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  • This study was to investigate the effects of Naegong-Chesool exercise on physical fitness and bal-ance abilities in male elderly. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group (n=20) and Control group(n=20). The Naegong-Chesool exercise program for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significantly increased in muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility and agility. Second, there were significantly increased in UP, Down, Left, Right Balance abilities. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the Naegong-Chesool exercise could improve the physical fitness and balance ability of male elderly.
    Keyword:Sport, Naegong-Chesool, Physical Fitness, Balance Abilities, Male Elderly
  • In the present day, the significance of sports has been emphasized as an effective mediator for the international development cooperation such as by being used for economic and social development of developing countries. The United Nations has designated 2005 as a year for sports and athletics and has also adopted a resolution such that sports are an important means of promoting health, education, development and peace, while stress-ing such a positive role for economic development and social development. In this vein, advanced contributors such as Australia and Canada are participating in the international development cooperation utilizing sports, while international sports organizations including the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as well as sports organizations such as organizations for each event are participating in international development and carrying out activities through sports. As such, even as the significance of sports is stressed for the international development, related studies are conducted such as the international development and cooperation through sports and sports ODA, yet the studies conducted with sports as an effective tool of the international development cooperation intended for strategic plan and system development have been minimal. Accordingly, in this study, the concept and significance of international development cooperation through sports are examined, and recent trends and cases of international development cooperation through sports are analyzed to present strategic alternatives for related projects. Strategic implementation plans for international development cooperation through sports include, first, the establishment of global governance among the related organizations, second, the participation of companies to secure stable financial resources, and, third, the utilization of sports stars to help publicize related programs, respectively.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports International Development, Sports ODA, International Development Cooperation through Sports, Development through Sport
  • The ancient Olympic games, which were held every four years as now for a millenium from 776 BC until 395 AD, were a forum of competition for the mankind to mutually compete and enjoy in a variety of ways. Such Olympic games are a unique connection between the ancient and the modern times. The modern Olympic games were held for the first time in Athens, Greece, in 1896 and the 32nd Tokyo Olympic Games will be held in 2020. After Japan experienced the great earthquake in 1923 and lost the second World War, Tokyo was the first to attract the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 in Asia, where 19 games were held, with 94 countries and 6,318 athletes participated, thereby becoming an opportunity to inform the world about the high speed growth and strength of the post war Japan. In particular, Japan, which has grown into an economic powerhouse and which is standing in the center of the international political arena, has endeavored to make the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as the ones attracting greater attention from the world than any other host country in history. Among such endeavors, Japan intended to raise its stature as the host country of the larger and successful games by adding games. Of the games, Karate was a traditional Japanese martial art, which was first introduced from Okinawa to the main islands of Japan in 1917. Thereafter, in 1922, as the Ministry of Education hosted an ancient martial art exhibition in which Karate participated, and as Keio University and Waseda University founded Karate departments, Karate developed into a martial art culture of Japan. Thereafter, Karate has become globalized by the spectacular performance and leadership of Oyama Masters, in which process the Japanese society escaped from the ruins of the war and achieved prosperity and success drawing attention from the world. Furthermore, the spirit of martial art through Karate has brought the Japanese people together, and Karate became the spirit of the Japanese people. For these reasons, Japan has wanted Karate to become an official game for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. While 26 games were held at the 30th London Olympic Games in 2012 and 28 official games were held at the 31st Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games in 2016, including golf and rugby, but Japan has successfully enabled adopting Karate as an official Olympic game, and by including surfing, skateboarding, sports climbing, baseball and soft-ball, the number of official games grew to 33 in total. The modern Olympic games are also used to strengthen national interests, international status, and pride of the nation rather than promoting the understanding of international peace and harmony of mankind. In particular, Karate had faced difficulties in being adopted as a formal game since it was a similar game to Taekwondo of Korea, but since Japan was able to decide on which games to add through the “Olympic Agenda 2020,” the Tokyo Olympic Games Organizing Committee nominated additional candidates of official games for pentathlon to the IOC in September 2013 and acquired approval of the executive committee for the finalization at the general assembly. Accordingly, this study will examine the process of changes for the Olympic games and what process the Japanese Karate underwent to be adopted for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as an official game. In particular, it will be helpful to understand what impact it will have on the martial art sport after the Tokyo Olympic Games and the flow of sports diplomacy as Karate is adopted as an official Olympic game representing the Japanese martial arts.
    Keyword:Olympic Games, Karate, History, Sports Games, Taekwondo
  • Gongjin-Dan is a traditional oriental medicine herbal drug that has been used tonics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the hot water extract of Gongjin-Dan mixed garlic(GGD) against scopolamine-induced memory impairment and its mechanism of action. We used the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests to assess anti-amnesic activities in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mouse model. In this model, GGD(12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. We also explored its mechanism of action by conducting an antioxidant activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free and acetylcholineserase(AChE) activity assay us-ing the mouse whole brain. GGD increased the scavenging activities of free radical DPPH and ABTS, inhibited AChE activity in the brain. Taken together, our findings suggest that GGD exerts an anti-amnesic effect through the free radical scavenging, AChE inhibition, ameliorate of scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The effect of GGD may be useful for treatment of memory impairment in Alzheimer’s and its related diseases.
    Keyword:Sport, Garlic Gongjin-Dan, Scopolamine, Memory Impairment, Alzheimer’s Diseases