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A Study on the Emotional Labor Environment and Quality of Life of Sports Instructors at Elementary Schools

Vol.7 (No.1) 2022
Author
admin
Date
2022-03-30 11:54
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71

Abstract


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the emotional labor environment of sports instructors at elementary schools in Jeonbuk and the quality of life of them to figure out the difficulties faced by the sports instructors in the field in order to present improvement plans.

Method: Specifically, the following results were derived from conducting in-depth interviews with sports instructors of Jeonbuk by using a semi-structured questionnaire from November 2020 until December 2020 as the purposeful sampling method.

Results: First, most of the elementary school sports instructors were temporary workers for the term of less than one year, and they complained of serious emotional labor in their discussion with school officials and consumers in the processes of contract renewal, opening classes for additional sports activities such as after school classes, and notification of contract renewal. Second, the sports instructor hiring method dependent to the discretion of school officials and the form of employment with a period of employment shorter than one year were leading to the lack of expertise in physical education of sport instructors and the necessity for sport instructors to have a sideline for livelihood. Third, although the role of sports instructor is assisting home room teachers in physical education classes, the roles and work of sports instructors were not clearly identified, and sports instructor were leading actual physical education activities. Fourth, although sports instructors had the status of instructors, they were performing the work of teachers, but there was no study space (desk, computer, chair, etc.), locker room, or resting space for sports instructors and sports instructors were seriously discriminated in terms of welfare.

Conclusion: In particular, during physical education classes at nearby schools to which they were dispatched once or twice a week, sports instructors were taking a rest in their private car between classes.

Keyword:Elementary Schools, Emotional Labor, Work Environment, Quality of Life, Sports Instructors
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present the direction for not only hosting sports events but also managing them by examining and understanding the influence of the sense of creation via watching sports events on the social adaptation and the feeling of happiness. Method: In this study, convenience sampling was used for the sampling method for 260 people who experienced watching sports events in 2021, and the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method. Among the collected questionnaires, 249 questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the contents of the survey. The frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and the structural equation model using the statistical package program SPSS 23.0 Program and AMOS 18.0, were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis performed across all measurement items, it was confirmed that the model fit criteria were satisfied, and it turned out that there was no problem with concentrated validity. There was no multi-collinearity problem in the correlation between the variables, and it turned out that all fit indices were satisfied in the model fit of the study. The standardized coefficient value for the effect of sense of creation via watching sports events on social adaptation turned out to be .289, which turned out to have a significant effect at a significance level of .001, and the standardized coefficient value for the effect of the sense of creation via watching sports events on the feeling of happiness turned out to be .312 with a significant effect at the significance level of .001. The standardized coefficient value for the effect of social adaptation on the feeling of happiness turned out to be .326, which demonstrated a significant effect at the significance level of .001. Conclusion: The conclusions reached by undergoing the research process demonstrate the fact that the sense of creation via watching sports events influences the social adaptation and feeling of happiness, and expectations about the economic, temporal, and social costs of spectators via watching sports events, and the participation of excellent players, efforts to improve performance, and provision of various convenience facilities are needed to ensure that they can feel satisfaction.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports Events, Sense of Creation, Social Adaptation, Feeling of Happiness
  • Purpose: This study was to identify and to recognize the critical moment of NBA official data using sport analytics techniques. Previous studies have already had the research area on the basketball that the sport science was to be applied into enhancing of performance in the practice. The official data was recently considered in many researchers that the official data has been gathered by scientific methods such as advanced technologies. Current trend of performance analysis of sport intends to extent the data range that the official data could be gathered from the official website and it would be a massive dataset. Method: The sport analytics techniques using big data analysis were utilized that the NBA official data from 2015-2016 to 2020-2021 seasons contained more than 3,040,000 events. The Python scripts to gather the NBA official data were utilized and the gathered data as csv format. All analysis of data was executed within R studio with R programming that the changes of numbers of events between seasons and successful rate of each events were compared in this study. Statistically, the frequency analysis was used for the determination of data. Results: This study was to recognize the critical moment among the NBA official data that there were two findings mainly. First of all, frequencies of events on 2-pt jump shots have been decreasing and frequencies of events on 3-pt jump shots have been increasing between season. Particularly, the short-distance shots such as 2-pt tip-in, 2-pt layup, 2-pt jump shots were more presented in each season than the long-distance shots. Secondly, the successful rate of shots and outcomes between season have not been differently presented. Conclusion: Consequently, this study has found the displacement of critical changes within the official NBA data that it could indicate the originality of basketball match rather than characteristics of playing. It is also important that the playing trend would be differently observed when the skill or players’ style was able to be considered. Further research is also required that the critical point of recording change on the sequencies of time line would need to be concerned.
