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Islamic State, Is It a Downfall or Spread?: Focused on TERRORIST Attacks in Western Europe

Vol.2 (No.1) 2017
2017-06-30 11:02


It is analyzed that the followers of the IS have abandoned their base as the bases that the IS built in Syria and Iraq is about to collapse. As a result, there is a growing possibility of so-called "homegrown terrorism" in the country of origin, where the number of IS members entering Europe is increasing.
It is also expected that the "transition effect" of the IS supporters and followers are scattered around the world and terrorist attacks may appear when the allied attack threatens to collapse the Middle East base.
The IS, which has lost its influence in Iraq and Syria, is scattered all over the world in order to demonstrate its presence and is trying to encourage local 'lone wolves' to conduct terrorist attacks. Also, it is reported that the IS members from Western Europe who had participated the organization in Syria, Iraq or Libya returned to their country and conducted terrorist attacks, which made terrorist activities more proliferate. It is estimated that nearly 5,000 European Union citizens are participating in the extremist militant groups including the IS.
Recently in Europe, there has been a new kind of terrorism called 'Truck Terror' or 'Rush Terror.' In addition to this, traditional terrorist attacks of using small arms and bombs are still in use.
Britain, which is experiencing more frequent terrorism in recent years, is in shock. The country did not concern about the terrorist attacks by the jihadists or the IS so far because the British government had taken a variety of communication policies for Muslims and Mr. Sadiq Khan has been elected a mayor of the City of London. Because London was a friendly city for Islam and Muslims, the impact of recent terrorism is even greater.
As seen in recent terrorist attacks, fear of terrorism is getting bigger as terrorism occurs in places where tourist attractions, theaters, markets, restaurants and other soft targets are gathering in daily life.
It seems to be very challenging to prevent and control the terrorist attacks in spite of the counterterrorism policies and activities by Europol and its member States.
What Koreans are concerned about is that Koreans may get damaged from terrorist attacks in Western Eu-rope and other countries. Yet it is an assumption, the matter will be more serious if the terrorist attacks target citizens and facilities in Korea. Thus, it is time to minimize damage through international organizations such as the United Nations, the European Parliament, and the sharing and cooperation of information with foreign governments.

Keyword:Islamic State, Jihadist, Homegrown Terror, Lone Wolf, ECTC
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how the crime prevention activities of the autonomous police, centering on Suwon City, have an impact on police trust, and to suggest ways to secure the reliability of the autonomous police activities in the future. Method: In this study, 320 copies of the meaningful results obtained through the survey conducted on the citizens of Suwon were analyzed. For the analysis, the crime prevention activities of the autonomous police were set as an independent variable and trust in the police was set as a dependent variable. Results: As a result of analysis on the impact of crime prevention activities(patrol, crime prevention environment creation, order maintenance) of autonomous police on police trust, it was found that patrol and crime prevention environment creation had a significant effect, and order maintenance No significant effect was found. Conclusion: In order to actively prevent crime, it is necessary to support visible police activities, such as strengthening intensive patrols using foot patrols, motorcycles, and patrol cars, as well as supporting technical equipment for effective arrest. CCTV has a very useful value in that it can be used as an efficient means of arresting criminals by filling the public security vacuum caused by insufficient police manpower at the present time and converting data into a database. In addition, more practical equipment support should be provided by securing the police's own budget to expand the development and expansion of a customized work system tailored to the local situation and to strengthen cooperative public order such as autonomous security guards and child guards.
