Competition for TECHNOLOGY HEGEMONY between the U.S. and China from a Geopolitical Point of View
of world politics in the 21st century. As China's innovation in science, technology, and high-tech industries grow
rapidly, the United States is enacting restrictions to regulate this critical situation. This paper searched for the
motives for their political actions, the primary differences between the U.S.-China competition for technological
hegemony, and their national policies.
Method: This paper examined the differences in U.S.-China national policies through geopolitics. The usefulness of geopolitics, the characteristics of continental and maritime countries, and the Huawei incident which
clearly indicates the cross-section of the U.S.-China technological competition, these factors were analyzed to
find the answer to the research question.
Results: The contrast in technology competition and technology policies between the U.S. and China can be
summarized as a difference in culture and perception. The difference comes from China's 'Confucian and family
like discussion' and America's 'individualistic, bottom-up, and democratic' lifestyle. In addition, the Huawei issue is a conflict of economic ideology between the United States and China with regards to the relationship
between business and state.
Conclusion: The difference in policy between the U.S. and China can be defined as a difference in basic culture and perception. Therefore if the main reason that the United States suspects Huawei comes from the
aforementioned fundamental differences in national thought, this could not only be a problem that is difficult
to solve, but also a starting point of a dispute that could continue to be a problem in the future.
A Study on the Improvement of Laws for the Development of National Defense and Space Power -Focused on Space Development Promotion Act-Purpose: Recently, all countries of the world recognize space as an important area for military operations in modern warfare and are accelerating the space development. Especially countries in Northeast Asia including China and Japan are strengthening their space power, and space power is expected to be an important element in future warfare. Korea is also developing space technology and expanding its space activities as a member country of Space Club following the launch of NURI in 2022. Accordingly, it is necessary to prepare the foundation for utilizing the space with the military purpose step-by-step to prepare for the future warfare. Methods: Legal and institutional preparations should precede by using understanding and utilization of space of international community, especially those of advanced countries in space. This is because our space-related laws tends to see the space as a subject for scientific technology and the importance of security for the military use of space does not reflected. Therefore, the necessity for organic and practical cooperations between related agencies for the early establishment of defense space power and legal and institutional maintenance that supports ever-growing space technology are required. Results: Ministry of National Defense will prepare「Master plan for the development of defense space power」and establish the defense space power based on it. However, the progress of 425 project has been delayed due to the different view of existing statue and government departments given that the trend of the urgency of strengthening defense space power, development of nuclear and missile of North Korea, space development of all countries over the world and strengthening of space forces. It is possible to promote to strengthen the defense space power by existing legal system, but there are many restrictive elements. We can consider enacting a special law related to defense space basically to overcome the existing legal system, but there is no agreement among relevant agencies and there is high possibility for criticism on militarization of the space by international community. Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to promote the chairman of National commission on Space to at least Prime Minister and give full authority of the Minister of Defense on security and defense space through the amendment of current laws such as Space Development Promotion Act, Defense Acquisition Program Act, Act on the Organization of National Armed Forces and Aerospace Industry Promotion Act. And it should be noted that it is necessary to develop into activities that are not opposed to international law and the justification of the peace-ful use of the space by international community.Keyword:Peaceful and Military Use of Space, Space Development, Defense Space Power, National Commission on Space, Suitability of System
