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The Present Status and Development Plan of Citizen Participation: Focused on the Autonomous Police System

Vol.7 (No.1) 2022
2022-03-30 12:22


Purpose: This study aims to examine the current status of citizen participation in the self-governing police system, which has been implemented since July 1, 2021, focusing on metropolitan municipalities in Korea, and to suggest improvement plans for revitalization.

Method: The research method was based on the website of local government, government statistics data, and academic papers.

Results: The current citizen participation in the self-governing police system is limited to formal participation because there is a lack of system and support to be a citizen participation.

Conclusion: As an improvement plan, first, it is necessary to open a unique homepage and strengthen the publicity in order to actively encourage citizens' participation. In other words, it is necessary to actively promote and provide institutional support so that local citizens can actively know and participate in the main policies of the autonomous police committee. Second, active interactive communication plans should be sought to promote citizen participation (regular meetings, holding briefing sessions, etc.). Third, it is necessary to seek cooperation in the level of co-production in the security services. Fourth, it is the enactment of ordinances by local governments that can activate citizen participation. Fifth, the activation of citizen participation through the network construction of police cooperation organizations and civic groups related to security services should be promoted. For the successful settlement of the self-governing police system, citizen participation should be activated so that it can be a police activity that meets the needs of residents and the residents who are the purpose of the self-governing police system.

Keyword:Autonomous Police System, Citizen Participation, Active Interactive Communication Plans, Network, Cooperation
  • Purpose: In this study, the relationship between Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-regulation, Vocational Calling, and Autonomy was investigated to analyze the factors affecting the reduction of job stress of Korean Hair-beauty Shop Workers. In addition, this study aims to analyze whether Social Support has a moderating effect on the relationship between Job Stress, Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-regulation, Vocational Calling, and Autonomy. The purpose of this study is to help reduce the job stress of Korean hair salon workers and to contribute to vitalization of the beauty industry by analyzing the relationship between various factors in an integrated way. Method: This study was conducted for Korean Hair-beauty Shop Workers, and analyzed data were collected by distributing questionnaires to hair beauty shops and beauty associations and organizations nationwide. Empirical statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 program, and frequency analysis, reliability and validity analysis were performed. Multiple regression analysis was performed 4 times by defining the dependent variable stress as 4 factors, and moderating effect analysis was performed to find out the influence relationship of social support. Results: First, Using Reference Groups(β=-.309, p<.001), Service Belief(β=-.248, p<.001), Autonomy(β=-.222, p<.001), Vocational Calling(β=-.117, p<.001) factors have a significant negative(-) effect on job stress. Second, Service Belief(β=-.271, p<.001), Autonomy(β=-.209, p<.001), Using Reference Groups(β=-.089, p<.05) factors have a significant negative (-) effect on Personal Stress. Third, Using Reference Groups(β=-.365, p<.001), Self-regulation(β=-.202, p<.001), Autonomy(β=-.160, p<.001), Service Belief(β=-.144, p<.001) factors have a significant negative(-) effect on Customer and Work stress. Fourth, the factors of Service Belief(β=-.294, p<.001), Using Reference Groups(β=-.280, p<.001), and Autonomy(β=-.235, p<.001) have a significant negative(-) effect on Environment Stress. Finally, in the effects of Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-regulation, and Autonomy on Job Stress, the moderating effect of Social Support was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-regulation, and Autonomy were found to have a significant negative effect on Job Stress. In particular, Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, and Autonomy had a significant influence on all sub-factors of Job Stress, and Using Reference Groups had the greatest influence, con-firming that it was the most important variable for hair-beauty shop workers. It was confirmed that Hair-beauty shop workers with high Social Support had lower job stress as their Perceptions of Professionalism increased than Hair-beauty shop workers with low social support. Specifically, the negative influence of Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-regulation, and Autonomy on Job Stress was larger in the group with high Social Support than the group with low social support. In order to make Hair-beauty shop workers less stressful in performing their jobs, enhancing their own professionalism is a significant means, but the manager of the hair beauty shop respects, considers, cares, and treats members intimately, Informational Support should be provided, and appropriate compensation should be provided for the job.