    Keyword:Basketball, Statistics, Sport Analytics, Frequency Analysis, Playing Trend in Basketball
  • Purpose: Soccer, as the most representative team sport, is an event that shows the best performance by forming organizational and cohesiveness within the team through interactions between leaders and players and players and players. Also, soccer players feel various psychological changes and experience stress, which is a negative emotional or psychological state in various situations such as maladaptation to the environment, defeat, and immaturity in performance. Athlete Stress, exercise flow and exercise exhaustion of college football players are highly correlated with each other, and it is necessary to understand the relationship between various variables to effectively cope with stress for players to improve their performance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the structural relationship between stress, exercise flow, and exercise exhaustion of college football players. Method: In this study, a questionnaire was conducted through convenience sampling among 250 college soccer players belonging to the University Soccer Federation, and among them, 215 copies of the questionnaire were analyzed according to the purpose of the study, excluding 35 copies of the questionnaires that were answered insincerely. To achieve the purpose of this study, frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability verification, and correlation analysis were performed using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 21.0, and the structural equation model was verified. Results: The mean of each variable was 2.524 to 4.516, and the standard deviation was .613 to 1.464. As a result of examining the kurtosis and skewness values for normality verification, the skewness was .903 to .384, and the kurtosis was from .975 to -.026. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, χ²=99.092(df=41, p<.001, Q=2.417), TLI=903, CFI=.928, RMSEA=.081, and the standardization coefficient were .627-939. appear. Exercise stress was found to have a negative effect on exercise commitment. Exercise stress was found to have a positive effect on exercise exhaustion. Exercise commitment was found to have a negative effect on exercise exhaustion. Conclusion: Based on the results, the necessity of developing a stress management program to improve the performance of college football players and applying it to the current situation was suggested. The necessity of developing a stress management program to improve the performance of college football players and Stress has a negative effect on exercise flow, which means that systematic stress management is required for athletes. Second, stress is a variable that directly affects exercise exhaustion. Finally, exercise flow helps to lower exercise exhaustion. As a suggestion based on this research results, it is necessary to efficiently manage the stress of soccer players by exploring the stress factors of elementary, middle, and high school soccer players. Second, it is necessary to develop a program that can efficiently manage stress for college football players and analyze the effect by applying it to the field. Lastly, since the psychological state of the coaches directly affects the players, it is necessary to efficiently manage the stress of the coaches through research on the stress factors of the coaches as well as the players.
    Keyword:Stress, Exercise Flow, Exercise Exhaustion, Performance, Soccer
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the emotional labor environment of sports instructors at elementary schools in Jeonbuk and the quality of life of them to figure out the difficulties faced by the sports instructors in the field in order to present improvement plans. Method: Specifically, the following results were derived from conducting in-depth interviews with sports instructors of Jeonbuk by using a semi-structured questionnaire from November 2020 until December 2020 as the purposeful sampling method. Results: First, most of the elementary school sports instructors were temporary workers for the term of less than one year, and they complained of serious emotional labor in their discussion with school officials and consumers in the processes of contract renewal, opening classes for additional sports activities such as after school classes, and notification of contract renewal. Second, the sports instructor hiring method dependent to the discretion of school officials and the form of employment with a period of employment shorter than one year were leading to the lack of expertise in physical education of sport instructors and the necessity for sport instructors to have a sideline for livelihood. Third, although the role of sports instructor is assisting home room teachers in physical education classes, the roles and work of sports instructors were not clearly identified, and sports instructor were leading actual physical education activities. Fourth, although sports instructors had the status of instructors, they were performing the work of teachers, but there was no study space (desk, computer, chair, etc.), locker room, or resting space for sports instructors and sports instructors were seriously discriminated in terms of welfare. Conclusion: In particular, during physical education classes at nearby schools to which they were dispatched once or twice a week, sports instructors were taking a rest in their private car between classes.