Consideration Factors for Judging Situations in Combat: Focusing on Individual Combatants in Close CombatPurpose: The purpose of this study is to derive the situational judgment considerations necessary to lead and creatively carry out the battle in close combat, where rational situational judgment of each combatant is very difficult. Methods: In addition to literature studies, Delphi techniques were used for soldiers who participated in KCTC training, which is most similar to close combat, at least 20 times. Since 10 panels participated in the expert survey, the reliability problem of the Delphi survey process was not considered. Results: The main results of this study are as follows. First, enemy, friendly state, dangerous area, concealing and concealing possible point, dominant point, immediate shooting possible state, timing, and engagement time were derived as factors for determining the situation of combatants in attack combat. Next, in defensive combat, the enemy's expected maneuver, the decisive battle area, the friendly situation, the weather and vision, the controllable point, the departure and conversion of positions, and the enemy and timing with great threats were de-rived. Conclusion: This study was conducted to derive the situation judgment factors that each combatant should consider in order to be trained as combatants who think and judge by themselves so that combatants can make the fastest situation judgment in close combat, move before the enemy, and act immediately. To this end, a Delphi survey was conducted on KCTC training experts. As a result of the study, nine factors considering the situation in attack combat and eight factors considering the situation in defense battle were derived. It is desirable to find if the soldiers who are trained with these factors are more competent and positively contribute to the combat.Keyword:KCTC(Korea Combat Training Center), Close Combat, Offensive Combat, Defensive Combat, Situational Judgment
A Study on Fostering Reserve Forces Capable of Demonstrate the Ability to Immediately Respond of the Korean Armed ForcesPurpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore the plan to foster the experts in reserve forces of the Korean armed forces based on a review of the operation of reserve forces in foreign countries, such as the United States and Germany, in consideration of the rapidly changing international situation and security changes on the Korean Peninsula following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It is intended to examine the relevant development, and at the same time, while there are differences in terms of policy and implementation aspects, it is intended to make suggestions regarding policy development by deriving implications through the comparative analysis of the reserve forces system of Korea and the United States. Method: Considering the characteristics of this study, it was primarily composed of literature studies such as official documents, research papers, and related degree dissertations of the Korean and U.S. governments, Internet materials. As examples of the development of reserve forces in foreign countries, including the United States, case analysis of the reserve forces service system and organization method, reserve forces training, etc., were used. Based on which, various implications were drawn for fostering the reserve forces experts for Korea's elite reserve force. Result: For emphasis purposes, the U.S. and Germany legally maintain the same status as active duty and re-serve forces. This is because budgeting and policy establishment for reserve forces are applied in the same manner as in active duty. In particular, the U.S. develops and applies the AGR and ADOS systems based on the legal basis and budget, and operates the reserve force as a unit from the peacetime. However, Korea is currently conducting a short mobilization call training for three days and two nights. In case of emergency, after the general mobilization order is issued, the unit enters into the relevant unit to increase the mobilization and establish the unit. Moving forward, it is necessary to train the reserve forces experts who can contribute to shortening the gap between peacetime and when the general mobilization order is issued. Conclusion: The lessons learned from the Russo-Ukraine war are the spirit of armed struggle from the leader to the people, the strategy and tactics to operate the weapon system, and above all, the very importance of mobilizing the reserve force that can demonstrate practical combat power in the battlefield in case of emergency. As such, it is very important to prepare a plan for fostering the reserve forces experts in consideration of changes in the international order in the 21st century, declining population, changes in war patterns such as hybrid warfare shown in the Russo-Ukraine war, and Korea's future defense environment, among the key tasks of the Defense Reform 4.0.Keyword:Russo-Ukraine War, Changes in the Defense Environment, Elite Reserve Forces, Non-Standing Reserve Forces System, Defense Reform 4.0
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the current military training field risk assessment system and study its development direction. To this end, the reality of the Korean military related to the risk assessment of military training sites was analyzed, and the domestic and foreign civilian risk assessment system and the advanced military(US and British forces) risk assessment system were studied to derive implications. The use of the research results will prevent continuous accidents and casualties at military training field, and will contribute to the people's trust in our military and sending their children to the military. Method: For this study, literature data were studied due to the nature of the study, and data provided by each military headquarters were comprehensively reviewed to reflect the current situation, and statistical data from the Ministry of National Defense and each military headquarters were used to analyze the accident status. In addition, cases of domestic and foreign private risk assessment systems and advanced foreign military risk assessment systems were studied by reflecting various papers and opinions from related parties, and based on the results, the direction for the development of the military training field risk assessment system was suggested. Results: