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  • Leadership is very important in sport. Leadership as provided by the coach plays a very significant role in the lives of athletes and in the athlete’s sport experience. However, the means by which a coach demonstrates leadership behaviors may vary from coach to coach. Coaches at different levels of competition may be expected to interact with athletes differently due to the different levels of athletic ability and possibly the greater pressure to win for employment security. Coaching attitudes and actions may also differ based on their leadership ability and style. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ) is a test that looks for the leadership ability and it is one that is accepted by a variety of organization such as sport teams, companies, and even militaries. The MLQ is a test that is widely used today, but just because it is used a great deal of the time, does not mean there are no flaws. The test is not perfect. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and to give some solutions for the test. In this study, the purpose and critiques of MLQ-5X were explored through literature review, and the evaluation and critique of MLQ-5X's practical and technical issues to solve problems that MLQ-5X has. In the practical point, a cover sheet should be attached to each questionnaire by clarifying the nature of the study and the responsibility of each of the parties. Guarantying anonymity of all participants is important factor that would affect the result of study. Researchers should also provide the contact details to safeguard participants form harm caused by any issues that may have arisen due to the research. The MLQ-5X looks at transformational, transactional and non-leadership behaviors and evaluates each of these with various criteria. In read-ing the test results, each question is carefully evaluated. Some of the questions are very specific and require the test taker to choose from ambiguous answers such as "sometimes," "fairly often," etc. Many of the questions address various habits and behaviors as well as thinking processes. For the technical issues, the MLQ-5X test has some strengths and weaknesses in respect to its potential practical application, design and validity. Because of excellent validity and reliability, the MLQ-5X has been used comprehensively worldwide. However, since the MLQ-5X has not been used many times in the sport organization studies, an internal reliability can be issued in the field of sport. The MLQ-5X has some merit because it has been evaluated and used successfully all over the world. Controls have been implemented and to a great extent the numbered questions have validity. Thus, discrepancies will likely be scant, and while the test is a good one in general, it is also likely that some people will fall through the cracks. Therefore, the text should always be used in conjunction with an interview as well as alternative evaluating methods. While the transactional leadership factors have been discussed in the leadership literature for at least fifty years, little attention in the aggregate had been paid to assessing the transformational components, at least up until the last 20 years. Results of the current report potentially offer a more comprehensive survey tool for measuring leadership styles, now it can be refined and improved upon in subsequent research.
    Keyword:Sport Leadership, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, MLQ-5X
  • This study aims to investigate the status of exposure to folk gambling in the families during adolescence for the lawful and unlawful participants of Sports Toto in Korea, present issues of household gambling, clarify the impact on the lawful and unlawful Sports Toto purchases made after reaching adulthood at the same time, analyzes the differences in the efficiency for measures to eradicate the unlawful sports gambling as well as the perception towards Sports Toto, and derive substantive measures to facilitate the lawful purchases of Sports Toto and eradicate unlawful sports gambling. The subjects of this study are the average people who have experienced buying lawful and illegal Sports Toto in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do area, which are the leading cities with relatively developed recreational activities and living standards from June through September 2018. The characteristics of the subjects were analyzed by analyzing 750 valid samples out of the total of 1,000 questionnaires collected from 200 people experienced in illegal sports gambling who were additionally selected through 800 on site participants of stores and investigators and the researchers’ acquaintances. Thus, the results of this study are as follows. First, the rate of respondents who witnessed gambling activities within their parents' households during their adolescence turned out to be high, and Go Stop and poker games were the folk gambling favored most by the parents. Second, 62.1% of the respondents were illegal sports gamblers, 62.4% of which turned out to favor participating in illegal sports gambling. Third, it turned to have a significant impact on the pre-adulthood folk gambling participation following the exposure to folk gambling activities and frequency within the parents’ households during adolescence. Fourth, it turned out to have a significant impact on the lawful and unlawful Sports Toto purchases following the pre-adulthood folk gambling participation as well as the exposure to folk gambling of the parents within the household during adolescence. Fifth, it was found to have a significant impact on the monetary games favored oneself currently as well as the folk gambling favored by the parents during adolescence. Sixth, there was a significant difference in the perception of Sports Toto among the lawful and unlawful participants.
    Keyword:Sports Toto, Folk Gambling, Household Gambling, Money Game, And Illegal Sports Gambling
  • We examined the effect of a 4-week vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplementation on the muscle recovery and muscular function induced by acute eccentric exercise. Twenty-nine subjects were volunteered for this study, and they were randomly assigned to either vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplementation group(n=14) or placebo group(n=15). Body composition was measured prior to testing. The vitamin B group was given two tablets of vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplement per day from 4 weeks before eccentric exercise until 72 hours after eccentric exercise, whereas the control group was given two placebo tablets. All subjects performed eccentric exercise using Biodex isokinetic machine after treatment period. They performed a total of 4 sets of eccentric exercise with 12 repetitions per set using their non-dominant arm. Blood samples were taken at pre-exercise, immediately after exercise, and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hour post-exercise. Maximum isometric force(MIF) and range of motion(ROM) were obtained before and immediately after exercise and at 2, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hour post-exercise. Independent t-tests were conducted to analyze differences between groups in physical characteristics and total amount of work of eccentric exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) concentration, MIF, and ROM were analyzed using 2-way repeated measure ANOVA. A main effect for test session and group effect were significant in LDH concentration(p<.05). A main effect for test session for MIF(p<.05) and ROM(p<.05) was significant. In both groups, LDH concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise and at 48, and 72 hour post-exercise compared to pre-exercise(p<.05). LDH concentration of vitamin B group was significantly higher than control group, independent of test session(p<.05). MIF and ROM significantly decreased from immediately after exercise to 48 hours after exercise, and 72 hours post-exercise, respectively, in both groups compared to pre-exercise(p<.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that at least 4-week supplementation of vitamin B6·B9·B12 may not have a positive effect on the recovery of muscle damage and function induced by eccentric exercise.
    Keyword:Sport, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Maximal Isometric Force, Range of Motion, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional exercise program for 6 weeks(three times a week, 60 minutes / session) on eight elite Taekwondo players. The data were processed using SPSS/PC 18.0 program and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. The effect of functional exercise program was applied to the paired sample t-test. Results, Body composition items were weight(p <.001), BMI(p <.001), In addition, functional exercise program effect was Back strength(P <.01), sit-up(p <.01), repeated jump(p <.01) and side step(p <.01) were found to be effective in basic physical fitness items. In addition, there was statistically significant difference(p <.05) in all the measurement items as a result of Wingate test, an anaerobic exercise ability item before and after applying the functional exercise program. The maximal graded exercise test using treadmill showed a significant improvement(p <.05) in maximum oxygen uptake(VO2max), exercise duration, and blood lactate concentration. Results of this study, the functional exercise program used in this study is proposed as an appropriate program to improve the fitness factors required for Taekwondo training
    Keyword:Functional Exercise Program, Wingate Test, Maximum Oxygen Uptake, Blood Lactate Concentration, Body Mass Index