    Keyword:Autonomous Police, Crime Prevention Activities, Police Trust, Patrol, Crime Prevention Environment
  • Purpose: In recent years, the number of infanticide cases has been steady at around 30 per year and the number of toddler murders at around 10 per year, which are generally punishable as ordinary murder. Also Crimes against immediate family members are subject to aggravated penalties. A person(descendant) who kills a member of his or her own or his or her spouse's immediate family is guilty of subsistence murder, which is punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for seven years or more. This is a more severe offense than ordinary murder, which is punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for five years or more. Most survival-related violent crimes, such as injury, assault, abandonment, abuse, arrest, confinement, and intimidation, have aggravated penalties. However, under the current law, there is no provision for aggravated punishment for violent crimes against direct survivors. There is an aggravated punishment for the murder of a direct survivor by a direct descendant, but there is no aggravated punishment for the murder of a direct descendant by a direct descendant. The Korean Constitution stipulates that "no one shall be discriminated against on the basis of social status," which may violate the Equal Rights Clause of Article 11 of the Constitution. In other words, it is unconstitutional because it may constitute "discrimination based on birth". Therefore, we would like to critically examine whether the Korean criminal law should continue to provide for the offense of feticide. Method: The aggravated punishment of capital murder is one of the most controversial issues in society. In this critical review of the aggravated murder penalty, we will first look at the Constitutional Court's decision on the aggravated murder penalty. Second, we will look at the arguments in favor of and against the aggravated penalty of capital murder. Third, we will examine the current state of affairs through a comparative legal review of foreign jurisprudence on the aggravated punishment of capital murder. Fourth, the legal, moral, and religious perspectives on the aggravated punishment of capital murder will be discussed. Fifth, based on the above discussion, we will provide a direction on whether to abolish the aggravated penalty of capital murder. Results: It is recommended that the aggravated punishment for survival murder be abolished as it violates the right to equality under the Korean Constitution. Even if it is abolished, the purpose of the punishment can still be realized through judicial modification. Conclusion: In light of the meaning and legislative purpose of the provision that aggravates the crime of intentional homicide, it cannot be said that the legislative act of selecting a comparative standard, i.e., that intentional homicide is more severely punished than ordinary homicide in the Korean Penal Code, is unconstitutional. However, while the criminal laws have the same criminal offense of killing a person, there is a difference in the 'presence or absence of paternity'. The abolition of capital murder is consistent with the principle of proportionality. It would be contrary to the principle of proportionality to impose severe restrictions based on prosecutorial convenience. For these reasons, it would be a violation of the constitutional principle of equality, and even if it is not unconstitutional, it is difficult to see that it reflects constitutional values such as the principle of equality.
    Keyword:Parricide, Infanticide, Aggravated Punishment, Principle of Proportionality, Principle of Equality
  • Purpose: The purpose of eliminating gender segregation in physical fitness testing for police recruitment can be understood as twofold. In the case of a gender-neutral selection process, a police organization can eliminate gender segregation in the selection process, including the physical fitness test, in order to provide an equal opportunity for all applicants. The idea is to ensure that both men and women can take the test under the same conditions and that the best candidates are selected for police positions based on their abilities and skills. Gender-neutral job requirements. As with any industry, police work can be physically demanding. As such, it may include a gender-neutral physical fitness test to verify the ability to perform the duties of a police officer regardless of gender. This approach focuses on the abilities and skills required to do the job, and emphasizes a fair selection process that does not discriminate based on gender. Method: In order to study the physical fitness test for police recruitment without distinguishing between men and women, the following research methods were utilized. The current police physical fitness test consists of five events. The physical abilities of quickness, cardiopulmonary endurance, muscular endurance, and strength are measured through the physical fitness test, but the physical fitness test items related to the ability to respond quickly and accurately to constantly changing exercise tasks(coordination) are not included. Therefore, in order to meet various motor functions, it is necessary to refer to the Job Standards Test(JST) of the NYPD in the United States, which is composed of sports closely related to the job of a police officer, the physical fitness test of the MET Police in the United Kingdom, which is an event-type measurement method, and the Èpreuve d'exercices physiques of the French National Police. The Japanese National Police has a separate physical fitness test for new constables and a separate physical fitness test for police officers. In addition, there have been many legal cases in the West, such as the United States, regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the male and female fitness tests. This is especially true in the United Kingdom and the United States. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis to scientifically and rationally improve the physical fitness test standards that disadvantage female applicants. Results: The results of a gender-neutral physical fitness test for "Korean police" recruitment can be understood as follows. First, a unisex physical fitness test ensures that all applicants have an equal opportunity to participate. It evaluates the abilities and skills required to perform police work regardless of gender, and provides a fair opportunity for all applicants without discrimination. Second, as an assessment of ability and vision, physical fitness tests help to assess the physical abilities and skills required to perform police work. These tests measure a candidate's physical strength, stamina, and power to help identify the right person for the job. Third, by enhancing diversity, gender-neutral physical fitness tests contribute to greater diversity and inclusion. Police organizations can recruit people from different backgrounds and genders to reflect more diverse perspectives and experiences. Fourth, it emphasizes fairness. A unisex physical fitness test eliminates gender-based discrimination and focuses on applicants' skills and competencies. This ensures that all applicants are selected based on their abilities and helps prevent unfair treatment based on gender. These findings suggest that gender-neutral physical fitness tests for police recruitment contribute to fair and reliable talent selection and help strengthen the diversity and performance of police organizations. Conclusion: A gender-neutral fitness test for "Korean police" recruitment is an important approach to emphasize fairness and diversity. By administering a fitness test in this way, you can ensure that all applicants, including female applicants, have an equal opportunity to apply, and you can accurately assess the skills and abilities needed to perform the duties of a police officer. A gender-neutral fitness test assesses police performance regard-less of gender and helps to strengthen diversity and inclusion in police organizations. This approach contributes to eliminating gender-based discrimination and ensuring that all individuals have access to opportunities based on their abilities and capabilities. It is important to ensure fairness and provide equal opportunities for all applicants when conducting gender neutral fitness tests. It contributes to the success of the police organization and helps to identify high-caliber candidates by assessing their abilities and skills as police officers. Therefore, gender neutral physical fitness testing in police recruitment plays an important role in promoting fairness and diversity and should continue to be developed as an important approach for the future of police organizations.
