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  • The ROK Army has recently formed the safety professional organization ,whose function is implementing safety management policies, and providing safety support to field troops with the aim of establishing a new safety culture from the combat preparation perspective. The purpose of this study is to devise a framework for the development of the Army’s safety performance indicators(SPIs) by applying the balanced scorecard(BSC) that is used as a performance management model in both public and private organizations. SPIs provide objective countermeasures for the organization's performance with regard to safety. In particular, SPIs of government organizations are used in policies to prepare for and mitigate large-scale risks and significant economic losses from accidents by analyzing and evaluating information on the frequency of accidents and the amount of damage expected in the event of an accident. This research, ultimately aimed at developing the Army's SPIs, has been carried out with the following procedures: 1)check the policy directions set by the current government and the Ministry of Defense related to safety, and summarize the mission and vision of the army; 2)the perspectives of the balanced score-card designed for corporate organization have been adjusted to suit the military's safety management environment, and the objectives of safety management have been defined; 3)the objectives and performance goals of the safety management strategies pursued by the Army are selected from the adjusted BSC perspectives; 4)and finally, 34 SPIs and 8 key performance indicators(KPIs) have been selected to measure the achievement of performance targets by BSC perspectives. The selected indicators will be useful safety management measures only after identifying the official statistical data to be used to measure them and developing scientific calculation formulas that have been validated through simulation tests. Also, each of the indicators should be combined with inspection, investigation and audit methods to provide more reliable information on safety outcomes to the Army as well as the public. The results of this study may be used as a research material in establishing a performance management system for safety management activities of military and public organizations.
    Keyword:Military Safety, Balanced Scorecard(BSC), Key Performance Indicator(KPI), Safety Performance Indicator(SPI), Strategic Map
  • This research investigates and shows how technology helped to facilitate and to connect three types of transnational crimes. More specifically, cybercrimes, drug trafficking, and money laundering. Moreover, technology has helped to facilitate cybercrimes by basically giving birth to them; without the evolution of technology, we would not have had cybercrimes. When ICTs(Information and communication technology) showed up, people all over the world can now have access to the internet which can make some of them vulnerable to cybercriminals. Examples of cybercrimes can include hacking, Ransomware, Identity theft, phishing emails, Internet Crime Against Children(ICAC), industrial espionage, and fraud. As for drug trafficking, technology has helped to facilitate this type of cybercrime by basically giving dealers and consumers a safe atmosphere where they can make deals and payments from anywhere in the world without the need of physical appearance which makes them less exposed to getting arrested. Exam-ples of electronic drug trading are the hidden market places in the darknet. As for money laundering, technology has provided money launderers the ability to establish online off-shore companies and banks that have fewer restrictions on money laundering; this method helps criminals to wash their money in countries with no or few laws that prohibit and investigate unknown income sources. Furthermore, technology has provided online banking which gives people the ability to make online transactions; cybercriminals can easily blend their illicit transactions with the illicit ones with less chance of getting noticed. Other than facilitating those crimes, technology has also helped to connect those three types of crimes. Cybercriminals help drug dealers with coding and providing cyberspace, both cybercriminals and drug traf-fickers launder their money to have legit unquestionable income. As for recommended policy implications, nations should keep updating their laws in order to properly prosecute those types of crimes, more education for law enforcement agencies should by implied as well along with more awareness to the public to avoid victimization.
    Keyword:Cybercrime, Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, Darknet, Transnational Crime
  • Everyone knows that the Internet is widespread, but it's more extensive than you know and contains in-formation you don't know. This is not because you are not familiar with ICT. It's an area that can't be found on its own, and this is the dark web. This study examined the relevance of various terrorist crimes on the dark web, especially air terrorism. In other words, starting with a review of the structure of the Internet, including an understanding of the dark web, the terrorist trends of recent years have been examined. Lastly, three major countermeasures were proposed.. As a result of the study, the first is to stop terrorist criminals from acquiring the violent means through the Dark Web, and the second is to stop the spread of political, religious and ethnic purposes, which are important elements of terrorist crime. Finally, the value of freedom of expression that can arise through this was once again enhanced. The first thing to consider when considering a terrorist crime is to acquire the means to commit such a terrorist crime on the dark Web. And there is a need to create a department dedicated to the development of a social consensus on the social risks of terrorist crimes(including aviation terrorism) on the Deep Web and the Dark Web. Furthermore the penetration of Internet-savvy terrorists into the dark Web will facilitate international countermeasures to find solutions to counter illegal and evil activities, but it should not undermine the freedom of legal and legitimate expression.
    Keyword:Deep Web, Dark Web, Terror Crime, Freedom of Speech, Act of Instigation to Terrorism
  • The study suggests that South Korea is no longer free from drone terrors considering recent increase in terrors using drones, successive North Korea(DPRK) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) crashes and unidentified UAV flight above significant government buildings in the past. Hence, this study would observe causes and countermeasures in relation to terrorism risk using drones in South Korea, recognize the terror risk using drones in South Korea through past advanced studies, statistical data and case studies, and propose the following effective countermeasures. Although terrors using drones in Korea has not occurred yet, considering its future occurrence risk, effective countermeasures from this study result may be summarized as followings. First, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law should be enacted separately to prepare against any drone terrors in Korea. Second, to be prepared against drone terrors in Korea, social security network via cooperation among significant national infrastructures, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Ministry of Defense and related organizations is required. Third, Anti-drone System should be established to incapacitate illegitimate drones. Fourth, internet websites offering knowledge to produce and renovate improvised explosive devices should be blocked and user authentication with real names is needed for any online drone purchases. Fifth, as drones are privately purchasable online at a low cost, there is also a risk of terror by socially discriminated and prejudiced people such as foreign residents, minorities and the second generation of immigrants. Therefore, improvements in social perception and protection on them are required.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, Police Countermeasures, Anti-Drone System, Utilize Unmanned Aircraft, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law
  • Purpose; Drone has been acknowledged for its application over various areas from agriculture, industry to info-communications and is rapidly being developed and commercialized. Due to the enactment of domestic Aeronautics Law, regulations on drones are eased, hence free flight without a separate approval has become available. Drone is easily purchasable at a low cost and adaptable for purposes through facilitated remodeling and control. Modern terrors are shifting into soft target terrors against many and unspecified persons via various attacking means easily acquirable, and drone terror is increasing in number all over the world. Drone terror is performed by direct attacks upon flights or significant infrastructures using drones controlled to reach a desired location and by explosion, dropping a drone with explosives on-board. No countermeasure and budget are prepared against dramatic increases of security violations by drones around high-security level national infrastructures in South Korea such as airports, powerplants and prisons, the existing security paradigm is not appropriate to deal with the drone terror risks. Therefore, this study suggests a new response measure against drone terrors.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, 4th Industrial Revolution, Anti-Drone, IOT, UAV