This paper established a standardized military training field risk assessment system by analyzing the current military training field risk assessment system of the Ministry of National Defense and military headquarters, analyzing domestic and foreign civilian risk assessment systems, and deriving implications for our military through advanced military(US and British) training field risk assessment systems. In addition, the computerization of the risk assessment system and the direction of development linked to other defense networks were presented. Conclusion: Through this study, we established a military training field risk assessment system that can be used in the entire military, and it is expected to contribute to the prevention of accidents at training field by using it well in field units. In addition, the computerization of the risk assessment system and the development directions linked to other defense networks will provide a direction for the establishment of the military training field risk assessment system in the long run. However, more on-site evaluation and research are required in order for the military training field risk assessment standard proposed by this study to be well utilized in the field.Keyword:Military Training Field, Risk Assessment, Safety Accident, Accident Prevention, Risk Reduction Measures
A Study on the Reinforcement of Military Practical Nursing English in the Armed Forces Nursing Academy: Focusing on TOEIC and Military Practical Nursing English ScoresPurpose: The Armed Forces Nursing Academy is a special-purpose university that trains nursing officers and has a unique curriculum. In Particular, regarding the English curriculum, KAFNA has TOEIC-centered general English education and offers practical English education for military nursing. This study aimed to improve the effectiveness of English education at the Armed Forces Nursing Academy. The researcher identified the relationship between cadets' TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades, and this study, based on the relation-ship, proposed a developmental plan for the English curriculum. Method: In this study, to confirm the relationship between general English proficiency and military nursing English skill, this study analyzed 4years of accumulated TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades of 298 cadets, including graduates 60th ~ 63rd year of KAFNA to find a relationship. First, the correlation be-tween TOEIC test scores and military nursing practical English grades was examined, and a T-test was used to de-termine whether there were differences in military nursing English proficiency according to TOEIC test scores. Results: As a result of examining TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades of 298 cadets in four years, the 60th year showed a moderate correlation between the TOEIC score and the military nursing English grade, and the 61st~63th year showed a weak correlation. Furthermore, in the case of the 60th~62th year, it was found that there was a difference in the military nursing English score according to the TOEIC score, but there was no difference in the 63rd grade. Conclusion: It seemed that TOEIC scores were only partially related to military nursing practical English grades. Therefore, to communicate in the situation of military nursing practice, which has a specialized purpose, it is necessary to increase the proportion of military nursing practice English learning. In addition, complementary methods like increasing offered credits or motivating cadets should provide so that they can take an interest in learning English for military nursing practice.Keyword:TOEIC, KAFNA, ESP, English Curriculum, Military Nursing Practical English
Purpose: This article recognizes the dangers of North Korea's continued hostilities, including the sinking of the Cheonan, shelling of Yeonpyeong Island, and missile launches, and raises awareness in order for the forces threatening national security not to be established in our society. The goal is to have a firm military readiness so that we can fully respond to North Korea's provocations at any time and in any form. Method: In order to analyze North Korea's intentions and threats of provocation toward South Korea, books, academic journals, and dissertations about the provocation toward South Korea were reviewed. Various daily newspapers, news, and government data were studied to recognize the importance of security and derive empirical data for establishing military readiness. Results: North Korea has carried out military provocations against South Korea in various forms over the past 70 years despite our efforts to improve relations with the North. Until North Korea gives up its hostile policy to-ward South Korea and takes tangible military measures, it is the main enemy that threatens our security. We must make a clear distinction between the enemy and the ally. In addition, economic aid to North Korea should be continued while strengthening its nuclear deterrence and inducing change in the North. There should be no war, but it should be prepared to respond immediately if there is. Conclusion: National security is directly related to the survival of the people and is not done by the order of someone. It is important to have the same idea about security, from the leaders of the country, including the president, to all the people. We should keep in mind that national development stems from the people's thorough sense of security and have a security perspective that we protect our country. We should realize the importance of national security and have a firm military preparedness.Keyword:Security Awareness, National Security, North Korean Nuclear Threat, Provocation Toward South Korea, Military Readiness