    Keyword:Police Physical Fitness Test Standards, Foreign Police Physical Fitness Standards, Gender Segregated Recruitment of Police Officers, Physical Fitness and Police Work, Male and Female Physical Fitness Differences
  • Purpose: As of December 2021, there are 33,819 North Korean defectors who have entered the Republic of Korea. To support their stable settlement, the public and private sectors are implementing a settlement support policy. However, due to discrimination in South Korean society and longing for family, there is a problem of re-entry to North Korea after leaving South Korea. After analyzing the causes of re-entry into North Korea, the purpose of this study is to provide policy suggestions to block re-entry into North Korea, such as improving the resettlement support system for North Korean refugees and Strengthening the protection officer system. Method: The concept of North Korean defectors and re-entry is defined, the current status of North Korean defectors entering the country and re-entry is identified, and the causes and problems of re-entry are analyzed through case studies of re-entry. Results: In the case of North Korean defectors who have entered South Korea, despite government policy sup-port, they are experiencing difficulties in adapting due to discrimination and neglect by South Koreans, difficulties in finding a job, and longing for their families in North Korea. Some of them were found to be re-entering North Korea to meet their families in North Korea. Conclusion: Problems were derived by analyzing the causes and cases of re-entry of some North Korean defectors. Based on these problems, I would like to suggest policy implications such as improving the education system for North Korean defectors and a resettlement support system that fits the reality in order to block re-entry.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Re-Entry, North Korean Families, Residential Protection, Settlement Support
  • Purpose: This paper analyzes how the US policy on Taiwan is gradually evolving from strategic ambiguity to strategic clarity. First, I would like to analyze China's Taiwan policy in terms of the core interests of the Communist Party of China. Second, I would like to specify why the US policy on Taiwan is evolving from strategic ambiguity to strategic clarity. Third, in the event of the Taiwan contingency, the security threat to the Korean Peninsula is identified and policy alternatives are proposed. Method: This paper delves into the US policy on Taiwan with the Balance of Interest theory of Randall Schweller. A neoclassical realist suggests that national foreign policy is indirect and complex and must be reinterpreted through a parameter unit of domestic factors. According to Neo-Classic realists, the parameters that affect a country's foreign policy are such as domestic interest groups and the political leader’s ideology and identity. Results: The main parameters of the US policy shift towards Taiwan from the perspectives of Neo-classical Real-ism are as follows. First, it is Biden’s identity of value diplomacy which prioritizes democracy and human rights. Second, Xi Jinping's military threats to annex Taiwan, and the pursuit of a gray zone strategy are driving factors for the US Policy shift from strategic ambiguity to strategic clarity. Third, the US policy shift to Taiwan was initiated by curbing China's rise through the control of the Indo-Pacific maritime control and global supply chain. Conclusion: The contingency in the Taiwan Strait is closely linked to security on the Korean Peninsula due to the US’ strategic flexibility. Currently, tensions between the US and China are rising in the Indo-Pacific region as the US military support for Taiwan's self-defense. The ROK should be wary of being involved in the unintended Taiwan crisis. To build a free and prosperous Indo-Pacific, strategic communication between the US and China should be strengthened while respecting the "one China" principle.
