All Articles

  • Purpose; This study is to find out the effect of martial arts training of noncommissioned officer cadets on leadership skills and innovative behavior and to help the operation of educational programs of military-related educational institutions, including noncommissioned officer academies. To this end, a survey was conducted on noncommissioned officer cadets in Gyeongsang-do, Chungcheong-do, and Gyeonggi-do, as of 2020, where 300 students were briefed on the purpose of the survey and agreed to participate using the self-assessment method. Among the collected data, 286 questionnaires were valid samples, excluding those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the survey were omitted. For the data collected, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed, using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. The results are as follows: First, martial arts training affects leadership skills. Second, martial arts training affects innovative behavior. Third, leadership skills affect innovative behavior. The study shows that martial arts training affects leadership skills and innovative behavior. The military organization, a unified group that performs special missions under special circumstances and conditions for special purposes, pursues the purpose and interests of the entire group. Due to the specificity as a group that requires unified attitudes and actions of its members, the military organization is likely to accumulate negativity and conflict as its functions are uniformed while pursuing efficiency, and that is why leadership is required. Noncommissioned officers and other soldiers are directed at what activities they choose for military organizations or the country, how much effort they will make, how long they will continue the action in the face of difficulties, and what is important in the efficient operation of their organizations is leadership. Martial arts such as taekwondo and judo have a significant influence on the improvement of leadership. Therefore, martial arts and related quality education are needed for noncommissioned officer cadets who are responsible for the future security and safety of the country to perform their duties faithfully before they are commissioned.
    Keyword:Noncommissioned Officer, Martial Arts, Martial Arts Training, Leadership Skills, Innovative Behavior
  • In recent years, the moral development of driverless cars has been receiving much attention. It believes that when faced with danger, robot drivers need to make the same or even better choices as humans. In other words, people hope that Artificial Intelligence(AI) drivers and human drivers have similar moral tendencies and behaviors. This article discusses the relationship between AI cars and ethics in three parts. First of all, AI originated in the 1950s, but only the development of cars is relatively slow. At this stage, AI cannot yet replace human drivers. At present, AI vehicles rely on a three-layer control system to complete automatic driving, including the upper control system(cognition), central control system(perception), and lower control system(reflection). Second, in human moral behavior, moral tendencies and moral capabili-ties are not separate components. They cannot separate from behavior, nor can they be separated from each other. It can find through L. Kohlberg's moral tendency stage that most humans have reached the third stage of moral tendency in adulthood. However, combined with G. Lind's research on moral compe-tence, it can be found that not most people possess the high moral competence. Third, in order to replace artificial drivers with AI drivers, combine three levels of control with moral theory. They were thereby im-proving the moral judgment ability of AI drivers. Through analysis, the best way at this stage is to use AI as a human driver's assistance system, thereby reducing the risks encountered during car driving. There are also certain concerns about the use of AI in the military field. Whether AI can actually make humanitarian actions on the battlefield requires further investigation.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence(AI), Driverless Cars, Three-Level Control, Moral Orientation, Moral Compe-tence
  • Purpose; This study examined the origin of Joseon Yusool and its value as an intangible heritage as a military martial arts from a macro perspective, and the conclusion was drawn as follows. First, the Joseon military is fought against the Japanese enemy who wielded swords and rifles during the Seven Years' War of Imjinwaeran. It was necessary to use Yudo first to overcome the opponent and to win the war. Second, since the Japanese invasion of Korea, Yudo was born in 1637, and a new war physical techniques were es-tablished in the martial arts world of Japan Third, the Imperial School of the Korean Empire was established in April 1895(the 32nd year of Gojong's reign) with the training camp, which was established in May to train and command the beginners. In particular, the Japanese Foreign Ministry record was Yudo, the main feature of the Joseon Military Academy in 1905, and the Joseon Military Officers made Yusool as a part of the martial arts. Fourth, the beginning of the Joseon Yusool Department was by Emperor Gojong, 100 strong men, Wolnam Lee Sang-jae, and Ryu Geun-su and Na Su-yeong, who were from the Gojong Imperial Academy. It was the first Yusool of Na Su-yeong, the Joseon Yusool, and the first blackbelt holder Kim Hong-shik of YMCA Yusool. In other words, Yusool already existed before the introduction of Yudo of the Japanese Gangdogwan to Joseon. It was also called Yusool in the 1914 Ministry of Physical Education re-port. In conclusion, it was the noble martialism of the ancestors through the Joseon Yusool, and we should preserve and develop the spirit and intangible cultural heritage.
    Keyword:Military Martial Arts, Yusool, Yudo, Joseon, Tac
  • This paper aims to provide a critical evaluation of the existing just war theories and its alternative direc-tion to analyze the sharpest war in international relations from an ethical perspective. The theory of just war can be said to be an intermediate theory between realism and ideal pacifism. This paper tries to research the Eastern and Western theories about the just war theories, and show the future developments of just war theory. The existing theory of just war has been largely divided into Jus ad Bello(the justice of the war) itself and Jus in Bello(the justice of combat action). In recent years, Jus post- Bellum(the post-war justice) has also been discussed. This paper raises the limitation that the existing East-West just war theories, in particular, the western just war theories have been based on the Time-Sequenced Approach focused on the sequence of the war itself. This paper points out that each principle should not be considered differently over time. Still the pro-cedure for moral judgment is similar, so it should be possible to analyze according to the same principle. Although the intensity and scope of war are very extraordinary, it should be understood in the range of the cultural act of human beings. This paper tries to suggest to look at war centering on human beings, the subject of moral judgment. War never flows in one direction apart from humans. It is initiated and per-formed by a series of moral judgments of people. This is the reason that war could be understood morally. Then we can wait that just war theory should follow, not the sequence of the war but the general ethics approaches.
    Keyword:Just War Theory, Realism, Ideal Pacifism, Jus Ad Bello, Jus In Bello, Jus Post Bellum, Time-Sequenced Approach
  • This article will review studies on the core competencies of military leadership of Junior officers in order to provide future direction on leadership development and training at the Korea Military Academy(KMA). This will include studies related to a manager's leadership potential which is characterized by focusing on psychological factors rather than observable behavior. In particular, it will be shown that cognitive factors are important in self-confidence and in developing effective relationships with others. For this study, the Republic of Korea(ROK) Army presented detailed leadership elements and organized them into areas of principle-centered leadership, leadership potential, interpersonal skills, personal capability and behavior. Specially, empirical studies related to leadership competency of junior officers highlighted detailed leader-ship characteristics such as behavior and effectiveness. In the context of these studies, as a result of a case study of the KMA, a representative educational institution for the training of junior officers in the ROK Ar-my, the Army presents the necessary capabilities for junior officers as military, intellectual, physical, values & sense of ethics, and social personality competencies. It also found that cadets were evaluated in catego-ries of values, personalities, and attitudes in order to enhance their abilities. Finally, suggestions and im-plications have been made for the policies in ROK Army.
    Keyword:Military Leadership, Cognitive Ability, Principle-Centered Leadership, Interpersonal Skills, ROK Army