A Study on the Effectiveness of ROK Military Mobilization Division as a War Deterrence Function: Focusing on Mobilization TroopPurpose: This paper is to analyze the military effectiveness of the mobilization resources constituting the mobilization forces and to suggest a plan to strengthen it. The military capability, military potential capacity, and military reputation of the mobilization forces are measures of military effectiveness. Improving the military effectiveness of mobilizing forces will enhance interoperability with the armed forces in peacetime and enhance deterrence capabilities in peacetime. Method: The research method utilizes literature research and case study techniques. For reference, mobilization policy-related papers and research reports of research institutes will be reviewed, and security experts' advice and case studies of countries operating mobilization forces will be reviewed. The subject of analysis is the troop structure constituting the mobilization division. The troop is the mobilized reserve force which accounts for more than 90% of the unit organization. Results: The troop structure of the mobilization division shows a poor composition that is less than the mini-mum economic operation scale. In the Army Standing Division, about 80% of the wartime formation is active duty, while the mobilization division consists of only about 7% active duty soldiers. And about 45% of them are being replaced every year. Mobilization training is also conducted for three days and two nights every year, but the schedule is insufficient for individual combat skills. The period of mobilization training for reserve forces is only 4~8% of that of active duty training. Conclusion: First, we need to redesign the concept of “mobilization” of the ROK military. Mobilization should be the concept of utilizing well-prepared and trained potential forces with modernized resources for operations in case of emergency. Second, it is necessary to intensively nurture combat reservist by introducing a selective reserve system. The military and government should boldly push ahead with policies to increase the military effectiveness of mobilized resources before the inevitable time of choice, presupposing the pessimistic situation of future security.Keyword:Mobilization Division, Deterrence, Reserve Forces, Force Structure, Mobilization Troop
Instability of the North Korean Regime and the Residents' Defection: A Plan for Enhancing the Capacity of Security Police for Their Settlement in South Korea -With a Focus on the Rank of the Security Police's Department of Service-Purpose: Given the situation where it is expected that a plan of improvement for the North Korean refugee related support policy will be required in view of the recent incident of the North Korean defector returning to North Korea, which has become a problem in the South Korean society, the job satisfaction of the security police was surveyed based on the work area. This is because, given the situation where the security police perform various settlement related support activities as well as security tasks, which are their original duties, their job satisfaction can help improve the work efficiency and practically improve the settlement of the North Korean defectors. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via self-administration method. Among the collected survey questionnaires, 91 were selected as valid samples, excluding those whose answers were incomplete or missing. Results: First, the job satisfaction turned out to be higher as the number of employees of the police organization with which the police organization was affiliated increased, and second, the relationship between the division of work and authority and responsibility of the police working in large cities was clearer than that of the police working in small and medium cities, and as they are further classified and efficiently assigned, the commanders and superiors demonstrate a higher job satisfaction with the awareness that they are leading the staff by example rather than direct control. Conclusion: As a result of the study of this paper, the status of the North Korean defectors who are experiencing considerable difficulties in adapting and integrating into the South Korean society was identified, and the internal job satisfaction of the security police who are practically responsible for their settlement support was surveyed. Since the end of the Cold War, the status and job satisfaction of the security police have declined due to political reasons where the systemic competition between the South and the North has not surfaced, and the survey of their job satisfaction may yield a plan of improvement.Keyword:North Korean Regime, Security Police, Rank, North Korean Defectors, Settlement
