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A Study on the Emotional Labor Environment and Quality of Life of Sports Instructors at Elementary Schools

Vol.7 (No.1) 2022
2022-03-30 11:54


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the emotional labor environment of sports instructors at elementary schools in Jeonbuk and the quality of life of them to figure out the difficulties faced by the sports instructors in the field in order to present improvement plans.

Method: Specifically, the following results were derived from conducting in-depth interviews with sports instructors of Jeonbuk by using a semi-structured questionnaire from November 2020 until December 2020 as the purposeful sampling method.

Results: First, most of the elementary school sports instructors were temporary workers for the term of less than one year, and they complained of serious emotional labor in their discussion with school officials and consumers in the processes of contract renewal, opening classes for additional sports activities such as after school classes, and notification of contract renewal. Second, the sports instructor hiring method dependent to the discretion of school officials and the form of employment with a period of employment shorter than one year were leading to the lack of expertise in physical education of sport instructors and the necessity for sport instructors to have a sideline for livelihood. Third, although the role of sports instructor is assisting home room teachers in physical education classes, the roles and work of sports instructors were not clearly identified, and sports instructor were leading actual physical education activities. Fourth, although sports instructors had the status of instructors, they were performing the work of teachers, but there was no study space (desk, computer, chair, etc.), locker room, or resting space for sports instructors and sports instructors were seriously discriminated in terms of welfare.

Conclusion: In particular, during physical education classes at nearby schools to which they were dispatched once or twice a week, sports instructors were taking a rest in their private car between classes.

Keyword:Elementary Schools, Emotional Labor, Work Environment, Quality of Life, Sports Instructors
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of home training(HT) and gym train-ing(GT) on body composition and basic physical fitness in female college students. Method: In this study, 39 female first-year physical education students enrolled in K University in D city were selected as the subjects of the home training group(HT, n=15), gym training group(GT, n=12), and control group(Con, n=12). The subjects were fully informed of the purpose of the study and gave their vol-untary consent to participate in the study. Body composition was measured by Weight, Body Mass Index, Percent Body Fat, Body Fat Mass, Lean Body Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass. Physical fitness was meas-ured by grip strength, sit-ups, vertical jump, sitting trunk flexion, and standing on one leg with eyes closed. The exercise program consisted of a warm-up, main exercises(upper body, core, and lower body), and a cool-down, with the core exercises being the same for both programs. Data processing for this study was performed using the SPSS 27.0 statistical program to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each measure, and a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to examine the effect of each item by group and time of measurement. If the interaction was significant, a paired samples t-test was performed, and a one-way analysis of variance was performed to analyze the difference in the mean of the dependent variable between groups at the same time point. Statistical significance was considered at p<.05 for all measures. Results: The main effects of body composition period were significant(p<.05) for body weight, LBM, and skeletal muscle mass, with no significant group interaction. Post hoc tests of the main effect of time revealed a significant main effect for body weight, but no significant post hoc differences from pre to post for any group. The main effects of physical fitness period were significant(p<.01) for the vertical jump, grip strength(left), grip strength(right), sit-ups, and standing on one leg with eyes closed, but the group interaction was not significant for all items. Post hoc tests of the main effect of time showed that the HT group significantly(p<.05) increased from pre to post in the standing vertical jump, grip strength(left) was signifi-cantly(p<.05) lower in the GT group from pre to post, and sit-ups were significantly(p<.01) higher in the HT group from pre to post. Conclusion: Gathering the results above, the home training group showed an increase in sit-ups and vertical jump in place from the pre- to post-training, it is possible to see some effectiveness of the training, but it is difficult to clear conclusions. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of home training.
