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  • Purpose: This study tried to verify the mediating effect of self-esteem in the effects of smartphone dependence among adolescents on academic helplessness. Method: 2,404 first-year middle school students were selected as research subjects using data form the second year of the Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey 2018. For the analysis method, the mediating effect was analyzed using the PROCESS macro 3.5(Model 4) suggested by Hayes(2017). Results: Results of the study First, there was a significant positive relationship and influence between smartphone dependence and academic helplessness of adolescents, Second, a significant negative relationship and influence between smartphone dependence and self-esteem, and Third, there was a significant negative relationship between academic helplessness and self-esteem. It has been found to influence negative relationships. Fourth, smartphone dependence indirectly affects academic helplessness through self-esteem and plays a partial mediating role. Conclusion: These results are meaningful in that they revealed the indirect mediating effect of self-esteem in the path that smartphone dependence leads to academic helplessness. Therefore, through the results of this study, it was suggested that various programs are needed to reduce smartphone dependence and academic helplessness, and to recognize and improve the importance of self-esteem in the educational field for correct study and growth of adolescents.
    Keyword:Adolescents, Smartphone Dependency, Academic Helplessness, Self-Esteem, Mediating Effect
  • Purpose: This study was conducted as a qualitative research method in order to examine the natural healing experiences and acceptance attitudes of the senior citizens participating in Health Qigong. Towards this end, the analysis was performed by applying the grounded theory approach. Method: As for the selection of research participants, the sample was extracted by adopting the purposeful sampling method, which is among the non-probabilities of the study. and finally, 15 people were selected as the research participants after confirming as to whether they were appropriate for the purposes of the study through a meeting of experts. In the data collection process, the participants were first selected through the first interview, theoretical samples were extracted, then the second interview was conducted. The raw data collected through the in-depth interview were described in words and transcribed, after which, the transcribed data and the interview details were checked for consistency. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, a total of 18 categories, 34 subcategories, and 18 concepts were derived. In terms of the type classification, the participant type A turned out to be a ‘social communication type’ while the participant type B turned out to be a ‘instrumental leisure activity type.’ The participant type C turned out to be an 'active healing coping type,' while the participant type D turned out to be a 'selective giving up type.' Conclusion: In this study, the details of the natural healing experiences and acceptance attitude of the senior citizens participating in Health Qigong were verified in depth. Such research results are meaningful in that they provided basic data to ensure that the Health Qigong program can play a mediating role in maintaining and restoring the mental and physical health of the senior citizens in a scientific manner.
    Keyword:Health Qigong, Grounded Theory, Senior Citizens, Experience, Acceptance Attitude
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present the basic data for scalability for the provisions of the physical service environment for medical skincare by studying what influence the human service causes in between the servicescapes and reliability while analyzing the mediating effect of reliability between the servicescapes of medical skincare and the intention of customer behavior. Method: In this study, the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 25.0 and PROCESS macro for SPSS program as an empirical analysis method for 511 copies for 17 cities and provinces nationwide based on an online survey method targeting men and women in their 20s through 50s, and in order to validate the regulatory effect of human service in the relationship between servicescapes and intention of the customer behavior, multi mediated effect analysis and the PROCESS macro model 7 were used to validate the significance of the mediating effect based the Sobel-test. Results: In terms of the results of this study, first, regarding the existence of the mediating effect of reliability in terms of the relationship between the servicescapes and the intention of customer behavior, stability(β=.294, p<.001), surrounding environment(β=.183, p<. 001) and functionality(β=.179, p<.001) have caused a positive effect, while the reliability has caused a significant effect on the intention of customer behavior. Second, when the effect of servicescapes on the customer behavior via reliability would be enhanced by the human service, servicescapes and human service have caused a significant positive effect on the reliability, while the interactive effect of the servicescapes X human service was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the physical improvement of servicescapes in terms of the medical skincare is a major factor for increasing the customer satisfaction and the intention to revisit, and since the customers' reliability perceived by the customers towards the hospital and the staffs’ human service can also increase the intention to revisit, it is considered that stability, environment, and functionality in terms of servicescapes should not be neglected for the customer attraction and profitability related performance.
