist suspects can be strictly con-ducted under the principle of warrant. Third, counter-terrorism agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency, must establish an uncomplicated inter-country cooperation system with the United States, Interpol and other foreign bodies, while actively participating in the activities of international organizations related to terrorism, including Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF), to improve the capability to collect information and respond to terrorism. Fourth, South Korea's investigative agencies should cooperate with foreign authorities to promote the exchange of investigative information and data on new aspects and methods of terrorism. In addition, ef-fective investigation, prosecution and punishment for terrorists should be in place by strengthening the capabilities for initial investigation, such as prompt on-site dispatch and on-site investigation, in the event of terrorism and enhancing scientific investigation capabilities for illegal funds, explosives, drugs, and weapons related to terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism Policy, Security Intelligence, National Security, Canadian Police
  • This study aims to examine the current state of terrorism worldwide. Especially, this study mainly explored to confirm the centralization of terrorism. Existing criminological studies have shown that crime is concentrated in certain areas of the city. Terrorism is also a type of deviation so that it is highly concentrated in certain countries and continents. GTD of START was analyzed for this study. Statistical analyses showed that terrorism has shown spatial differences by continent and country. Terrorism also differed between counties and continents over time. In other words, terrorism is occurring differently, depending on time and place. The reason for the differences in places where terrorism occurs over time seems to be due to differences in politics, culture, religion and race. Statistics show that the continent with the most terrorist attacks in the last 50 years has been in the order of the Middle East, South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, with 73.3 percent of all attacks. The most frequent terrorist attacks were in the order of Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India and Colombia, with 40.1 percent of the total. However, the top countries in the 10-year analysis have changed. The difference between types of terrorism and weapons used also showed that the number of killed, wounded, hostages and terrorists varies depending on the types of terror-ism. This is understood to be due to the difference in rational choice of terrorist organization based on their goals and types of usage in terrorism. Finally, a comparison of areas of occurrence by type of terrorism showed that differences exist in the places of occurrence depending on the type of terrorism. In other words, terrorists select areas suitable for the type of terror-ism. As a result, terrorism is the result of rational choice and appears to be affected by situational factors. Therefore, it is necessary to apply situational control policies to prevent terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Concentration, Crime, Spatial Differences, Time Changes