All Articles

Pandemic and the Threat of BIOTERRORISM

Vol.6 (No.1) 2021
2021-03-30 23:01


Purpose: The devastating consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for individuals, families, communities, countries, and the world as a whole offers vivid proof that microbes could be just as destructive and terrifying than the use of nuclear weapons.
Pandemic caused by Covid-19 is realizing the dangers of bioterrorism and is aimed at emphasizing the importance of a system to prepare for it.

Method: To this end, the Covid-19 response policies of various European countries are examined to identify and examine the factors needed to respond to bioterrorism. To this end, we looked at the Pandemic response systems in Italy, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in Europe.

Results: As a result, it is necessary to be prepared in advance in responding to infectious diseases and to respond immediately through quick decision-making. The policy also needs to be consistent and clear. In response to terrorism, it's not much different from the epidemic. First, legislation such as immigration policy, quarantine system, and counterterrorism law is needed. It is also necessary to establish protocols and systems for tracking, testing, and isolation of infectious diseases. Finally, it is necessary to educate and promote people in advance so that they can respond to terrorist situations such as bioterrorism. Preparing these policies in advance is a way to overcome emergency situations such as bioterrorism.

Conclusion: As a result, preparations for infectious disease measures, quick decision-making, consistency and clarity of policies were derived, and to this end, legislative reform, bioterrorism response protocols were proposed, education and promotion of the people were proposed.