    Keyword:Medical Skincare, Servicescapes, Human Service, Reliability, Intention of Customer Behavior
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss the countermeasures against drunk driving regulations in terms of crime prevention because drunk driving is not a simple traffic crime but a potential murder. One methodology would be to raise the punishment for drunk driving and to improve the public's awareness and conduct regular traffic accident prevention education so that fundamental problems can be solved and have high efficiency and normative power. In Korea, the ‘Act on the Aggravated Punishment of Specific Crimes, etc.’ and ‘Road Traffic Act’ were amended in Korea following the case of 'Yoon Chang-ho', who died in a drunk driving accident in 2018. Drunk driving is a very dangerous behavior, as it can endanger your life as well as the lives of others. Even if an accident does not occur, such an act is a violation of the Road Traffic Act and therefore carries criminal responsibility. In terms of general crime prevention, the penalties for drunk driving are becoming stricter than in the past. In the improved system, even if the blood alcohol level is 0.03% or more and less than 0.08, imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than 5 million won is imposed. In the case of two or more violations of the strengthened regulations, imprisonment for not less than 2 years and not more than 5 years, or a fine of not less than 10 million won and not more than 20 million won. What used to be a three-out was changed to a two-out for drunk driving. However on November 25, 2021, the Constitutional Court ruled that the provisions of the Road Traffic Act, which required uniform and aggravated punishments for drunk driving more than twice, were against the Constitution(Constitutional Court 2021.11.25, 2019Hunba 446, etc.). In addition, if you injure a person while driving, you will be punished by imprisonment for not less than 1 year and not more than 15 years in prison, or a fine of not less than 10 million won to not more than 30 million won(Before the amendment, in case of death while driving under the influence of alcohol, he was sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than one year). Drunk driving accidents can lead to criminal punishment, administrative sanctions, and even civil lawsuits. Keep in mind that drunk driving can be a potential killer on the road. Even if you didn't harm anyone, just drinking and driving can be a big hit in society. Method: Injuries and deaths due to drunk driving are on the rise. As a countermeasure against this, the standards and level of punishment for drunk driving are being strengthened. First, let's look at the legal punishment for drunk driving through the laws related to drunk driving. Second, we examine the severity of the damage caused by drunk driving through statistics such as drunk driving accidents, injuries, and deaths in current Korean society. Third, as a comparative legal review, by examining foreign laws on drunk driving accidents, matters to be referred to in Korean laws and regulations are reviewed. Fourth, I would like to make a legislative proposal by reviewing the problems and improvement plans of the drunk driving legal system. Previous studies on drunk driving have mainly focused on strengthening the punishment for drunk driving. This study intends to review the general crime prevention aspect by not only strengthening punishment but also changing the public's perception through education. Results: Drunk driving affects not only drunk drivers, but also others and society. It is necessary to keep in mind that drunk driving is a potential homicide, and the prohibition of drunk driving should be strengthened. In addition, if the general prevention effect can be successfully established and nudged against the offenses of drunk drivers, social costs can be reduced. Conclusion: For drunk driving, both the ‘external motivation’ such as punishment, as well as the ‘intrinsic motivation’ to act in compliance with the norm must be activated. To this end, it is necessary to raise awareness that drunk driving must be caught and punished. The certainty of punishment has a positive effect on crime deterrence. Also, in the case of self-driving cars in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, there are no regulations for drunk drivers, so a review should be carried out.
    Keyword:Drunk Driving, Crime Prevention, Road Traffic Act, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Criminal Liability
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss the theoretical basis and location selection method for CCTV, which has recently been spotlighted as an important means of crime prevention. Method: For the purpose of the study, this study attempted to explain the relationship between CCTV and crime prevention. More specifically, this study attempted to explain the theory of criminology related to CCTV. In particular, we tried to explore the possibility of crime prevention effects of CCTVs, focusing on the discussion of classical criminology and neoclassical criminology, not positivist criminology based on the criminality of criminals. In addition, this study attempted to understand existing studies that analyzed the effect of CCTV on crime occurrence and sense of safety. In addition, this study examined the existing domestic research on how to select the location of CCTV installation and introduced an example of a comprehensive study of one of the existing studies. Results: The theory of criminal opportunity, called neoclassical criminology, consists of lifestyle theory, daily behavior theory, CPTED, rational choice theory, and situational control theory. The theory of criminal opportunity is more interested in the situation in which a crime occurs than in the criminality of a criminal. In particular, it emphasizes the monitoring ability to grasp criminal behavior. Typically, CCTV is a means of strengthening surveillance. Accordingly, CCTV has established itself as a key means of preventing crime. Most CPTED programs use CCTVs. In existing effectiveness studies, CCTV was also found to reduce crime and crime fear. Accordingly, some studies emphasize the importance of selecting the location of CCTV installation and provide guidelines for how to select the location of CCTV installation. This study attempted to introduce a new guideline recently proposed. Conclusion: Selection of CCTV installation locations is an important issue for crime prevention and increased satisfaction of local residents. This study attempted to introduce theories, existing studies, and location selection guidelines related to CCTV. There is a need to maximize its effectiveness by installing CCTVs, which are in charge of an important function of strengthening surveillance, in suitable places.
    Keyword:CCTV, Neo-Criminal Theory, CPTED, Place, Crime Prevention
  • Purpose: This study examines the factors of tourism constraints which influence the tourism industry, discover the factors which can increase the tourism related satisfaction by articulating the effects of tourism constraints on the tourism related satisfaction, and utilize them for developing and marketing the tourism resources and tourism products required for the growth of the sustainable tourism industry. Method: In order to achieve the purpose of this study as such, the factors were derived through the factor analysis, and the multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the tourism constraints and the tourism related satisfaction, and the following conclusions were arrived. Results: First, as a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it turned out that health and cleanliness (sanitation) were the variables which have had the largest influence on the tourism constraints, followed by safety, climate and weather. That is, it may be said that securing and guaranteeing health, hygiene, and safety would determine the success of being a tourist destination. Hence, as for the tourism revitalization and the sustainable development in the aftermath of the pandemic, thorough preparations for infectious diseases which may occur again, hygiene and cleanliness of tourist destinations, and the environment for achieving political and economic stability and safety are required alongside the measures for achieving them. Second, based on the analysis of the causal relationship between the tourism constraints and the tourism related satisfaction, tourist destination related environmental constraints, internal constraints, and economic and environmental constraints influence the tourism related satisfaction in a positive direction, and the information and health constraints have a negative effect on the tourism related satisfaction, while the information and health constraints turned out to have a negative effect on the tourism related satisfaction. Conclusion: That is, it means that the satisfaction following tourism increases in the case of overcoming tourism environment, internal and economic and environmental constraints, and the tourism related satisfaction would decrease if there are information and health constraints. Hence, when planning and developing the tourism products after the pandemic, it is necessary to investigate and examine as to whether the tourist destination can respond to and treat infectious diseases, possibility of the occurrence of abnormal climates such as El Niño, and countermeasures, etc.
    Keyword:Pandemic, Growth, Tourism Constraints, Tourism Related Satisfaction, Sustainable