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  • Purpose: This study sought to explore knowledge structures and domains by analyzing research conducted concerning Para Taekwondo for it to be recognized as a discipline. Method: This study sought to explore knowledge structures and domains by analyzing research conducted about Para Taekwondo for it to be recognized as a discipline. To this end, the classification and knowledge structure of the field of research on Para Taekwondo-related research were explored by using keyword-based knowledge network analysis research methods for a total of 42 Para Taekwondo-related studies conducted from 2004 to 2021. Results: First, according to the analysis of the critical keywords of Para Taekwondo-related research, the keywords that represent the highest frequency were 'training' and 'intellectual impairment,' which represented 26 frequency each, accounting for 10% of the total keywords. Second, 'fitness' with nine frequencies accounted for 4 percent, followed by eight 'athletes' keywords, seven 'balance' keywords, seven 'competition' keywords, and six 'hearing impact' keywords. Secondly, the knowledge structure of Para Taekwondo-related research was analyzed as a whole. This study confirmed that the related structures were formed based on 'intellectual impairment' and 'training.' Thirdly, an analysis of the type of thesis related to Para Taekwondo found that major clusters were formed around the top keywords 'training' and 'intellectual impairment' with the highest degree centrality. Finally, the top keywords with the highest degree centrality of Para Taekwondo-related academic papers were 'training,' 'intellectual impairment,' 'athletes,' and 'fitness.' In addition, academic papers formed a major colony around 'training.' Conclusion: Based on the results of this research, studies on various topics related to Para Taekwondo could be activated and Para Taekwondo could develop into a single academic area by expanding its scope.
    Keyword:Para Taekwondo, Training, Fitness, Knowledge Structure, Keyword Network Analysis
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantitatively identify the characteristics of lower extremity movements before and after taping during the closed change step motion in waltz for dance sports experts by using the functional taping, which is widely known for the prevention and treatment of the sports injuries, and also provide coaches and athletes with the appropriate posture and injury prevention by offering the basic data for the technical performance. Method: As for the subjects of this study, 8 female experts with 5 or more years of experience in dance sports in the metropolitan city of B were selected and experimented. Prior to entering the experiment, a consent was secured from each subject, and the method of the experiment was explained, while the kinematic data were collected by using 5 digital cameras. As for the statistical processing of this study, the joint angle data were calculated before and after taping during the closed change step motion by using the SPSS 24.0. First, the mean and standard deviation were obtained, and in order to analyze the difference before and after taping, and time and phase, a corresponding sample t-test was conducted. The level of significance was set to α=.05. Results: As a result of the experiment, it turned out that taping did stabilize the joint balance rather than causing problems for the mobility of the lower extremity joints via a biomechanical analysis of the lower extremities during the closed change step in motion waltz, and it is determined that it may have significance in that it provided the basic data required for the injury prevention as well as for the efficient performance of movements. Conclusion: Gathering the conclusions as such, it is determined that taping may have significance in that it stabilizes the joint balance during the closed change step motion in waltz and provides the basic data required for the efficient performance of movement and the injury prevention.
    Keyword:Biomechanics, Closed Change Step, Waltz, Taping, Angle
  • Purpose: As a single goal in football has a great value compared to other sport, the importance of the first goal is also greater than other sport. This study aimed to identify the effects of scoring first on the match results considering a variety of match situational variables e.g. match venue, team quality, opposition team quality, the latest performance form, opposition’s latest performance form and time, that were not considered in the previous football studies. Method: All matches(N=162) from all teams(N=12) in K-league during 2020 season were selected as a sample. The data, officially provided from K-league website, were compiled using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS 25 was used to conduct statistical analysis. The mean and standard deviation were obtained through descriptive statistical analysis, and cross-tabulation analysis and chi-square analysis were conducted to analyze the mean differences between independent variables. Results: Of all matches, a goal scored during 149 matches and 13 matched finished without a goal, that resulted 0:0. Of 149 matches, the teams that scored the first goal had a 68.5% chance of winning the matches. The winning rate(67.9%) when the home teams scored the first goal was lower than that of the away teams(69%), but there was no statistically significant difference. The winning rate(87.7%) when the top teams scored the first goal was statistically significantly higher than the winning rate(55%) when the middle teams and the bottom teams(52.3%) scored the first goal. The winning rate(47.5%) when scoring the first goal against the top teams was statistically lower than the winning rate(72.9%) when scoring the first goal against the middle teams and the bottom teams(80%). The winning rate of teams scored first goal at the end of matches(60-75 minutes: 88.2%, 75-90 minutes: 100%) was higher than the winning rate of teams scored first early(0-15 minutes: 64.3%, 15-30 minutes: 63.3%), but there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The first goal had a huge impact on the outcome of the game. In detail, the first goal had a significant impact on the outcome of the matches depending on the level of the teams that scored the first goal and the opposing teams, while the venue, recent performance form and time of the matches did not have a significant impact. Looking at these results, the need for research on the first goal, which greatly affects the outcome of the game, is emerging, and it is believed that systematic analysis is needed to suit the situational variables.