    Keyword:Hair-Beauty Shop Workers, Using Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self-Regulation, Job Stress
  • Purpose: The Supreme Court changed its existing position on the provisions of the housing trespassing offense for 2021 and 2022 through a consensus decision. In 2021, if a part of the co-resident enters the co-living house according to the normal access method with the realistic consent of the current resident in the absence, the establishment of the crime of trespassing is denied even if it is against the presumed will of the other resident who is absent. . In 2022, if you enter a restaurant where the public is freely allowed to enter without a restraint from the business owner, even if it seems that the business owner would not have consented to the entrance if he had known the actual purpose of entry, the purpose of this is not to constitute a crime of trespassing. . According to the precedent, the legal benefit of protection for the crime of trespassing is ‘the de facto tranquility of the dwelling’. The purpose of this study is to examine the interpretation and judgment standards regarding the legal interests of protection against trespassing, and to consider trespassing, which is the act of trespassing. Method: Article 16 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea states, “All citizens shall not be infringed upon their freedom of residence. When a residence is seized or searched, a warrant issued by a judge at the request of the prosecutor must be presented.” The crime of trespassing is a component that guarantees the tranquility of an individual's residence so that the freedom of residence stipulated by the Constitution is not violated. For this purpose, in order to form smooth relationships with various beings in society as a social being, human beings must be guaranteed that their private space is protected and that they can live peacefully without external intrusion. To this end, first, I would like to review the contents of the Supreme Court precedent on the crime of trespassing. Second, the current status of punishment for trespassing is reviewed through a comparative review of foreign laws on trespassing. Third, we examine the legal benefits of protection against trespassing. Fourth, the criteria for judging the crime of trespassing are reviewed. Lastly, based on the discussion so far, I would like to suggest the direction of the legislation on the punishment for trespassing. Results: The starting point of the discussion of the crime of trespassing lies in the interpretation of the interests of protection. The representative theories are the claim of ‘housing rights’ and ‘the theory of defacto serenity’, but precedents adopt the doctrine of the theory of defacto serenity. As for the degree of protection for the crime of trespassing, the crime of danger and the crime of infringement are opposed to each other. The interpretation of these precedents shows a lot of changes in the protection and interest of the crime of trespassing, the meaning of the infringement, the timing of the commencement of execution, and the timing of implementation. Conclusion: The reason for the existence of the crime of trespass is an indispensable prerequisite for the pursuit of happiness and the enjoyment of human dignity and value through the tranquility of private life. However, there are many cases where the crime of trespassing is applied and abused for other purposes rather than contributing to the protection of personal privacy, which is the original purpose, and a logical solution should be sought for its interpretation. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the legislative direction by analyzing the decision of the Supreme Court of the Supreme Court on the crime of trespassing.
    Keyword:Residential Trespass, De Facto Serenity Theory, Right of Residence, Privacy Protection, Trespassing
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the structural relationship between environmental awareness level, clean beauty cosmetics awareness, and repurchase behavior among Generation MZ, and investigate the regulating effect of consumer responsibility perception. Recently, as the consumers' interest in environmental protection has grown, it was intended to help the development of new products of clean beauty and the development of the cosmetics market, which is emerging as a new trend, thereby providing the basic data to consumers and fans of future marketing strategies. Method: For the subject of this study, it was intended to use the SPSS 25.0, AMOS 22.0 program for 523 copies of online questionnaires in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon areas and non-metropolitan area to verify the research question for Generation MZ who have purchased clean beauty cosmetics at least once and analyzed them. The exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed to secure the validity and reliability of the scale, and the Pearson correlation analysis was performed to confirm the correlation between major variables. The regulating effect analysis was performed through path analysis, and a multi-group comparative path analysis was performed to confirm the regulating effect. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, the level of environmental awareness had a positively significant effect on the perception of clean beauty cosmetics(𝛽=.492, p<.001) and intention to repurchase(𝛽=.086, p<.05), while the clean beauty cosmetic perception also had a positively significant effect on the repurchase behavior and intention(𝛽=.651, p<.001). That is, the higher the level of environmental awareness, the higher the level of awareness and repurchase behavior for clean beauty cosmetics. In particular, the level of environmental awareness was found to be a factor that can increase the intention to repurchase by raising the level of awareness of clean beauty cosmetics. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it turned out that the higher the environmental awareness level, the higher the level of awareness of clean beauty cosmetics or the level of repurchase behavior. It is meaningful for identifying the preferences of Generation MZ in the clean beauty cosmetics market, which has been gradually expanding since COVID-19, and presenting products and effective marketing strategies accordingly.