    Keyword:Neo-Classical Realism, US Foreign Policy, Value Diplomacy, Gray Zone Strategy, Taiwan Contingency
  • Purpose: In Northeast Asia, not only Japan, which dominated East Asia in World War II, China, the world's second largest economy, and North Korea, a communist country that has become a religious dictatorship due to the discontinuation of the rationing system, but also Russia's military power, which was confident of taking over Kyiv, Ukraine, in three days, shows the limitations of the impact of hard power. Therefore, this study presents six threats and discussion points of Northeast Asia through case studies and suggests the direction of Northeast Asia in the future. Method: This study was conducted as a case study according to the purpose of the study. We selected 6 specific cases and targeted individual cases, and tried to derive phenomenological results through data collection and analysis of the collected data on social phenomena. Results: First, the role of governments in pandemics such as Covid-19; second, drug trafficking to finance the regime of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un; third, internal agitation and Subversion of regimes in North Korea; fourth, the Korean Wave in Northeast Asia and the expansion of Chinese espionage; fifth, China's distortion of history, repression of the Xinjiang Uyghur region, and consolidation of Islamic culture; and sixth, election interference in neighboring countries, In Northeast Asia, in addition to the governments of North Korea, China, and Russia, liberal governments such as South Korea, Japan, and the United States are strengthening their intelligence capabilities to control uncertainty, but the personal information contained in the threat information is causing controversy in their countries, and the "social value" of the value conflict between threat information and personal information collection is presented as a discussion point. Conclusion: Soft power, not hard power, will play an important role in the establishment of liberalism in North-east Asia, the Internet and travel will play an important role in cultural transmission and experience, and North Korea, like China and Russia, will gradually move towards reform and opening up. And in Northeast Asia, through Japan and Korea, now China's educated population has increased rapidly, and economic polarization is increasing relative poverty. It is expected that the violent act, which started from extreme social anger, will further disturb the Chinese people and government. The Chinese government will try to protect these problems by expanding the social surveillance network through the public security force, but we must not overlook the historical case that the expansion of the social audit network, which did not harmonize freedom and control, has led to more serious situations such as regime change. The international community has already recognized that the problems of Northeast Asia cannot be solved by hard power, and it is now necessary to pursue peace and prosperity through political and economic union systems such as the EU. In this process, China and North Korea should have the courage to move towards liberalism, and the establishment of the EU model in Northeast Asia will mean a shift from a perception of an adversarial situation to a perception of cooperative problem solving, with win-win effects on population, energy, and environmental issues.
    Keyword:South Korea, Japan, Russia, China, North Korea
  • Purpose: The modern police of the Republic of Korea today were established in Shanghai on April 11, 1919 by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and moved to various areas of China for 27 years until the liberation of the country in 1945 for independence movement. In the face of such hardship, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea needs to be aware of the police organization and activities of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, which belongs to the Ministry of Interior as head of administration. Method: The Civil Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the head of the administration of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, confirmed through literature evidence that Kim Gu was the apex and tried to change the organization while breaking through the crisis. The police organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was active in 1919 with the Police Department and Yeong-Tong-je, 1923 with the Police Department, 1941 with the Guards, and with the 1943 with the Police Department, referring to the Baekbeom Ilji, the National History Compilation Committee, the National Police Agency documents, and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea data book. Results: The focus of this study is to give the meaning of finding the issue of Police Day and the legitimacy of the police. The result suggested by this study was an opportunity to overcome the dark period of loss of the country signed by the Eulsa Treaty in 1910 by examining the organizational structure of the Police Department of the Korean Empire and the Police Department of the Provisional Government of the Provisional Government in the Joseon Dynasty. Conclusion: It was judged that it could affect the continuity of the current Korean police, and research was conducted. Also, in response to the common truth that 'as long as there is a state, there is a police', the police organization of the Provisional Government did not change its name even during the Japanese imperialism period. It calls for the existence of a police that is directed towards
    Keyword:Provisional Government Police Organization of the Republic of Korea, Police Department, Conscripted Police Force(Ui-Gyeong-Dae), Contact System(Yeong-Tong-Je), Guards(Gyeong-Wi-Dae)
  • Purpose: Since 1947, India and Pakistan have been at war, competing for nuclear weapons, and at odds with terrorism. The cause of the conflict between the two countries begins with the recognition of the substance of Muslims due to the British separation of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian government's political discrimination against Muslims led by the National Congress has resulted in Pakistan's independence promoted by the Islamic League, and since the independence of Pakistan, the two countries have maintained a conflict at the expense of many people. Method: There were four wars between the two countries. The war provocation was by Pakistan. Among them, we will look at the three wars that Pakistan started, and analyze the results of the Indo-Pakistan war and international relations. It also looks at how state-sponsored terrorism and nuclear development are affecting both countries in situations of military and economic asymmetry. Results: In the 20th century, the people of the Indian continent united to escape British colonial rule. However, as the political conflict between Hindus and Muslims was expressed, it was divided into two countries during the independence of independence. The fact that the territory was divided and no clear border was drawn for the Kashmir region became the seed of conflict. In addition, as India developed nuclear weapons due to security concerns about neighboring countries, Pakistan also attempted to develop nuclear weapons, and the conflict be-tween the two countries reached its peak. The interested countries of the two countries adopt diplomatic and military policies of support and acquiescence according to their calculation methods. Conclusion: The conflict in the Indian continent is a typical legacy of colonial rule. The great powers used ethnic confrontation to rule the colonies, and the borders were drawn by compromise between the great powers without the consent of the local indigenous people, causing conflict in the future conflicts. The Indian continent has not deviated from this formula either. At this point, the intervention of the great powers could induce a temporary ceasefire rather than coordinating a lasting peace. The problem of ethnic, cultural, and religious discrimination that is not resolved domestically is bound to be a long-term task.
