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Effect of High-School ATHLETIC Majors' Self-Leadership and Self-Efficacy on Exercise Adherence Intention

Vol.1 (No.1) 2016
2016-06-30 00:03


Korea rose to the status of sports powerhouse in the world arena as it ranked high place in 88 Seoul Olympic Games and has since remained as elite in sports within 10th place. Elite school sports policy has worked as an important foundation for Korea to have become a sports giant. Especially, Special Athletic Talent System which began as athletic talent education from 1971 has discovered talented student athletes in early age, developed their talents and help athletes to exercise them.
Especially, when excessive stress is placed on young athletes, they not only lose sense of satisfaction and interest but, in extreme cases, they also reach the stage of abandoning their future as athletes due to negative thinking.
Recently, with growing interest in social and psychological factors related to athletes' performance, various studies have reported their results. While interest in and concern for student athletes' exercise adherence intention has been rising, leaders raising them tend to be interested only in enhancing their performance while neglecting their duty to establish system to provide the athletes with psychological stability to continue their athletic career.
Preceding studies have found that, in order for students to consistently maintain athletic career path, self-leadership, which enhances confidence and performance by exercising influence on athletes themselves and help-ing them to achieve their goals, and self-efficacy, which enables the athletes to be aware of their high competency and expect corresponding behaviors and results, are vital. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship among high-school athletic majors' exercise adherence intention and their self-leadership and self-efficacy and, through this, provide basic material for studies to boost exercise adherence intention.
The subjects of this study were 410 students of athletic high school selected through convenience sampling. Students were led to respond to the questionnaires in self-administration method and answered questionnaires were collected on the spot. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. Validity and reliability of the measurement tools were verified through confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. In order to examine subjects' demographic characteristics, technical statistics were conducted and, in order to find out correlation among variables, correlation analysis was conducted. To verify goodness-of-fit of study model and causal relationship among variables, structural equation model was used.
In order to verify validity of test, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and for reliability analysis, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated. Excluding items with low SMC (Squared Multiple Correlations) for each factor, TLI value was .903~.927, CFI value was .909~.930 and RMSEA value was .067~.070, confirming the good-ness-of-fit of the model. As the result of reliability analysis, value of Cronbach’s α was .761~.826, securing reliability.

Keyword:Sport, Republic of Korea, Athletic, Self-Leadership, Exercise Adherence Intention
  • Purpose: In this study, we intend to investigate the condition of the face and body that we want to improve for customers who use manipulative therapy based on kinesiology in the beauty shop. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Body Image Recognition and its sub-factors on Appearance Management Behaviors in order to obtain basic data for vitalization of the beauty industry. Method: The subjects of this study were customers who use manipulative therapy based on kinesiology in the beauty shop, and to validate the research issue, 219 copies of online. Empirical statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 program, and chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, simple regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis methods were used. Results: The results of the analysis performed are as follows: First, the parts of the face that we want to improve by gender are as follows. Men wanted the wrinkles around the eyes to be improved, and women wanted the nasolabial folds to look younger(χ2=28.121, p<.001). As for the parts of the body that they want to be improved, they hoped for changes in the abdomen and waist at all age groups, and those in their 20s and 40s wanted the lower body and calves to be improved, and those in their 50s and older wanted beautiful improvements in the clavicle and back neck line(χ2 =22.033, p<.05). Second, women were perceived to be healthier than men(t=-2.961, p<.01), but their Self-body Image Recognition level was lower(t=3.247, p<.01). Third, Body Image Recognition was found to have a positive effect on Appearance Management Behavior(β=.381, p<.001). Specifically, it was found that the higher the level of Health Awareness(β=.207, p<.01) and Self-body Image Recognition(β=.193, p<.01), the higher the Appearance Management Behavior. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, as each gender and age group have different desires to improve with manual therapy, it is necessary to develop a differentiated program. And these results suggest that there is a high possibility that it has a positive effect on the appearance of customers and that various levels of management behavior lead to consumption of beauty and health services.