    Keyword:Female College Students, Home Training, Gym Training, Body Composition, Physical Fitness
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the alterations in muscle fibers in Parkinson's dis-ease(PD). The following were our review questions. (1)How has research on type I myofiber grouping in PD developed over time? (2)What kinds of muscles are affected in which patients? (3)What are some possible pathophysiology and mechanisms? Does type I myofiber grouping in PD differ from primary sarcopenia that occurs with aging? (4)What are the clinical implications and possible therapeutic approaches for type I myofiber grouping in PD?. Method: To investigate the questions, we used combinations of keywords such as “Parkinson”, “skeletal muscle”, “myofiber type”, “fast twitch”, “slow twitch”, “myofiber grouping”, and “motor unit” in PubMed and Google Scholar. Articles on PD patients and normal elderlies that dealt with type I myofiber grouping and motor unit alterations were included. References in the included articles were also considered. Results: Research over the past five decades has identified various motor abnormalities and myofiber alterations in PD patients, including the hypertrophy of slow-twitch type I myofibers and atrophy of fast-twitch type II myofibers across different muscles. One important finding is that Type I myofiber grouping, which is common in aging, is more severe in PD, which could be due to the selective activation of low-threshold motor units and could be also linked to abnormal alpha-synuclein aggregation, a factor associ-ated with PD. Conclusion: Research suggests that type I myofiber grouping in muscles, not just dopaminergic cell damage in the substantia nigra, could influence motor symptoms of PD, indicating that alternative treat-ments beyond dopaminergic drugs, such as high-intensity exercise, might be beneficial. However, given the limitations in these studies, such as small participant numbers and the complexity of PD pathophysiology, future research is needed to fully understand the phenomena in different PD subtypes and to develop more effective treatments.
    Keyword:Parkinson’s Disease, Neurodegenerative Disease, Skeletal Muscle, Type I Myofiber Grouping, Scoping Review
  • Purpose: This study examined the effects of XCO-Trainer exercise on shoulder pain, dysfunction, range of motion, scapular position, and quality of life in women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. Method: This study was carried out on 37 breast cancer survivors. The participants were divided ran-domly into an XCO-Trainer exercise group(XBG=16) and a general breast cancer group(GBG=15). Outcomes, such as the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale(QVAS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index(SPADI), range of motion(ROM), Scapular Index(SI), and Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-Breast(FACT-B), were measured pre- and post- intervention for both groups. Results: A significant improvement in pain, functional disability level, range of motion, scapular position, and quality of life was observed in both groups(p<.01). Significant differences in pain, functional disability level, range of motion, scapular position, and quality of life post-test were observed between the two groups(p<.01). Conclusion: The XCO-Trainer exercise treatment has a positive effect on breast cancer patients.
    Keyword:Breast Cancer, FACT-B, QVAS, SI, XCO-Trainer
  • Purpose: Parkinson’s disease(PD), the fastest-growing neurodegenerative disease, is a movement disorder that manifests unilaterally. Clinical studies, neuroimaging studies, and longitudinal studies all indicate that the clinical features and progression of PD are asymmetric. The asymmetry of PD is thought to be an important clue in under-standing the disease's pathophysiology. The purpose of this study is to see how the concept of PD asymmetry evolved over time, to identify the different types of asymmetry that can be seen in PD, and to understand the clinical implications of the different types of asymmetry in PD. Method: The following were our review questions. (1)How has PD asymmetry research evolved over time? (2)What types of asymmetry can be seen in PD? (3)What are the clinical implications of the various types of asymmetry seen in PD? To investigate such questions, we used the keywords "Parkinson" and(“symmetry” or “asymmetry”) in PubMed. Articles about idiopathic Parkinson’s disease(iPD) patients with a clear concept of symmetry or asymmetry that were peer-reviewed and written in English were included. The type of article, participants, three main keywords, and the type of symmetry concepts in the study were extracted. We excluded studies that did not include patients with idiopathic PD or that did not have a clear concept of symmetry. Results: Based on a PubMed search, the number of published articles on iPD and symmetry gradually in-creased beginning in the 1980s. Of the 563 articles that were initially searched, 333 articles were related to both iPD and symmetry or asymmetry concepts. There were 171 articles on nervous system asymmetry, 133 on motor symptoms and gait asymmetry, 24 on disease presentation asymmetry, and 5 on anatomical or histological structures asymmetry. The majority(n = 70) of the 171 studies on nervous system asymmetry dealt with lateralization of brain function and the resulting asymmetries in motor symptoms and disease manifestations in iPD patients. Conclusion: Asymmetry in iPD patients has mainly been studied based on nervous system asymmetry, motor symptoms, and overall disease presentation. Other types of asymmetry, such as asymmetry in anatomical and histological structures, have been studied in some studies. Asymmetry in iPD is not only an inherent feature of the disease; it also appears to be related to the disease's various symptoms and signs. As a result, more research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of iPD and to provide iPD patients with a prognosis and advice for disease management.