    Keyword:Generation MZ, Environmental Awareness, Clean Beauty Cosmetics, Repurchase Behavior, Consumer Responsibility Related Perception
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of police force on crime. To discuss in more detail, it is intended to understand the change in the number of crimes caused by the police's new police box. Among the various variables that measure police force, police substations such as police constabulary and police box are important variables. In particular, if the police force is improved through the opening of a new police box, crime suppressive effects are also expected to increase. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the difference between the number of theft and violent crimes caused by the police's new police box. Method: The data used in this study are data on theft and violence in a city of 500,000 people located in Gyeongsangbukdo region. More specifically, a specific administrative dong(Gupyeong-dong in Gumi City) of the city are subject to analysis. Data for a total of 39 months from 2012(January) to 2015(May) were analyzed. More specifically, this study compared and analyzed the number of thefts and violent crimes that occurred before and after the opening of the police box in October 2013. In this study, a T-test was attempted for average comparison. Results: As a result of statistical analysis, it was confirmed that the police force has the ability to suppress crimes in this study. In many existing police studies, it is understood that the police force has a positive or meaningless effect on crime. In addition, few previous studies have identified the relationship between the establishment of new police substations and crime. Conclusion: Through this study, it is an important result showing that the establishment of a new police box by the police has a suppressive effect on crime. As shown in this study, it can be seen that the newly established police box statistically significantly reduced theft and violent crime. In other words, police forces have reduced crime. This result is important evidence to support the discussion of existing classical criminology and neoclassical criminology. The theory of inhibition developed in classical criminology is understood as an important mechanism by which police can suppress criminals. In particular, it is understood that the establishment of a police box has in-creased the fear of punishment for criminals. In addition, based on neoclassical criminology, it is understood that the establishment of a police box would have worked to strengthen surveillance and increase the risk of punish-ment. Based on the results of this study, more policy discussions should be held to maximize the effect of reducing and inhibiting crime opportunities by establishing more small police boxes than large-scale police substations.
    Keyword:Police Box, Police Forces, Policing, Crime, Deterrence
  • Purpose: With the focus on Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea, the author shows how women were possessed by men as objects, what was expected of women as men's property, and the punishment imposed on women who do not meet those expectations in the Victorian era. Following the Industrial Revolution, women also had a desire to live by choosing what they wanted with their own free will, not as the property of men, but society only gave them the role of the angels in the house obeying men and taking care of the family and if this expectation is not met, they were portrayed as madwomen and discarded by men. Method: First, it will be discussed how women at the time, represented as Annette and Antoinette, married men as objects, and what men expected of women as wives. Second, it will be discussed how women were punished when they did not act as submissive wives deviating from what the society of the time expected of women, such as yelling, swearing, drinking, or expressing sexual desire; and why they were treated as madwomen and imprisoned like Annette and Antoinette who were chosen and later discarded by Mason and Rochester. Third, it will be examined how Annette and Antoinette discarded by Mason and Rochester were judged as madwomen and imprisoned, and how they were punished for behavior beyond what the society of the time expected of women. Results: Annette shouted, criticized, and ridiculed Mason when her son died because Mason ignored her thought of leaving Coulibri. In return, she was sexually harassed by black people; her daughter Antoinette was portrayed as a madwoman to an extent that she even thought, 'This is not my mother'; and Antoinette was portrayed as a madwoman who laughed out loud like crazy and hit stones with her fists for the reason that she ex-pressed her sexual desire and lost her chastity before marriage, and were imprisoned by Mason and Rochester respectively. Conclusion: Victorian English society made women men’s property and never tolerated women who were not obedient to men or invaded men's domains and tried to dominate them. Seeing that the thoughts, desires, and wills of women at that time represented as Annette and Antoinette through the “Wide Sargasso Sea”, the author thinks that even in our present day, it is worth considering whether our society make someone's thoughts, desires, and will crazy and punish them for reasons of order maintenance or public interest.