    Keyword:Football, Performance Analysis, First Goal, Situational Variables, K-League
  • Purpose: The performance analysis of sport has utilized to distinguish level of performances in past decade. Especially, the concept of identification on important factors relevant to winning and losing performances was always considered in the field of performance analysis in sports. This study was to compare different performances between groups separated by frequencies of participant to soccer World Cup 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018. This study was also intended to identify factor of distinguishing levels of performances instead of regional factor. Method: In this study, the official data from FIFA official website was collected by Microsoft Excel version 16.0 with Visual Basic Application scripts that totally 20 variables relevant to goals and features of performances were considered. After data collection has done, all data were separated by groups basing on frequencies of participant to soccer World Cup. In addition, descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA test with Turkey’s test as post hoc comparisons were utilized to compare different performances between groups. Results: As results of this study, there were significant differences found on variables relevant to goals, such as Goals, Shot attempt. Also, there were significant differences found between groups on Passes, Passes completed, Short passes, Foul sustained, % of Passes completed, % of Short passes completed and Ball possession. Those findings indicated different levels of performances between experiences on soccer World Cup that those variables also indicated different features of performances depending on the experiences. Conclusion: According to results of this study, the experiences on soccer World Cup are important factors to distinguish different levels of performances considering with the official data. The variables relevant to goals and different features of performances in soccer would be utilized to identify characteristics of team performances or nations regarding to the results of this study. Further researches are required that variables relating to the levels of performances distinguished in this study would be a factor of prediction models for identification of outcome of performances in soccer.
    Keyword:Soccer, Performance Analysis of Sport, Levels of Performances, Soccer Analysis, Sport Analytics
  • Purpose: This study complements some of the shortcomings of the past developed tool for measuring sports ethics consciousness of Korean college students. Method: The past tool used the basic principles developed by G. Lind of Germany. The validity was also based on the verification procedure proposed by G. Lind. To get better validation, this study got comments from 3 advisors who are very specialized in the sphere of moral education. Results: This sports ethics consciousness measurement tool is generally good at verifying the order of preference for each moral development stage. The experts’ reactions in 1st, 4th, and 5th stage were slightly out of the normal range. The quasi-simplex structure validation was clearly classified and guaranteed, and cognitive-emotional parallel validation also not bad. In the past researches, the 4th and 5th stages were slightly higher than the 6th stage. But the result of this study could be acceptable. To overcome the weakness the past tool, this study got interview with three domestic moral education based doctors. Mostly they commented trivial problems in the past tool which contains weakness at the stage of moral development. According to these aids, this study could change the sentences at the 4th stage. Conclusion: This study showed the a little corrected tool for measuring sports ethics awareness of Korean college students that has been developed. Later the result of this study will be verified through statistical study.