The Increased Defection of North Koreans Following the Collapse of the Market Economy Due to the Kim Jong-Un Regime’s Military ReinforcementPurpose: In this study, North Korea's recent military advancements including supersonic missile test launch and long-range missile test, and systematic, widespread and terrible human rights violations in North Korea including 'genocide, murder, enslavement, torture, detention, rape, forced abortion, sexual violence and discrimination based on politics, religion, race and gender, forced mobilization of residents, enforced disappearance, and intentional extension of starvation' have been practiced, while the North Korean defectors have fled to South Korea every year in search of freedom, and the perception and attitude towards job satisfaction by gender and age have been analyzed for the police officers serving in the security police organization, which is recognized as the most closed police organization for police officers by age and gender. Based on which, it is intended to discuss policy measures to create an organization which can increase the job satisfaction of the security police with a new organizational culture which matches the ever evolving military advancements in North Korea and the human rights crisis. Method: In this study, 100 police officers serving in the security department who have work experiences related to the North Korean defectors were surveyed based on the self-administration method by using the South Korean police officers as a group in 2020 in order to analyze the perception and attitude towards the job satisfaction based on gender and age targeting the police officers serving in the security police organization. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, across most of the questions with statistical significance for the gender of the security police managing the North Korean defectors due to the ever evolving military advancements in North Korea and the human rights crisis, the male security police officers turned out to have a relative more positive evaluation of the level of job satisfaction than the female police officers. Furthermore, in terms of age, the positive perception and attitude of the older age group is high across most of the questions, whereas the negative perception is relatively high for the age group in their 20s. Regarding the relationship between gender and age, it turned out that the males in their 50s and above and females in their 30s demonstrated the highest positive perception and attitude for the job satisfaction. Conclusion: In conclusion, first, the culture within the security police organization needs to be improved and will also need to be transformed into a security police organization which can fully demonstrate the potential and creativity of the security police through the fairness of personnel management. Second, it is very urgent to enact laws (rules) to ensure the organizational stability of the security police. Third, it is necessary to secure the equipment and professional manpower to acquire the security resources, and strengthen the specialized education. In order to be renewed as a new security police which responds to the rapidly changing security environment, the number of young security police officers needs to be increased, and the young police officers need to derive new ideas and be involved in collecting, analyzing, and producing information related to the various crimes (including multiple crimes) against the North Korean defectors toward becoming leaders on their own as they respond to police policies and decision-makers with the measures for the safe settlement of the North Korean defectors and crime prevention, whereby the job satisfaction of the security police will be further developed into a more progressive organizational culture.Keyword:Military, Collapse of the North Korean Regime, Security Police, Gender, Job Satisfaction
The Reality of the Barracks Culture of the Korean Armed Forces of Generation MZ and the Search for AlternativesPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of Generation MZ in the reality of the Korean armed forces where most of the enlisted soldiers are Generation MZ, and consider the task of improving the barracks culture for them. Method: Literature study and empirical data were carried out including books, academic journals, and dissertations related to the barracks culture’s improvement and generation MZ in order to analyze the justification and promotion strategy of barracks culture improvement and a barracks culture improvement plan appropriate for the characteristics of the military organization and Generation MZ. Results: In order to improve the barracks culture appropriate for the characteristics of Generation MZ, the Korean armed forces need such measures as the strengthened authority and responsibility of the soldiers and allowed use of mobile phones. Furthermore, as a measure to establish military discipline, punishment for human rights, security, and negligence related issues need to be strengthened. Generation MZ lack personal experiences, and hence, group counseling ought to also be facilitated. Such policies targeting Generation MZ will be meaningful policies for the Generation Alpha who will enlist in the military in the future. Conclusion: Given the nature of the Republic of Korea, which has adopted the conscription system, the military ought to be able to play the role of the last public education institution. The military ought to be able to help the Republic of Korea take a large leap toward becoming a world-class nation by recovering the hopes and dreams which Generation MZ, called the Generation of 7 Losses, lost, and developing on their own. If the military promoted barracks culture improvement can create synergies in tandem with the independent and enterprising characteristics of Generation MZ, the Republic of Korea will not only be able to take a new leap forward comparable to the miracle of the Han River, but will also become a leading nation qualified to spearhead the future of the world.Keyword:Barracks Culture, Military Organization, Generation MZ, Soldiers of New Generation, Soldiers' Human Rights