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  • Purpose; The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the anaerobic power according to the performance level of male middle school handball players in order to analyze the difference between the well performing group and the non-performing group, while providing the basic data for improving the performance by developing the anaerobic power of the non-performing group in the future. The subjects of this study are consisted of 9 excellent handball players and 8 non-excellent players of Middle School D of Region D. The criteria for the excellent and non-excellent players provide for excellent players being those who played as starting members at the time of winning the 45th National Youth Athletic Conference in 2016 and the replacement players being the non-excellent players. As for the method of measuring anaerobic power, the Wingate test, which is the anaerobic power test for short term, and blood lactate concentration analysis were performed. The data processing of this study were analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program, and the mean and standard deviation were calculated for each item. The independent t-test was performed to examine the difference in anaerobic power between the groups, while all statistical significance levels were set to P<.05, respectively. The research results indicated that the excellent players were higher statistically than the non-excellent players in terms of anaerobic mean power(p <.05) and total work(p<.05) considering 1kg of weight for anaerobic power. However, even while the significant difference was demonstrated between the groups in terms of the mean power per kg of weight and total work per kg of weight, it determined that the resistance to the lactic acid generated from a high intensity workout over short term was enhanced via training by the excellent group, which did not yield a significant difference in the maximum lactic acid between the two groups. In conclusion, as for the anaerobic power variable, which has a significant influence on the handball performance, the anaerobic mean power which may be exercised by glycolysis continuously over a long term with strong resistance against lactic acid is considered to be important. It is also determined that the anaerobic energy storage method and training method need to be developed accordingly.
    Keyword:Anaerobic Power, Wingate Anaerobic Test, Blood Lactate Density, Anaerobic Mean Power, Glycolysis
  • This study was conducted on hospice patients to identify the cognitive structure of hospice patients with a horticultural therapy. 49 patients and carers(22 males and 27 females) from Feb. 17 2016 to Feb. 22, 2017 and 115 patients and carer(61 males and 54 females) at B Hospital from Jan. 7, 2016 to Dec. 28, 2017, and 170 patients and carers(99 females and 334 females) at C Hospital from Jan. 4, 2017 to Dec. 20, 2017 were analyzed. According to this study, love(42.66%), hope(30.54%), gratitude(13.17%), happiness(10.03%) and self-reflection(2.54%) were listed in order. Both gender showed the highest level of love, followed by hope, gratitude, happiness and self-reflection according to effect analysis of horticultural therapy by gender. In consciousness structure of hospice patient, the expression of love to family was most frequently expressed, followed by hope, gratitude, happiness and selfreflection. The hope of hospice patients was examined lower than that of carers, but self-reflection of patients was found to be higher than the average.
    Keyword:Hospice Patients, Horticultural Therapy, Carers, Consciousness Structure, Self-Reflection
  • The objective of this study is to understand the motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude of students majoring in security services, and also to examine the mediating effects of training attitude on the relationship between motivation for participation and training flow. To achieve the objective of this study, this study conducted a survey targeting total 422 students majoring in security services by selecting the samples through the convenience sampling method, and total 415 questionnaires were used as effective samples. Using the SPSS Program Ver. 23.0 Statistics Program for the collected data, this study conducted the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and the hierarchical regression analysis through the three-step mediating effect process of Soble’s Z-test. Through the research methods and procedures above, this study drew the results on the motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude of students majoring in security services. First, the subfactors of motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude perceived by students majoring in security services showed partially significant differences between groups in accordance with the characteristics such as sex, event, and experience. Second, the motivation for participation in security martial arts(extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation), training flow(cognitive flow, behavioral flow), and training attitude(perceptional attitude, attentive attitude, participatory attitude) of students majoring in security services showed significantly positive(+) effects. Third, the training attitude played partial mediating roles in the relationship between motivation for participation in security martial arts and training flow of students majoring in security services. In summary, the motivation for participation in security martial arts perceived by students majoring in security services directly had effects on the training flow, and it also had indirect effects on it through training attitude.