    Keyword:Sports Ethics Consciousness Measurement Tool, Moral Competence Test, Preference Hierarchy by Moral Development, Affective- Cognitive Parallelism Test, Simplex Structure of Inter Correlations between the Six Moral Orientations Test
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is one,and-intended to provide a basis for performance improvement compared to the difference of the attack techniques according to sex and grade of the University of inducing the player. Method: In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 198middle,high,andcollege judo athletes,andthe collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 26.0 Statistical Program.Frequency analysis was performed to understand the general characteristics of the study subjects, and Cronbach'sαcoefficient was calculated toverify the reliability of the questionnaire.A t-test was conducted to find out differences in attack techniques according to gender, and One Way ANOVA was conducted to find out differences in attack techniques according to grades. Results: It did not show the difference statistically significant attack skills according to gender. in the case of the attack techniques of the grade hand techniques and foot techniques of college students showed highly significant statistically than high school. On back technology of middle school students, it was significantly higher than high school students and college students. Conclusion: Syntehsizing this study, these results, in the case of hand techniques and foot techniques, according to the grade of, compared to high school with high frequency utilization of college players, it should be taken into account that as identified in prior studies, on the training program plan of high school elite athletes, therefore, it is necessary to find a plan for physical strength and skill training to increase the scoring rate of hand skills and foot skills.
    Keyword:Judo Players, Gender, Grade Level, Attack Skill, Score Rate
  • Purpose: This study is a case study that analyzes the effects after planning and applying a functional training program to improve the performance of high school male freestyle wrestler. Methods: The subject of this study was one elite athlete in freestyle wrestling at K High School in D Metropolitan City. The contents of the applied functional training program consisted of 5 items related to flexibility, 5 items related to dynamic stabilization, 8 items related to muscular endurance, and 8 items related to muscle power improvement in consideration of the wrestling competition situation. After applying the functional training program twice a week at a frequency of 120 minutes per day for 5 weeks(10 times), changes in body composition, basic physical strength, maximal exercise load test, anaerobic exercise capacity, knee joint isokinetic strength and muscle power were analyzed. Results: Body composition, basic physical fitness, maximal exercise load test, anaerobic exercise capacity, isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power were measured before and after the application of functional training, and most of the measurement items showed positive changes after application of the program. In particular, a positive change in exercise duration and maximal oxygen intake as a result of the graded maximal exercise test indicates an improvement in cardiopulmonary endurance, and a decrease in peak drop among the anaerobic exercise capacity measurement items increases tolerance to fatigue. In addition, positive changes in knee joint isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power are very important physical factors for improving the wrestler's performance, and it is judged that the effect of the functional training program applied in this study is appropriately reflected. Conclusions: In summarizing the results of this study, the planning of the optimal functional training program taking into account the physical characteristics of the sport and individual athletes showed more developmental changes than the previous physical fitness training which depended on the intensity of training and the amount of training. This training method was considered to show the possibility of being fully utilized for the future improvement of elite athletes' performance.
    Keyword:Wrestling, Functional Training, Graded Exercise Testing, Anaerobic Exercise Performance, Knee Joint Isokinetic Muscular Function
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study is to conceptualize and test the relationship to determine the influence sport rules acquisition has on sport consumption behaviors. Specially, this study aims to provide more practical evidence regarding the relationship between the processes associated with learning sport rules and intentions regarding future consumption. Consequently, by examining sport rules as they relate to sport fans’ behaviors, this study is to recognize the significance of sport rules and the value they have with regard to marketing practitioners who will be in the position to design more effective marketing strategies. Method: A total of 260 usable responses were collected via QUALTRICS, one of external online survey providers. Rule recognition process was comprised of four subscales and sport consumption behaviors were measured with four subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) was conducted based on the procedures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the structural relationship among variables and the reliability(Cronbach’s alpha) of each subscale was checked. The average variance extracted(AVE) values were also evaluated, as they indicated whether each item contributes to the basic construct of the scales. Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) showed the measurement of the model and structural model had reasonable fit. The structural model provides a good basis for testing the nature of each individual relationship based on the regression weights, standard error, and critical ratio. The results also showed that statistically significant differences existed between how learning of rules occurred and future consumption pathways. Conclusion: A core product of sport management is the game itself and understanding sport rules is a prerequisite to enjoy the core product. Therefore, it is suggested that the role of understanding sport rules should be considered an important factor for understanding and predicting the sport fan development process and future behaviors.Learning rules via media consumption lends to future consumption of media consumption. Regarding the learning by way of playing sport pathway, it is demonstrated to have a meaningful influence in respect to purchasing sporting goods and attending sporting events.
    Keyword:Sport Fans, Sport Rules, Sport Rules Learning, Sport Product, Consumption Behavior