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  • The purpose of this study is to review the state of terrorism by the Islamic State(IS), purpose of terrorism, goal, origin, growth, operation, characteristics, combatants, weapons and finance, and analyze the IS’ organized activities and prospects of terrorist activities to further learn about the level of its threat against Korea and Japan in Northeast Asia. As a result of this study, the possibility of terrorism by the IS in Korea and Japan is as follows. First, there are background factors, trigger factors, and opportunity factors, which influence the multi-cultural society of Korea and Japan, underprivileged class, and North Korean defectors. Due to the prejudice and discrimination practiced against the second generation immigrants of these classes, foreign workers may be deemed to have developed into terrorist forces by interacting with the propaganda of the IS through social media, etc. In addition, the underprivileged classes such as the homeless, disabled, runaway teens, and low income class may fall easily into the ideologies of the Islamic extremism in order to find a breakthrough amidst the discrimination and prejudice, according to the analysis. Second, as for the trigger factors, if the US dispatches its troops to Iraq or Syria in order to destroy the IS, a public enemy, at the request of the US, those who fell under the radicalism would possibly lead terrorist attacks against western facilities across Korea and Japan, according to the analysis. Third, as for the opportunity factors, the number of Internet users in Korea and Japan is continually increasing, and in the environment which is called a country of great strength in the IT, they may be used as a medium for praising jihad and propagating ideologies of extremism to those who are dissatisfied with the society or those affected by the Islamic fundamentalism, thereby facilitating radical behaviors, according to the analysis.
    Keyword:Northeast Asia Safety, National Security, Islamic State’s, Terrorism, Threat Analysis
  • In this study, the issue of the decline of college students’ physical fitness and the risks involved in sports activities have been discussed. The Chinese government and colleges encourage students to participate in sports to resolve health problems; however, there is a worry arising from possible occurrence of injuries due to sports activities. The risks of injuries and accidents hang over the heads of college students like the sword of Damocles. As a result, the Chinese government as well as colleges have paid much attention to the prevention of risks in college students’ sports activities. There is extensive research and discussion on risk identification of the same. However, there are still shortcomings in this area. This paper uses the literature research method to reorganize the major studies in recent years to analyze the existing research on problems in college sports activities and proposes solutions for the problem. The results show that current research has three primary inadequacies: 1)Methods of risk perception are ambiguous. Being the most used method, the risk questionnaire does not have a common compilation standard. Therefore, the quality and content of data vary, and this may lead to the omission or misjudgment of some risk factors. 2)Risk induction methods need to be improved. The use of risk induction methods in some studies is not rigorous enough, and this may cause deviation in the results. 3)Risk identification results are limited. China has a vast territory and has varied geographical, natural and human environmental conditions in different regions; as a result, most of the data gathered are from designated areas, and research results have geographical restrictions. The risks faced by college students in sports activities are unavoidable, so there is a need for further study on the issue. The problems of research in this area mainly manifest as unclear risk perception methods, incomplete risk induction methods and limited risk identification results, further affected by regional limitations. Suggestions have been proposed with an aim to resolve existing problems as well as to address the limitations of this study. It is hoped that further study will result in the development of safety of college students’ sports activities and prompt further research on the risks in relation to college sports activities. This study recommends the following solutions: First, design a questionnaire for a survey on basic risks to improve the accuracy of statistics in subsequent studies. Second, form the criteria for risk induction to ensure the precision of the classification. Third, build a national platform for cooperation and identification of risks, summarization of data from different regions and elimination of regional restrictions while laying the foundation for further research on the subject.
    Keyword:Chinese Collegiate Students, Sports Activity, Risk Identification, Safety Security, Risk Management
  • Singi-Hwan(SH) is a widely used prescription for treating kidney inflammation in Korea. However, the protective effect of SH on maximal exercise performance(MEP) is not well studied. Fatigue is the physiological phenomena after working and exercise to improve physical strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MEP effect of SH using the FST model. To study the protective effect of SH on endurance maximal exercise performance by in vivo experiment. The mouse is largely divided into three groups; Non-swimming group, saline treatment - swimming load test group and SH processing swimming group. The swimming load test group was subdivided into the swimming control group(Control) and the Singi-Hwan supply group(SH). SH was orally administered 2 weeks before FST administration. After FST, immobility time, oxygen consumption was measured by physiological test, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Immobility, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors were increased FST - induced MEP. Immobility time was significantly decreased in SH treatment group compared to control group. Oxygen consumption was also significantly decreased by SH treatment. The increase of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase after FST was inhibited by SH treatment. Consumption of energy sources(free fatty acid and triglyceride) and energy recovery were improved by SH treatment after FST. In conclusion, SH suppressed the increase of immobility time, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors after FST. All the results suggest SH might be a potentially protective ingredient for the anti-fatigue functional food. In conclusion, SH can be used as a beneficial medium to improve maximal exercise performance and the ability to protect the body from fatigue. This study indicates that SH protects mice from physical fatigue and improves exercise performance. Therefore, it has a potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue. Our study provides new sight into the protective effects of SH on the fatigue status of mice. Additional studies are needed to find the mechanism of association between each single herb.
    Keyword:Protection, Singi-Hwan, Maximal Exercise Performance(MEP), Forced Swimming Test(FST), Lactic Acid
  • The key point of problem-based learning is that students solve the given problem situation on their own. This study was to develop a stroke case and learning module by applying problem-based learning after selecting second-year nursing students who were taking a health assessment course. This study attempted to analyze and conceptualize learning content for stroke in the area of health assessment to develop a case and module based on clinical cases by applying problem-based learning. A module is a kind of teaching and learning process that is developed to systematically organize learner activities and evaluation methods geared toward checking the activities in accordance with several clearly stated learning objectives in order for learners to attain their learning objectives. The PBL packages that were used in this study were developed based on PBL-related literatures of domestic and foreign nursing science, medicine and educational technology, on this researcher's own PBL experience, on released PBL package development procedures, and on earlier studies related to package development. The results Is problem-based learning introduction, introduction of learning objectives, expected learner role, introduction of role of teacher, team composition are presented. Next, it presents the problem of the situation, presenting the learning task, and feedback of individual learning and cooperative learning. To make it happen, clinical settings should be considered when various modules are developed by applying PBL, and specific learning objectives should be set up to develop more effective modules. In future nursing education, the opportunity should be provided for learners to gain secondhand experience of real clinical settings to critically reflect on themselves, and the kind of PBL strategies that could further autonomous learning capabilities should gradually be increased.
    Keyword:Investigation, Problem-Based Learning, Stroke, Patients, Health Assessment