Keyword:Covid-19, Pandemic, Bioterrorism , Biological Agent, Response System of Bioterrorism
  • Purpose: In this study, the Cheongju Spy Ring incident offers a clear answer for the question of “Are there still spies?” in some parts of our society. It confirms the fact that North Korea is continuously carrying out espionage in South Korea regardless of the situation between the North and South Koreas. Hence, it is intended to discuss the legitimacy of the National Security Act, which is faced with the possibility of repealment, and the ripple effect of its repealment via an actual analysis of the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. Method: This study examines the legitimacy of the National Security Act and its ripple effects when it is repealed by analyzing the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. It will examine the differences of opinion on the controversy over the existence of the National Security Act to date. The content analytical method and the literature analytical method were implemented comprehensively and specifically for the contents of various aspects of the incident. Results: Concerning the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act, it is necessary to respond with a clear awareness from the perspective of national security and the maintenance and development of the liberal democratic system. The National Security Act has the purpose to guarantee the people's freedom and human rights by restricting anti-state activities which undermine the national security, not anti-unification-anti-democratic-anti-civil evil laws as North Korea claims. Furthermore, as evident in foreign cases, it can learned that the law is by no means a strong law. Conclusion: In conclusion, when the National Security Act is repealed, then first, from the security and military perspective, it would be impossible to punish the North Korean spies and the anti-state activists. Second, in terms of the political aspect, political instability will be aggravated by the conflicts between the ruling party pushing for the repealment of the National Security Act and the opposition party opposing thereto, which will further lead to the political instability and social disturbance. Third, in terms of the social aspect, the conflicts between the left and the right wings over the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act will intensify, and the division of public opinion and social unrest will further expand at best. Fourth, the political instability is expected given the increased conflicts among relevant departments within the government. Fifth, in terms of the inter-Korean relations, the federal unification drive after the repealtment of the National Security Act by the North will be a prerequisite for improving the inter-Korean relations, thereby growing the pressure on South Korea. Ultimately, the repealment of the National Security Act will undermine the constitutional system of the Republic of Korea by threatening and destroying not only the security of the Republic of Korea but also the basic order of liberal democracy in the political, economic, and social areas.
    Keyword:Cheongju Spy Ring, National Security Act, National Security, Anti-Government Organization, Spy in South Korea
  • Purpose: Various risks exist in the field for security guards. Given such risk factors, the need for security guard increases while the security industry is developing. However, security guards carry only portable equipments, which are very passive from against risk factors in the workplace. This causes a lot of stress and sacrifices further to injuries for the security guards. Method: Therefore, in this study, the portable equipment of the security guard was examined, and the baton was examined based on the issue of the security guard’s portable equipment. Results: Security guard is making much effort to help protect the safety of those subject to personal protection and facilities subject to security from against various risk factors in the workplace. However, the equipment to protect the safety of those subject to personal protection and facilities subject to security from against dangerous weapons which are becoming more aggressive and dangerous as the number of hazardous goods is diversified fails to reflect the reality. For the safety of the security guard and those who are subject to their protection, it is necessary to re-establish the standards for the baton among the portable equipments. Conclusion: Various efforts for the portable equipments of security guard are required. Regarding the security guard’s portable equipment, it is a device which can respond to threats from against violent crimes and aggressive harmful weapons, the redevelopment of the standards which may be used to safely respond to factors of danger and which may be used appropriately is needed.
    Keyword:Security Guard, Portable Equipment, Baton, Harmful Equipment, Safety
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in international order, why the concept of human security emerged, and how it is making emergent variations, and then to study practical usefulness in connection with national security. Method: As a major research method, policy suggestions provided by various domestic and foreign security conversations, academic conferences, and seminars held during the COVID-19 situation were referenced. The theoretical approach of human security was studied analytically through literature research. In addition, the contents of non-face-to-face interviews of 32 security experts were reflected. Results: War and conflict threats are gradually disappearing in the post-Cold War era, and the vulnerability of human security is exposed. Delayed diagnosis and prescription at the human security level have a negative impact on national security. Therefore, at this point, the practical usefulness of human security in line with the fundamental purpose of human security is further needed. Various international and domestic governance and solidarity are needed, and a fused human security policy in connection with the national policy should be established. Military power, which is the core of national security, should also expand the field of projection for human security. Conclusion: Human security provided the justification for the state to make all-out efforts to non-traditional security threats from traditional security threats through the long-term COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the characteristics of complexity, vulnerability, dependence, and complementarity of human security, the practical usefulness of coexisting with national security should be increased. National security should always be open to materialize human security discourse at the level of national policy, play a role as a supplement to human security, and come up with practical alternatives to overcome the vulnerability of human security.
    Keyword:COVID-19 Pandemic, National Security, Human Security, Vulnerability, Complementarity