    Keyword:Manipulative Therapy, Appearance Management Behaviors, Body Image Recognition, Health Awareness, Self-Body Image Recognition
  • Purpose: With the national emphasis on the high-quality development of sports industry and the cultivation of new cultural formats and consumption patterns, sports consumption of college student has become a hot topic of academic attention, and a lot of research has been carried out. In order to fully understand the research status of sports consumption of college student in China, this study conducted scientific econometric statistics on related researches in the past 20 years, aiming to analyze the hot spots and trend evolution of sports consumption of college students. Method: In this paper, 487 valid samples were obtained by searching the literature related to college student sports consumption collected by CNKI from 2001 to 2021. CiteSpace was used to conduct visualized analysis, and through the collation of knowledge map, it revealed the hot spots and trend evolution of Chinese collegiate student sports consumption. Results: The results of descriptive statistical analysis from literatures for this study showed that the time distribution characteristics of Chinese collegiate student who consume sport products could be divided into four stages: 1)steady growth stage from 2001 to 2005, 2)rapid development stage from 2006 to 2008, 3)ups and downs stage from 2009 to 2014, and 4)slow decline stage from 2015 to 2021. These literatures were mainly studied by colleges and universities, involving physical education, pedagogy, economics. The research hotspots analysis showed that the main keywords of Chinese collegiate student sports consumption were sports consumption, college students, current situation, influencing factors, sports consumption behavior, college student sports consumption, female college students, consumption consciousness, sports consumption structure and motivation. The results of emerging trend analysis showed that the research on sports consumption of collegiate student in China could be divided into four development stages: it mainly involved the definition and interpretation of sports consumption of college students, the investigation of the current situation in different regions, the analysis of influencing factors and the proposal of consumption countermeasures from 2001 to 2008. The research from 2009 to 2014 mainly included sports consumption consciousness and sports consumption behavior. From 2015 to 2019, sports and fitness consumption and sports consumption motivation were mainly discussed. After 2019, due to the short period of time and the gradual maturity of research in this field, the research mainly focused on the comprehensive discussion of sports consumption of collegiate students. Conclusions: As the data used for this study were only collected from CNKI literature, there are limitations in obtaining data which were the previous literature. In addition, due to the strict limitation of keywords in the literature search process, it may lead to the omission of sport consumption contents of college student in other articles. Therefore, it is hoped that these problems can be properly solved in the future scientometrics researches.
    Keyword:Citespace, Scientometrics Research, Visual Analysis, Chinese Collegiate Students, Sports Consumption
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the fatty acid metabolism research by analyzing the expressions of body weight, blood components(TG, FFA, Glucose) and rat skeletal muscle’s LPL mRNA after 5 weeks of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids intake. Method: For this experiment, 30 rats were divided into the control group(CON), saturated fat intake group(BT) and the unsaturated fat intake group(SF) with 10 rats allocated each, and 2 rats each received a different diet inside the breeding cage. Their body weight was measured before meals and at the interval of 1 week, and after ingestion of each group's diet for 5 weeks, anesthetic was injected and slaughtered, and blood sampling was performed to analyze the blood components. Soleus muscles were extracted and were stored frozen, then analyzed using the Real Time PCR in order to analyze the expressions of the skeletal muscles LPL mRNA. For the statistical processing of the study, the mean and standard deviation of all items were calculated using the SPSS 18.00 Package, and the one-way repeated ANOVA was performed to examine and understand the changes in the blood components and LPL mRNA according to each group. The statistical significance level was set to p<.05. Results: After 5 weeks of the dietary intake, all groups demonstrated increases in their weight as the dietary intake period have elapsed. The differences in the TG concentration according to the dietary intake in blood components turned out to be significantly lower for the BT group(p<0.05) and the SF group(p<0.001) than for the CON group, and also for SF group compared to the BT group in terms of the TG concentration being significantly higher. There turned out to be no significant difference for the FFA concentration, and the difference in the glucose concentration turned out to be significantly higher for the SF group than for the BT group. As for the LPL mRNA expressions, there turned out to be no significant difference between the groups in terms of the difference in GAPDH mRNA expression according to the dietary intake, and the difference in the LPL mRNA expressions for the BT group(p<0.001) and the SF group(p <0.01), the LPL mRNA expression turned out to be significantly higher. Conclusion: As a result of gathering the study results, the unsaturated fat intake rather than the saturated fat intake brought about the effective improvement of the triglyceride concentration and the increases in the LPL mRNA expression when structuring the dietary intake for the prevention of adult diseases related to obesity and arteriosclerosis, it is thought that the lipolysis is facilitated.