    Keyword:Security Martial Arts, Motivation for Participation, Training Flow, Training Attitude, Security Services
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in the percent body fat(% body fat) values estimated by the circumference method, the skinfold method(SKF), the bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA), and the underwater weighing(UWW) and to examine the accuracy of three different field methods by comparing with reference method. Twenty-nine adults(women = 13 and men =16) volunteered to participate(age = 25 to 49 years) in this study. Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index(BMI) was calculated. Body circumferences, SKF thicknesses, BIA, and UWW were measured from five technicians(beginner level) under the guidance of a trained technician. Several validated equations appropriated to race, gender, and age were used to estimate % body fat from SKF method. The prediction equations for estimating % body fat using circumference method were developed considering only gender and age. The % body fat from BIA was calculated with the value of free fatty acids(FFA) estimated from the preset equation for the device. The data were analyzed by using oneway ANOVA to examine the difference in the % body fat results measured from four different methods, and Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis were measured to assess the validity and accuracy for three body composition measurements. Statistical significant was set at P < 0.05. The results showed that the % body fat values measured by four different measurements were statistically similar. However, there were differences in the accuracy for estimating % body fat among different measurements, and it was found that the SKF method was the most accurate method, and the circumference method was the lowest method for predicting % body fat. In conclusion, these results suggested that the estimation of body composition from the circumference and SKF method, and BIA can be estimated relatively accurately, even if measured by an untrained technician when following prescribed measurement methods and procedures. Our data also suggested that the populationspecific equations appropriate to subject should be used to estimate body composition because they will probably predict more accurate estimates.
    Keyword:Kinesiology, Obesity, Anthropometry, Body Mass Index, Body Composition
  • ‘Myopia’, ‘obesity’, ‘decline in physical fitness’ and other sub-health phenomena have always been an urgent problem for Chinese college students to improve the quality of their education and all-round development. To comprehensively improve the physical and mental health of college student’s education, the Chinese government has issued many policies urging college students to actively participate in sports activities. After the release of a series of policies, a large number of college students left their dorms to spend more time doing sports activities. As a result, their physical fitness improved, and the sub-health phenomenon was alleviated. However, with the frequent occurrence of sports injury accidents, many college students are afraid to participate in sports activities, and many parents are also afraid of sports activities. As managers of college students and organizers of sports activities, Chinese colleges also face multiple pressures from the society, parents and students. Some colleges have prohibited the holding of dangerous sports activities and heavily restrict students’ participation in sports activities. The role of improving students’ physical and mental health through sports has also been gradually weakened. A new, important topic in China is ensuring the normal development of college sports activities and the continuous improvement of college students’ physical and mental health and the effective and reasonable solution to reduce the harm caused by sports injury accidents. Accordingly, this paper identifies the current safety of college students’ physical activity in China. It explores the reasons for the safety of their physical activity and puts forward appropriate protective strategies. This paper found that sports injury accidents occur in colleges and universities in different regions with different degrees of injury. The reasons are student, school and environmental factors. Based on the main reasons for the occurrence of accidents, the following suggestions are put forward: 1. The protection strategy of student safety: College students should pay attention to individual behavior and enhance their awareness of protection when participating in sports activities. 2. The protection strategy of college security: Colleges should conduct duplicate protection before and after the occurrence of injury accidents and regularly publicize sports safety knowledge, so students understand the causes of injury accidents. It should also improve the maintenance and management system of sports venues and facilities to reduce the number of injuries caused by accidents. Also, it should increase the medical investment and introduce an insurance system. 3. The protection strategy of social and environmental safety: it is hoped that the Chinese government will continue to issue policies that lead to the establishment of a security system for college students’ sports activities. It is also hoped that the Chinese government and all sectors of society will increase investment in college sports to ensure the maintenance and renewal of college sports venues and facilities.
    Keyword:Sports Activities, Safety Control, Safety Prevention, Prevention Strategy, Risk Management
  • Although the inflammatory response is vital for biological regulation, chronic inflammation damages the human body. Presently available anti-inflammatory drugs, including steroids, have side effects that prevent their administration to athletes. This study aimed at elucidating a method to control exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, by investigating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of extracts of Albizia julibrissin fermented with kefir yogurt(FKA) in vitro. We investigated the effect of FKA on RAW 264.7 cells using cell viability assays. The regulatory effect of FKA in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced nitric oxide(NO) production was determined using Griess reagent and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assays, with specific primers such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and cyclooxygenase- 2(COX-2) in vivo. Furthermore, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and the cellular morphology changes were observed using florescence microscopy. The results showed that FKA significantly reduced LPS–induced NO production by regulating the expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and COX2; thus, FKA exerts cytoprotective effects against ROS-induced cell death. These data suggest the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of FKA.
    Keyword:Albizia Julibrissin, Kefir, Anti-Inflammation, IL-1β, iNOS