    Keyword:Elementary Schools, Emotional Labor, Work Environment, Quality of Life, Sports Instructors
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the flexibility of high school baseball players’ LBP Group and bilateral lower extremity muscles. Method: This study conducted a questionnaire survey and measurement of muscle flexibility targeting 23 high school baseball players in Korea. The questionnaire consisted of 7 items on basic information and 4 items on past and present back pain, and muscle flexibility measurement (Tomas test, Hip extension, HBD, SLR, Trunk rotation) tests were conducted. As for the data processing of this study, the mean and standard deviation of all questions were calculated by using the SPSS 26.0 package. The two-way ANOVA was performed to examine the effect of each measurement according to the LBP Group (LBP; presence or absence) × both sides (dominant, non-dominant), and if an interaction was found, the post hoc test was conducted. The independent sample t-test and paired t-test were performed for the post hoc verification. The statistical significance level was based on p<.05. Results: As a result of the Thomas test conducted for the LBP Group and both sides of the lower extremity muscle flexibility, the both sides of the main effect turned out to be significant [F(1,21)=4.905, p<.05]. In the case of the hip extension, the main effect of both sides turned out to be significant [F(1,21)=6.768, p<.05], and the main effect of the LBP Group also turned out to be significant [F[(1,21)=5.065, p<.05]. Furthermore, in the case of the SLR, the main effect of the LBP Group turned out to be significant [F(1,21)=5.395, p<.05]. Conclusion: Gathering the results above, as a cause of the LBP among the high school baseball players, there is a possibility that a decrease in flexibility due to hip flexion and extensor tension may be induced, and hence, the possibility of inducing LBP was confirmed due to the excessive use of the back muscles of the accelerator during the pitching and hitting sections. In the future studies, it is necessary to develop and apply the programs which can prevent and rehabilitate the LBP.
    Keyword:High School Baseball Player, LBP, ROM, Lower Extremity Muscle Flexibility, Dominant and Non-Dominant
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to structurally examine and understand how the acceptance of nuclear power generation occurs via the sports cultural marketing activities for enhancing corporate image. Method: In this study, a quantitative study via a questionnaire was conducted for men and women aged 20 years or older residing in area K. In a survey conducted for 500 residents in the nuclear power plant area, a sample of 456 (91.2%) people was extracted, and the results of the survey were analyzed by using the PASW18.0 and the AMOS 18.0 statistical programs, while the hypothesis was tested at the level of statistical significance at p<.05. Results: As a result of the correlation analysis performed, the relationship between the constructs turned out to be a positive (+) correlation, and hence, the direction of the relationship between the variables presented by the research model and the research hypothesis was consistent, while the significance level also satisfied p<.05. As a result of the fit of assessment performed for the research model, IFI=.979, FMIN=.229, NFI=.973, RMSEA=.076, TLI=.986, and CFI=.979 were demonstrated. The overall fit index demonstrated in the research model was χ2(41)=104.032, p<.000. Hypothesis 1 was dismissed as the relationship between the sports cultural marketing and the acceptance of nuclear power generation of Hypothesis 1 (Estimate=.005, C.R.=.080) had no significant effect at the level of significance p<.05. Furthermore, the relationship between the sports cultural marketing and the corporate image of Hypothesis 2 (Estimate=.652, C.R.=14.299) turned out to have a significant influence at the level of significance p<.001, and hence, Hypothesis 2 was adopted. Hypothesis 3 was adopted since the relationship between the corporate image and the acceptance of nuclear power generation (Estimate=.541, C.R.=8.865) of Hypothesis 3 turned out to have a significant effect at the level of significance p<.001. Conclusion: Gathering the results above, first, the KHNP's sports cultural marketing activities did not directly influence the acceptance of nuclear power generation as a matter of causal variable. Second, the KHNP's sports cultural marketing ought to be utilized as a means for increasing the acceptance of nuclear power generation by local residents through the zero high corporate image while acting as a major activity to enhance the corporate image. Accordingly, it is evident that the sentiment induced by the KHNP's sports cultural marketing activities will operate as an important tool in shaping the general local residents' reaction towards the KHNP.