  • Purpose: This article is to analyze the maritime strategy of Ecuador from the perspective of national security theory. It also applies national security theory for academic support to Ecuador's maritime policy, providing a complete understanding and critical analysis of Ecuador's maritime strategy. Method: In this study, three methods were used to analyze and develop Ecuador's maritime strategy: realism, liberalism and constructivism. First, the realistic approach examines, analyzes, and interprets the relationship between past facts, present facts, and future assumptions in relation to Ecuador's maritime strategy. Second, the liberal approach is to establish the relationship, differences, and awareness of information on the national security and defense axes, including the nuclear issue. Third, the constructive approach reviews empirically in order to recognize the characteristics of Ecuador's maritime strategy. Results: The advantage of using national security theory is the ability to identify its causes and understand the intentions of actors in complex scenarios of Ecuador's national maritime strategy. It also proposes possible solutions and formulates measures to promote better implementation of national maritime and coastal policies. Therefore, this theoretical and practical study of scenario analysis will provide a link between academic support and national maritime strategies. Conclusion: Ecuador is a maritime country with the activities that people perform in marine space and the resources the sea provides. The results of this study are vital important to promote defense, growth and development for Ecuador's national maritime interests.
    Keyword:National Maritime Strategy, National Oceanic and Coastal Policies(NOCP), Interinstitutional Committee of the Sea(ICS), Oceanopolitics, Ecuador
  • Purpose: In this study, the tourism demand expected to surge after the COVID-19 and the various factors which could threaten the tourism safety were examined. Furthermore, through this examination, policy measures were explored to help revitalize the economy and secure the safety of tourists by expanding the tourism industry in the future. Method: In this study, a theoretical review of the tourism safety and threat factors for the tourism safety were analyzed by reviewing the various previous studies and related references. Furthermore, the demand of the foreign tourists visiting Korea was analyzed through related official statistics, and the tourism demand after the post-COVID-19 was forecasted through the various unofficial statistics. In addition, through such a study, various policy measures were explored to secure the tourism safety in the future. Results: In order to secure the tourism safety in the post-COVID-19 era, it turned out that, first, along with the tourism police organization’s expansion, it is necessary that the tourism police’s operation be transferred to local governments through the self-governing police. Second, it is necessary that the central government such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, and the Korea Tourism Organization develop and supply the tourism safety manual in line with the regional characteristics. Third, it is necessary to foster the private security businesses to secure the tourism safety, and fourth, it is necessary to strengthen the safety education for those serving in tourism related fields and introduce the tourism safety qualification system. Conclusion: Tourism safety is the foremostly crucial step in protecting the body, life, and property of the individual tourists, and is also a very important issue which may influence the image of a region or a country, as well as the future tourism demand. Hence, in order for Korea to further grow into an advanced tourism country, it would be necessary to seek various institutional improvements and policy measures which can harmonize the government wide efforts for the tourism safety and the expansion of the role of the private sector.
    Keyword:Safety, Tourism Safety, Tourism Police, Safety Accidents, Disasters
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the situation of the Korean peninsula in the 21st century and the military strategy of the security of General Lee Soon Shin. North Korea condemns the behavior of intercontinental ballistic missiles(ICBM)-class ballistic missiles and the launch of medium- and long-range ballistic missiles(IRBMs) that passed over Japan in 2017, but the Korean government has no countermeasures. Rather than relying on the United States, we need self-diagnosis and have measures. Method: The study investigated, analyzed, and discussed historical papers, reports, books, ancient documents, and Internet data related to the scope of the study. This study aims to conduct specific research questions related to the situation of the Korean peninsula in the 21st century and the military strategy of General Lee Soon Shin. Results: Then, we should use the lesson as an indicator of the military defense posture and the business spirit. But the Republic of Korea is focused on the US military!, It is time to examine in many ways whether we are self-sustaining military preparedness and whether the people are also aware of the security consciousness of defense posture. This means that the North Korean regime cannot do the Armed Provocation and the Korean Peninsula can achieve peaceful reunification only if various processes of its defense posture are prepared. First of all, it is necessary to improve the military system and achieve the independent unification policy on the Korean peninsula in the national security through the business spirit. Conclusion: In conclusion, the military strategy of the 21st century Korean Peninsula and the security of General Lee Soon Shin should be used to teach the past Chungmugong Lee Soon-Shin business spirit and the security of the natio. Furthermore, when North Korea's armed provocations have a strong military power of Ubimuhwan and prepares measures for various unification policies, the independent peaceful unification of the Korean peninsula will come soon.
    Keyword:Korean Peninsula, Situation, Lee Soon-Shin, Nuclear Armament, Security
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to examine the significance and challenges of the main-railway and sub-road system of North Korea, which has received greater attention since the Panmumjom Declaration adopted on April 27, 2018, and to investigate the political, diplomatic and security implications of cooperation of the inter-Korean and Chinese-Russian border railways. Method: For better analysis, as a major research method, the existing academic papers related to North Korea including literature reviews considering the characteristics of research on North Korean railways, and data from the Ministry of Unification and main state-run research institutes. Researches on the inter-Korean railway and trans-continental railway connections have accumulated in academic circles, government agencies and research institutes from 2000 to this day. Results: Despite these various advantages, it is the most urgent task to resolve North Korea’s nuclear issue and lift economic sanctions against North Korea. After the breakdown of the 2019 North Korea-United States Summit in Hanoi at the end of February, the North Korea-U.S. relations reached a stalemate, and the international community’s extensive sanctions have continued. The connection of inter-Korean railways and the opening of China-Russia border regions are major arteries of the North Korean economy and serve as the basis for industrialization, urbanization and modernization, but they can be made possible only via active multilateral economic support and cooperation from the international community. Conclusion: The connection of inter-Korean and China-Russia railways not only has economic ripple effects, but also is subjected to political, diplomatic and security factors with relevant countries. North Korea’s rail modernization has its significance in that it helps to form the foundation for North Korea’s economic growth, escape isolation from the international community, ease tensions on the Korean peninsula, prevent border disputes between China and Russia, promote economic development, lift U.S sanctions against North Korea, and expand the possibility of advancing into the Asia-Pacific and Eurasia regions. As the expansion of international cooperation and participation of the international community may lead to the opening of the closed North Korean society and the instability of the Kim Jong-un regime, questions still arise as to whether North Korea will select such international cooperation.