    Keyword:Kashmir Conflict, Nuclear Development, Terrorism, National Congress, Muslim League
  • Purpose: The war crimes allegedly committed against the civilian population in Ukraine by Russian military forces has generated multiple detrimental outcomes. Due to these war crimes, Russia was suspended from the United Nations Human Rights Council(UNHRC) as of April 2022. Russia’s alleged war crimes currently are under-going thorough investigations by the UNHRC’s Commission of Inquiry. The current humanitarian situation in war-devastated Ukraine has been somewhat under researched. Method: This paper employs the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) theory to examine the present and future of potential application of R2P in Ukraine. Based on resources from the R2P and human rights related research by the US government, the UN and its agencies, scholars, and experts, This article analyzes the failure of Russia to ob-serve the principle of distinction between civilians and combatants as required by the Geneva Conventions, war-affected citizens in Ukraine, as well as potential application of the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) and its implication that the international community has a duty to protect civilians against Russian aggressions. Results: The paper finds that the potential application of R2P in Ukraine will likely face some operational challenges within the UNSC, the potential application of R2P seems feasible as it is both legitimate and justifiable action in accordance with the international law. The actual application of R2P should however carefully be considered since the nature of use of force- often does more harm than good. The potential application of R2P might result in more harm to civilians if additional casualties are generated. Conclusion: The international community should employ additional countermeasures such as added economic sanctions. Pressure should be brought to bear until Russia decides to refrain from war and negotiate a peace be-tween Russia and Ukraine. The potential application of R2P in Ukraine should therefore be most carefully considered and maybe used as a last resort, to avoid and prevent a potential Third World War in coming months.
    Keyword:The Responsibility to Protect(R2P), Humanitarian Law, Human Rights, Ukraine, Russia
  • Purpose: This paper intends to examine the background of Putin's invasion of Ukraine and to find out the implications of the Ukrainian situation on the Korean Peninsula. President Vladimir Putin has long ruled Russia by turning it into a powerful totalitarian country. At the heart of Putin's neo Eurasian policy are the construction of the Eurasian Empire, the establishment of centralization, opposition to Western values, and hostility to the United States advocating Russia's religion and traditional values. Influenced by Lugin's philosophy, Putin had a huge vision to build a Eurasian empire to undermine U.S. hegemony by integrating former Soviet countries with Eastern Europe and putting EU countries under the protection of Russia. Method: This paper analyzes the political implications of Ukraine’s crisis on the Korean Peninsula by using Tucker’s political leadership processes. Robert C. Tucker suggests the political leadership process as an authoritative diagnosis of the situation, preparing policy alternatives to solve problems, and mobilization of support to achieve it. Russia implemented a gray zone strategy to achieve its goal of restoring the lost territory in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Results: North Korea successfully launched allegedly a Hwaseong-17 intercontinental ballistic missile on March 24, 2022. North Korea can also try to provoke hybrid warfare by benchmarking Russia, and the expected types of provocations are information warfare, cyber warfare, diplomatic warfare, and special warfare by demonstrating nuclear capability. The threat to hybrid warfare by North Korea includes nuclear weapons, special forces, and cyber-attacks by the strong centralized command control. Conclusion: First, the peace process on the Korean Peninsula is expected to be difficult. Under the Ukrainian cri-sis, China and Russia are working together to keep the global influence of the United States in check. The United States cannot seek China's cooperation in the peace process on the Korean Peninsula. Because the United States is preparing a secondary boycott on China which helps Russia. Secondly, the arms race between the two Koreas will accelerate. North Korea, using Ukraine as a lesson, is stepping up its test-firing of ICBM and tactical nuclear weapons tests to strengthen its self-defense capabilities. In preparation for such heightened tensions in North Korea, South Korea needs to cooperate with the US and maintain close cooperation with its allies. Third, we should prepare for the possibility of North Korea imitating Russia's hybrid war against Ukraine. North Korea is likely to carry out intelligence warfare, cyber warfare, diplomatic warfare, and special warfare using gray zone strategies.
    Keyword:Ukrainian Crisis, Hybrid Warfare, Neo-Eurasianism, Greyzone, Strategy