    Keyword:Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation, Sports Cultural Marketing, Corporate Image, Social Contribution, Policy Acceptability
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the differences in adult disease related indicators according to the presence or absence of obesity for a healthy life and prevention of the adult diseases for the middle aged women. Method: In this study, the raw data of the 8th 1st year of the 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2019) was downloaded and reprocessed for use according to the purpose of study. A total of 8110 males and females participated in the 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, of which 4381 females were extracted. From the data of 4381 women, 658 people in their 40s (ages 40-49) were extracted, of which 598 people were selected as the study subjects, excluding 26 underweight and 34 missing people. For the statistical processing, the mean and standard deviation of all questions were calculated by using SPSS 27.0 package. In order to compare the differences among the adult disease related indicators for the women according to obesity, t-test was conducted to compare the differences for each measurement question according to the presence or absence of obesity. The statistical significance level was based on p<.05, respectively. Results: In terms of the differences in the blood lipids related variables according to obesity, TC, TG, and LDL-C turned out to be significantly higher in the obese group than in the normal group (TC; p<.01, TC; p<0.001, LDLC; p<0.5). and HDL-C turned out to be significantly (p<.001) higher in the normal group than in the obese group. In terms of the hypertension related variables, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures turned out to be significantly higher in the obese group than in the normal group (systolic: p<.001, diastolic: p<.01), respectively. The diabetes related variables turned out to be significantly (p<.001) higher in the obese group than in the normal group in fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin concentration, respectively. Conclusion: Gathering the results above, it was evident that obesity among women in their 40s are more likely to contract adult diseases such as blood lipids, high blood pressure, and diabetes. In the future studies, it is considered that additional analysis of age, gender and related variables are necessary.
    Keyword:Obesity Women, Adult Disease, Blood Lipids, Subjective Recognition of Body Type, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  • Purpose: In this study, the number of students enrolled in the practical classes is decreasing as the academic year increases due to the reduction of required courses and the expansion of major electives in order to give students voluntary class options unlike in the past for Taekwondo students. Considering that as a result, physical strength and practical skills may decrease, this study intends to compare and analyze the differences by grade level by measuring the physique and physical strength of students enrolled in the Department of Taekwondo. In addition, the results of this study are intended to be used as basic data for organizing and reorganizing the curriculum by grade level. Method: The subjects of this study were Taekwondo majors enrolled at K University in D city, 27 first graders, 26 second graders, and 26 third graders (total 79), and the characteristics of body composition and physical fitness factors were compared and analyzed. Results: As a result of body composition measurement, body fat percentage and body mass index were statistically significantly higher in second grade than in first grade. As a result of measuring the physical fitness factors, it was found that the first graders were statistically significantly higher than the third graders in the Harvard Step test, which is an evaluation item for cardiorespiratory endurance. The sound reaction time was found to be statistically significantly faster in the first year students than in the second year students. The stand-up long jump, which is a quickness evaluation item, was statistically significantly higher in first-year students than in third-year students. Conclusion: In conclusion, it is considered that the decrease in the frequency of use of the practical practice space and face-to-face classes in the university due to COVID-19 had a negative effect on the physical composition and development of physical fitness of Taekwondo students. Based on the results of this study, it is thought that it is necessary to seek ways to improve the physical strength and practical ability of Taekwondo students.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Physique, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Harvard Step Test