    Keyword:Saturated Fat, Unsaturated Fat, High Fat Diet, Skeletal Muscle, Lipoprotein Lipase
  • Purpose: By examining the causal relationship of the e-sports club title sponsorship's brand asset on the customer’s attitude, loyalty, and intention of use, this study seeks to provide the basic data for the revitalization between corporate sponsors and the e-sports industry and their corporate marketing strategies. Method: In this study, SPSS 26.0, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed with a focus on a total of 481 copies of questionnaires. Results: First, it turned out the generations M through Z enjoy e-sports according to demographic characteristics, and as the female population is growing, a strategy to enhance the brand image of the companies targeting those in their 20s and 30s is necessary. Second, as a result of examining the effect on brand asset and customer's attitude, it has had a significant effect in the sequence of brand awareness and brand image. Third, as a result of examining the effect on brand assets and customer loyalty, it turned out in the sequence of brand image and brand awareness. Fourth, as a result of examining the effects on brand asset and the consumer’s intention of use, it turned out that brand image and brand awareness have had a significant effect in their sequence. Fifth, the company's customer's attitude turned out to have a significant effect on customer’s intention of use. Sixth, the company's customer's loyalty turned out to have a significant effect on the customer’s intention of use. Conclusion: Examining such results, the title sponsorship of e-sports club made by a company is a very effective cooperative activity since it can enhance all of the company's brand assets, customer's attitude, customer's loyalty, and consumer’s intention of use. It is hoped that there will be more such cooperative activities in the future to help promote the development of both the companies and e-sports of China.
    Keyword:E-Sports Club, Title Sponsorship, Brand Asset, Customer’s Loyalty, Intention of Use
  • Purpose: Weight training is a training method that can effectively increase muscle strength and anaerobic exercise capacity. The muscles of the lower extremities, which have been trained through lower body exercises, are a particularly important group of muscles for daily physical and sporting activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference squat loading of the lower extremity joints movement pattern between trained versus un-trained individuals. Method: A total of 20 physically healthy individuals 10 trained subjects(age: 28.71±2.41 yrs, height: 178.92± 4.25 cm, weight: 81.72±4.98 kg) and 10 un-trained subjects(age: 29.42±3.67 yrs, height: 176.62±3.8 cm, weight: 80.2±5.11 kg) participated in this study. The un-trained subjects who had not performed regular resistance exercise for at least the past 1 year, and had no experience performing squat movements were selected. The trained group was selected as subjects who had regularly performed resistance strength training for at least 3 years. The three-dimensional motion analysis system, force plate and an wireless electromyography system were synchronized and used for measurement. Results: The results of this study showed that there was difference between the trained group and the un-trained group and the trained group showed the pattern of knee varus and un-trained group showed the valgus angle(Knee valgus) displacement. Also, Statistically significant differences appeared in knee forward movement and the trained group(5cm) showed less than the un-trained group(11cm). In the case of MLSI(Medial-Lateral Stability Index), the untrained group showed a higher stability index than the trained group. It was found that the stability index of the trained and untrained groups increased as the body weight increased. Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various squat loads on lower extremity movement patterns and stability index during squat exercise between trained and untrained individuals. The subjects of the study were 10 trainees who regularly squat for 3 years and 10 non-trainers who practiced squats irregularly throughout their lives. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the untrained group had greater knee forward movement and a smaller hip flexion angle than the trained group. In the stability index, it was confirmed that the untrained group showed a higher stability index than the trained group. In future studies, it is considered necessary to study the improvement of squat motion in untrained individuals. It is important to check for changes in movement patterns after training.