    Keyword:Wide Sargasso Sea, Regulations, Violations, Punishment, Women
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study aims to find the way in which policy implementation structure is established to support social enterprise applicants. Together with it, the study proposes the social innovative measures of the social enterprise certification program based on bureaucratic administration through the discovery of social values. Methods: The article examines public data on social enterprise certification from 2007 to 2022 and interviews with the stakeholders in social enterprise by utilizing Enroljas’ mimetic institutional isomorphism that focuses on the system, actors, and the interaction among actors as variables. Chapter 2 discusses social enterprise, administrative decentralization, social value and social innovation. Chapter 3 conducts an institutional analysis of the certification support administrative system. Chapter 4 undertakes an institutional analysis of the designation sup-port administrative system. Chapter 5 pinpoints the limitation of the certification in the realization of social value, suggest the social purpose company as innovation, and compares the independent legal entity of social enterprise between Korea, UK and US. Results: The certification and designation system are operated by the dual management mode of administrative organization and intermediate organization. The policy implementation structure consist of vertical structure between administrative organizations and horizontal structure between administrative ones and intermediary. The certification system suppresses the realization of the social value of social enterprises and experiences the organizational identification. Conclusion: The independent legal entity of social enterprises is an institutional innovation instead of bureaucratic certification program. This outcome is confirmed by comparing the institutions of social enterprise legal entities in the United States and the United Kingdom.
    Keyword:Social Enterprise, Certification, Designation, Social Value, Social Innovation
  • Purpose: The economic crimes targeting an unspecified majority are beyond imagination in terms of economic development and the extent of their damages incurred. Among the typical examples is the crime of unlawful fund raising. Despite the continuous crackdowns and punishments at the pan-government level, it threatens the economy of the commoners. The most unlawful fund raising companies are not subject to financial supervision, yet promise to pay a fixed interest rate or high dividends several dozen times larger than the financial institutions as a bait of high returns. However, there is no source of income, and it is just a ‘Ponzi scheme’ which preserves the profits of existing investors with the investment of new investors. This is a method through which the unlawful fund raising companies guarantee the principal and interest from an unspecified number of people without authorization, permission, registration, or reporting. Furthermore, defrauding multi-level investment by paying referral allowances or commissions when introducing sub-investors is a typical behavior of the unlawful fund raising crimes. Method: This study reviews previous studies through the literature study, and examines the actual situation via the empirical studies along with theoretical review of unlawful fund raising act, which is deceived by high returns, and deceptive behavior through multi-stage investment. Results: This study based on the gravity of the crime of unlawful fund raising, the latest trends in the crime types including the impersonation of financial companies and virtual currencies are analyzed. Sanctions against those who engage in an unlawful fund raising act should be strengthened, and good traders should be protected. Conclusion: Furthermore, the gravity of punishment in the deterrence theory for the crime prevention is presented as a theoretical grounds. As a measure to prevent damages, it is necessary to raise the criminal punishment, and introduce punitive damages and a special judicial police officer system.
    Keyword:Unlawful Fund Raising, Financial Crime, Investment Fraud, Deterrence Theory, Ponzi Scheme
  • Purpose: The customer satisfaction strategies to improve sports center management performance are developed, and for this purpose, they are strengthening internal marketing activities for their employees. These internal marketing activities are not only related to the service quality provided to the users by the employees, but also the importance of the role of customer orientation development is being emphasized. Hence, from this point of view, the purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effect of internal marketing on the customer orientedness and market orientedness in order to present the basic data for establishing the customer oriented marketing for the sports centers. Method: In this study, as of 2022, 230 employees of sports centers in Daegu Metropolitan City were surveyed, and the convenience sampling was used for the sampling method, and the survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 228 questionnaires were used as the valid samples, except for the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the contents of the questionnaire. The measurement tool was a questionnaire, and the data processing was carried out by the SPSS 22.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification performed, the internal marketing turned out to be education and training factor α=.894, community factor α=.870, and compensation system factor α=.825, and customer orientation was customer care factor α=.866, customer understanding factor α=.852, customer management factor α=.795. The market orientedness was shown as the market orientedness factor α=.812. Overall, internal marketing of sports centers affects the customer orientation and the market orientation. Conclusion: In this study, the internal marketing of sports center affects the customer orientedness and the market orientedness, and for the efficient management of sports center and the more stable profit generation, it is necessary to provide a customer oriented service differentiated from the sports centers competing through the internal marketing activities which reflect the needs and desires of sports center users.