  • Purpose: In this study, we intend to investigate the condition of the face and body that we want to improve for customers who use manipulative therapy based on kinesiology in the beauty shop. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Body Image Recognition and its sub-factors on Appearance Management Behaviors in order to obtain basic data for vitalization of the beauty industry. Method: The subjects of this study were customers who use manipulative therapy based on kinesiology in the beauty shop, and to validate the research issue, 219 copies of online. Empirical statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 program, and chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, simple regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis methods were used. Results: The results of the analysis performed are as follows: First, the parts of the face that we want to improve by gender are as follows. Men wanted the wrinkles around the eyes to be improved, and women wanted the nasolabial folds to look younger(χ2=28.121, p<.001). As for the parts of the body that they want to be improved, they hoped for changes in the abdomen and waist at all age groups, and those in their 20s and 40s wanted the lower body and calves to be improved, and those in their 50s and older wanted beautiful improvements in the clavicle and back neck line(χ2 =22.033, p<.05). Second, women were perceived to be healthier than men(t=-2.961, p<.01), but their Self-body Image Recognition level was lower(t=3.247, p<.01). Third, Body Image Recognition was found to have a positive effect on Appearance Management Behavior(β=.381, p<.001). Specifically, it was found that the higher the level of Health Awareness(β=.207, p<.01) and Self-body Image Recognition(β=.193, p<.01), the higher the Appearance Management Behavior. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, as each gender and age group have different desires to improve with manual therapy, it is necessary to develop a differentiated program. And these results suggest that there is a high possibility that it has a positive effect on the appearance of customers and that various levels of management behavior lead to consumption of beauty and health services.
    Keyword:Manipulative Therapy, Appearance Management Behaviors, Body Image Recognition, Health Awareness, Self-Body Image Recognition
  • Purpose: With the national emphasis on the high-quality development of sports industry and the cultivation of new cultural formats and consumption patterns, sports consumption of college student has become a hot topic of academic attention, and a lot of research has been carried out. In order to fully understand the research status of sports consumption of college student in China, this study conducted scientific econometric statistics on related researches in the past 20 years, aiming to analyze the hot spots and trend evolution of sports consumption of college students. Method: In this paper, 487 valid samples were obtained by searching the literature related to college student sports consumption collected by CNKI from 2001 to 2021. CiteSpace was used to conduct visualized analysis, and through the collation of knowledge map, it revealed the hot spots and trend evolution of Chinese collegiate student sports consumption. Results: The results of descriptive statistical analysis from literatures for this study showed that the time distribution characteristics of Chinese collegiate student who consume sport products could be divided into four stages: 1)steady growth stage from 2001 to 2005, 2)rapid development stage from 2006 to 2008, 3)ups and downs stage from 2009 to 2014, and 4)slow decline stage from 2015 to 2021. These literatures were mainly studied by colleges and universities, involving physical education, pedagogy, economics. The research hotspots analysis showed that the main keywords of Chinese collegiate student sports consumption were sports consumption, college students, current situation, influencing factors, sports consumption behavior, college student sports consumption, female college students, consumption consciousness, sports consumption structure and motivation. The results of emerging trend analysis showed that the research on sports consumption of collegiate student in China could be divided into four development stages: it mainly involved the definition and interpretation of sports consumption of college students, the investigation of the current situation in different regions, the analysis of influencing factors and the proposal of consumption countermeasures from 2001 to 2008. The research from 2009 to 2014 mainly included sports consumption consciousness and sports consumption behavior. From 2015 to 2019, sports and fitness consumption and sports consumption motivation were mainly discussed. After 2019, due to the short period of time and the gradual maturity of research in this field, the research mainly focused on the comprehensive discussion of sports consumption of collegiate students. Conclusions: As the data used for this study were only collected from CNKI literature, there are limitations in obtaining data which were the previous literature. In addition, due to the strict limitation of keywords in the literature search process, it may lead to the omission of sport consumption contents of college student in other articles. Therefore, it is hoped that these problems can be properly solved in the future scientometrics researches.
    Keyword:Citespace, Scientometrics Research, Visual Analysis, Chinese Collegiate Students, Sports Consumption