    Keyword:Parkinson’s Disease, Neurodegenerative Disease, Motor Symptoms, Asymmetry, Scoping Review
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine and suggest development directions to revitalize the process of figure skating with disability in Korea. Method: In this study, literature analysis was conducted by investigating research data on figure skating for the people with disability in order to examine the process in Korea and suggest ways to revitalize it. In addition, data of sports organizations such as the Korea Paralympic committee and Special Olympics Korea were collected to find out the need for sports for the people with disability, the characteristics and value of skating, and to find ways to revitalize figure skating. Results: This study grasped the current status and collected and analyzed data to cope with the changing environment of sports for the people with disability and the changes occurring in the field of figure skating for the people with disability. The conclusions and suggestions are as follows. First, as a representative organization of winter sports for people with disability, figure skating can be included in the national winter competition for people with disability, which can play a role in the increase of the ice skating population with the Special Olympic Korea Committee. Second, various positive effects can be physically and mentally through the continuous participation of disabled people in figure skating, and balanced development should be established by establishing a linkage system from sports people with disability to professional sports for the purpose of improving and developing performance. When planning projects related to professional sports, sports for all, and school sports for people with disabilities, the purpose of establishing pleasant experiences, social skills, and health improvement through physical activities, and fostering professional athletes and developing performance. Third, there should be many stadiums where athletes can officially practice. Dongcheon Ice Rink was established for the first time for the people with disability, but it is regrettable that there are other cases where training for the people with disability on the ice rink is restricted for safety reasons. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, Skating events for the people with disability are divided into short track and figure skating, and are held annually at the National Winter Games for the people with disability and the Special Olympics Winter Games. As a result, it is considered meaningful to find various ways to revitalize figure skating for the people with disability so that they can induce more participation than before COVID-19. In the future, if we create an environment where people with disability can train freely, more figure skaters will be created. Finally, in the follow-up study, it is considered that there is a need for expanded research targeting experts in the special sports field, leaders by event, and participants.
    Keyword:Figure Skating, Special Olympic, People with Disability, Intellectual Disability, Ice Rink
  • Purpose: This study investigated the effect of transformational leadership of baseball leaders on sports confidence. Method: The population was selected from players participating in the tournament hosted by the Korea Base-ball Softball Association for about three months from May to August 2022, and a questionnaire was distributed and a total of 231 copies were used for the final analysis. For data processing methods, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiple, and simple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 21.0, and the following conclusions were drawn based on the results. Results: First, it was found that the charismatic factor of the transformational leadership of baseball leaders had a significant effect on sports confidence(proof of ability). Second, the intellectual stimulation and charisma factors of transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(social support). Third, the intellectual stimulation and charisma factors of transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(leadership). Fourth, the consideration factors of the transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(physical/mental factors). Conclusion: It was found that the transformational leadership of baseball coaches had a very significant effect on sports confidence(proof of ability, social support, leadership, physical/mental preparation). According to the results of this study, the leadership of a leader is very necessary in order to activate and expand the base of base-ball, and to maximize the potential of baseball players. Stimulation through transformational leadership will act as a major factor in improving performance for athletes, and it is judged that it will have a very significant effect on the intention to continue exercise.
    Keyword:Baseball, Sports Confidence, Transformational Leadership, Leadership, Sports
  • Purpose: This study analyzed and identified differences in perceived value, happiness, and revisit intention ac-cording to eSports game viewing for the disabled and non-disabled. Accordingly, it is meaningful to provide basic data for effectiveness and expansion of the base of eSports for the disabled as an eSports viewing market. Method: For about six months from January to June 2022, visitors to the competition organized by the Korea eSports Federation for the Disabled and the Korea eSports Association(Presidential Boat Amateur, D-war, Heungtaryeong eSports Competition) were selected, and a total of 384 copies were distributed for the final analysis. As for the data processing method, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, and t-test were per-formed. And the following conclusions were drawn. Results: First, the differences in perceived value, happiness, and revisit intention of eSports visitors according to gender were not statistically significant. Second, there was a statistically significant difference in perceived value and happiness factors according to the presence or absence of disabilities of eSports visitors, but there was no significant difference in revisit intention. Conclusion: Through the results of this study, the effectiveness of e-sports viewing was confirmed. In addition, it was confirmed that there was no difference in perceived beliefs and attitudes between the disabled and the non-disabled. Accordingly, e-sports research for the disabled should be continuously conducted.