    Keyword:Customer Orientedness, Market Orientedness, Sports, Sports Center, Internal Marketing
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate the difference in the perception of North Korean defectors by focusing on variables according to the period of service of the security police and the police’s total period of service, which can provide a high accessibility and experience based results for the North Korean defectors. Method: In this study, 100 South Korean police officers in 2020 were surveyed among the police officers of the security department who had work experiences related to the North Korean defectors, and among the trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, the police institute of education in South Korea. The survey was conducted by the self-administration method, and 91 people’s questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or missing part of the survey information. Results: In terms of the difference in the perception of North Korean defectors according to the period of police service, the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference for the Q-22 question at the level of 5%. That is, it turned out that the longer the total police service period, the more the North Korean defectors had the perception to receive legal support for the purposes of visiting the police station. Furthermore, as for the difference in the perception of the North Korean defectors according to the period of the security police service, the analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the Q-24, Q-34, and Q-38 questions at the 5% level. That is, it turned out that the security police perceived the problems of the North Korean defectors to be personal safety and understanding of the South Korean society, and perceived that the average monthly economic income of the North Korean defectors is stable. Conclusion: As the conclusion of this study, while the police generally perceive the work involving the North Korean defectors as a legal support and a business processing, the longer the service period of the security police, the difference in their perception turned out such that, the more problems with the personal safety of the North Korean defectors and their understanding of the South Korean society. Furthermore, in terms of the security police who are directly in charge of he North Korean defectors, they have a common perception about the North Korean society, such as problem solving through violence, awareness of and avoidance of damages according to the compliance of law, and the justification of individual sacrifice by groups. Hence, it may be interpreted as a result of recognizing it as a result of a lack of personal protection against violent crimes and a lack of understanding of the South Korean society.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Regulation, South Korean Security Police, Period of Service as Police, Perception
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to collect and analyze big data related to food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Specifically, this study analyzes what potential tourists consider food tourism in Jeollanam-do under the COVID19 regulation. It is to analyze the perception about Jeonnam as a destination for food tourism perceived by potential tourists through big data analysis. From big data analysis, this study analyzes why tourists visit Jeollanam-do for food tourism. Method: The big data collected for analysis ranged from January 1 to December 31, 2021 using the Textom and came from the “N” firm, the largest portal site in Korea. Big data was collected from blogs, cafes, and news among various channels owned by the firm using the keyword ‘Jeonnam food tourism’. Two years have been since the first case of COVID-19 infection was reported in Korea on January 20, 2020. Word pairs were selected using the N-gram, which is a number that records the number of consecutive expressions of two words in the data. Key words were visualized using word cloud analysis. Results: First, according to the frequency analysis through text mining, tourists who visit Jeollanam-do perceive Jeollanam-do as a food tourism destination. Second, in the frequency analysis using the N-gram, many words for tourism activities, tourism resources, tourism products, culture, and the like were presented in addition to food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Third, as in the frequency analysis using the N-gram and the result from word cloud, a specific region in Jeollanam-do such as Beopseongpo and a specific food such as kimchi were showed in the top search terms. Conclusion: First, those officials who are charged in public relations and tourism in Jeollanam-do should prepare environments to provide unique tourism activities linked to food tourism and should develop various tourism programs in connection with food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Second, it is necessary to provide and promote fascinating programs that can be experienced from visit to Jeonnam, such as cultural tourism activities linked with food tourism and local tourism experiences. Finally, as the capital of food tourism, numerous advertisement and promotions for Jeonnam food and effective food-related festivals and events are necessary.
    Keyword:Big Data, Food Tourism, Covid-19, Regulations, Jeonnam