    Keyword:Main-Railway and Sub-Road System, Modernization of North Korean Railway, Connection of Inter-Korean Railways, Trans-Continental Railways Connection, Border Railway
  • Purpose: This article is to assess the threats of North Korea’s weapons of mass destruction(WMD), including nuclear weapons, biological weapons, and chemical weapons. It also suggests the direction of the Republic of Korea to prepare for the North Korea’s threats of WMD. Method: The assessment of North Korea's WDM threats is derived from analysis of previous research and empirical insights from the experts. It covers the development progress, types, threats and capabilities of North Korea's weapons of mass destruction. Through this process, this article seeks practical ways to eliminate North Korea's WMD threats. Results: North Korea is estimated to have 20 to 60 nuclear weapons and can produce six new nukes per year. North Korea’s biological agents may include anthrax, cholera, yellow fever, smallpox, typhus, dysentery, plague, brucellosis, tularemia, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, botulinum toxin, yellow cattle toxin and so on. Pyongyang, which possesses up to 5,000 tons of chemical weapons, ranks third in the world after the U.S. and Russia. North Korea is estimated to be capable of producing 5,000 tons per year during armistice and 12,000 tons during wartime. Finally, North Korea could use its WMD against ROK, Japanese, and U.S. targets in the region. Conclusion: A combination of open negotiations and real pressure based on the strong ROK-U.S. alliance will be the best option for eliminating North Korea's WMD threats. The key is to induce the active participation of China, Japan, and Russia around the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, the international community's sanctions against North Korea's weapons of mass destruction threat should be continuously strengthened.
    Keyword:WMD, Nuclear Weapons, Biological Weapons, Chemical Weapons, Sanctions
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explain the causes of terrorism based on criminological perspectives. The existing theory of terrorism has been proposed mainly outside of the academic of criminology such as, politics, economics, sociology, etc. However, terrorism is a deviant act that is no different from ordinary crime. Thus, existing criminology theories can explain terrorism. Especially, in this study, three major criminological theories, such as social disorganization theory, crime opportunity theory, and general strain theory, were discussed. Method: This study sought to achieve its purpose through theoretical comparison. First, this study focused on the discussion of pervious theories proposed by the academic fields outside of criminology. Many theories have been suggested to explain terrorism. In particular, various theories have been suggested in the fields of politics and economics. Typical terrorist theories include violence, international political structural theory, social structural theory, and game theory. Secondly, the author attempted to explain terrorism by applying various theoretical approaches to criminology such as social disorganization, strain, and opportunity perspectives. In order to understand terrorism well, it is essential to understand the status of terrorism. Thus, this study tried to analyze the GTD to understand the current status of terrorism from 1790 to 2019. The status analysis showed how often terrorism occurred, where it occurred, and the seasonal changes in the outbreak. Results: As a result of comparative analysis of theory, there was a limitation that the theories proposed in areas other than conventional criminology explained the cause of terrorism centered on political conflict. This has limitations in presenting practical policy alternatives. This is because the political problem is very complicated and difficult to solve. Meanwhile, when applying the theory of criminology, the understanding and problem-solving of terrorism were more clear. In the case of strain theory, it has the advantage that it has been able to present a variety of collective tension mitigation measures in a particular region. The theory of social disorganization theory suggests ways to strengthen social control in the concentrated areas of terrorism. The theory that the most efficient practical policy proposal is seen as a criminal opportunity theory. The criminal opportunity theory suggests that terrorism can also be prevented through situation control because it is an act that takes opportunities and situations into account. Conclusion: Crime and terrorism are not separate concepts. Terrorism is a sub-concept that belongs to a criminal act. Thus, the theory of criminology can be used to fully explain terrorism. If the cause of terrorism is identified through a criminological approach, more effective alternatives can be proposed. This requires follow-up studies that apply criminology theory in future terrorist studies.
    Keyword:Terrorism, General Strain Theory, Crime Opportunity Theory, Social Disorganization, Criminological Perspectives
  • Purpose: This study has analyzed the differences in the empowerment by gender and age of the police officers serving for the South Korean security police organization, which is dedicated to the North Korean refugees, who are increasing in number due to the economic downfall of the North Korean regime. In addition, it is sought to discuss the policy measures which can help improve the new empowerment of the North Korean refugees and the security police organization analyzed based on the results of this study. Method: In this study, to analyze the differences in the empowerment as per the gender and age of the police officers serving in the security police organizations, 100 police officers from the security department who have work experiences related to the North Korean refugees with the South Korean police officers as the group of recruitment in 2020 were targeted, and the survey was conducted by using the Self-Administration Method. Results: In terms of the differences in the empowerment as per gender, with Q-1 "What I'm doing is important to me", men demonstrated a higher level of significance than women at the significance level of 5%, and in terms of the differences in the empowerment as per age, 8 out of 20 questions demonstrated that empowerment was higher for those in their 50s or older than in those in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Conclusion: The weight of the women police officers in the organizational culture of the security police for the expansion of the North Korean refugees ought to be increased. Among the North Korean refugees, women account for twice as many as men, and the role of women police officers in counseling and managing them ought to be taken seriously. Furthermore, there is a need for an ambience where the empowerment possessed by the police officers in their 50s and older may be conveyed to the young police officers, and the values generated from the long experiences of working with the North Korean refugees, that is, a strong sense of the view of nation, ought to be well conveyed to the young police officers.
    Keyword:North Korean Refugees, Security Police, Empowerment, Gender, Age