    Keyword:eSports, Disabled, Non-Disabled, Happiness, Revisit Intention
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data that can help in the marketing strategy of professional sports clubs by analyzing the relationship between fan satisfaction and loyalty according to the value of services provided by professional sports clubs. Method: In this study, as of 2022, 290 fans of the four major domestic professional sports(professional base-ball, professional soccer, professional volleyball, and professional basketball) were surveyed. Convenience sampling was used as the sampling method. The survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 279 questionnaires were used as valid samples, except for data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the contents of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing is the SPSS 23.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were used. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification, service value, fan satisfaction, and loyalty were each classified as one factor. The reliability of the service value factor was α=.875, the reliability of the fan satisfaction factor was α=.886, and the loyalty factor. The reliability of α=.910 was found. Overall, it was found that the service value of professional sports clubs affects fan satisfaction and loyalty. Conclusion: In this study, service value affects fan satisfaction and loyalty, and professional sports clubs and teams need to provide high-quality services that can increase their liking in order to increase the purchase behavior intention of spectators or fans. In order to do this, it is necessary to accurately identify the attributes and expectations of service quality that are important to them through a satisfaction survey targeting visitors and fans and satisfy them. In addition, efforts to develop unique service quality in the sports industry will not only resolve the cognitive dissonance of trainees, but also affect the behavioral intentions of repurchase and positive word-of-mouth communication.
    Keyword:Professional Sports, Service Value, Fan, Satisfaction, Loyalty
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to live a healthy life and prevent geriatric diseases in Korean adult males. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in adult disease-related indicators according to age of Korean adult males over 19 years of age. Method: In this study, the raw data of the 7th 1st year of the 2016~2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES 2016~2018) was downloaded and reprocessed for use according to the purpose of study. A total of 8,106 males aged 19 years or older who participated in the 2016-2019 National Health and Nutrition Survey were selected and classified by age group as the study subjects. For statistical processing, the mean and standard deviation of all items were calculated using SPSS 27.0 Package. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare the differences in adult disease-related indicators by age group. The post-hoc test for the main effect was performed using the Tukey method. Statistical significance level was based on p<.05. Results: As a result of analyzing adult-specific indicators for Korean adult males, significant differences were found in TC, HDL-C, TG, and LDL-C in blood lipid-related variables according to age. There were significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertension-related variables according to age. For diabetes-related variables, there were significant(p<.001) differences in fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and glucose intake. In terms of muscle strength, there was a significant difference in both grip strength(left and right). There were significant(p<.001) differences in both health and body type perception according to age. Conclusion: As a result of analyzing each measurement variable according to age, TC, TG, and LDL-C were the highest among blood lipid variables in the 40s, and DBP was high in the hypertension variable. As for diabetes-related variables, FBS and HbA1c appeared higher with increasing age, and sugar intake increased with age. Combining these results, it was found that in each age group, those in their 40s were most at risk for adult dis-ease-related indicators, and it is considered that caution is needed even in those in their 30s.
    Keyword:Adult Disease, Blood Lipids, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the development of the diving industry by examining and understanding the educational satisfaction of students who are diving club members, and by examining the relevance to brand asset and the effect on intention to revisit. Method: A survey was conducted with 355 students through the significance sampling method among the students who received diving education. The final measurement tool with validity and reliability secured consisted of 11 diving educational satisfaction questions, 5 brand asset questions, and 4 intention to revisit questions was used. For the data processing, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results: As a result of this study, first, it turned out that lecture satisfaction and job related satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, affect awareness, which is a sub-factor of brand asset. Second, colleague satisfaction, a sub-factor of educational satisfaction, turned out to affect loyalty, a sub-factor of brand asset. Third, the job related satisfaction and colleague satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, turned out to have an effect on the intention to revisit. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it was confirmed that the educational satisfaction of diving students affects the brand asset and the intention to revisit. The instructors engaged in diving and those involved in the diving industry ought to keep in mind that the educational satisfaction of students during the diving education contributes to the development of the diving organization and further the development of the diving industry over the long term.
    Keyword:Leisure Sports, Diving, Educational Satisfaction, Brand Asset, Intention to Revisit