    Keyword:Squat, Stability Index, Joint Movement, Knee Valgus, External Load
  • Purpose: This study is to analyze the judgment perception of the figure skating instructor, to secure trust between the judge and the director, and to provide basic data for the development plan of the figure skating event. The subject was a survey of 45 professional figure skating instructors registered as directors in the Korea Skating Federation. Method: This analysis of the perception of figure skating instructors' judgments based on gender was conducted using t-test. One-way ANOVA was carried out to identify the judge's perception according to the director's age, coaching period, coaching experience, and director level. Results: First, regarding gender, male directors were found to be more positively perceived than female directors, but the difference was not statistically significant. Second, regarding age, the scores of directors over 50 was the lowest. Third, regarding the guidance period, it was found that directors with more than 10 years of guidance received the most negative perception. Fourth, there was a statistically significant difference in the director's perception according to the coaching experience. There was a difference in the perception of fairness, reliability, and accuracy of the judge, which is a sub-factor, and the perception of judge decision was more negative for professional directors with experience in coaching national athletes than for directors with experience in coaching general sports. Fifth, there was a difference in the perception according to the level of the director. Especially the perception was the most negative for class 7-8 directors. Conclusion: As a result, it is considered that studies are needed to increase the objectivity of the judges in scoring, which depends on their subjective evaluation.
    Keyword:Figure Skating, Coaches, Judgment Recognition, Subjective Evaluation, Scoring Sports
  • Purpose: The core purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate the performance of Asian countries participating in the 2018 FIFA World Cup using social network analysis. Method: The subject of study included 5 Asian countries participated in the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, using pass data for each position based on official data provided by FIFA. The processed data are made into symmetric matrices and the research perform a centrality analysis using Ucinet6, a social network program. Results: The results of the study are as follows. First, when the pass success rate was more than 80%, the ball possession rate was more than 50%, and the actual ball possession time was also confirmed to have 30 minutes. Second, the centrality analysis confirmed that players with high degree centrality also have a high closeness centrality, which can be information that can objectively evaluate major attack directions and key players. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as an objective indicator to identify key players and evaluate their performance through passes by players in team sports events. However, due to the nature of the World Cup games, it is difficult to secure a lot of match data by country, and it is a pity that players who have not participated in the games due to injury cannot be evaluated. Based on the results shown in this research, we hope that it will be used as a new evaluation method to identify key players and objectively analyze each country's game patterns in order to advance to the 2022 Qatar World Cup finals, and it can be used as an analysis method that can objectively evaluate not only soccer games but also other team sports games through social network analysis.
    Keyword:Social Networking, Soccer, Pass, Degree Centrality, Network
  • Purpose: For a study related the utilization of various techniques for Judo athletes of middle schools, high schools, and colleges and universities in their process of growth, this study seeks to explore changes in the utilization of Judo techniques according to the winning careers of the Judo athletes of middle schools, high schools, and colleges and universities and their experience of being selected to represent their schools and organizations. Method: To achieve the purpose of this study, the frequency analysis was performed to examine and understand the general characteristics of the research subjects, and the Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to validate the reliability of the survey questionnaire. Furthermore, the one-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the differences between the offensive techniques and defensive techniques according to the athletes’ career. Results: As a result of the study, it turned out that there were significant differences across hand techniques, waist techniques, foot techniques, offensive techniques, and defensive techniques. Examining the techniques, it turned out that there were significant differences in offensive techniques among the hand techniques, pull and throw, throw or destroy with shoulder, and grab a single color and throw, and all techniques among the defensive techniques had significant differences. Conclusion: As a result of this study, it turned out that the greater the career, the higher the utilization of hand techniques and foot techniques among the offensive techniques, and the less the experiences, the higher the utilization of waist techniques. As for the defensive techniques, the greater the career, the utilization of hand techniques, waist techniques, and foot techniques all turned out to be high. However, among the waist techniques, hold belt, lift and throw over with waist and counter attack using opponent's techniques turned out to be high, the less the career.
    Keyword:Judo, Offensive Techniques, Defensive Techniques, Athletes’ Career, Analysis of Utilization
  • Purpose: The purpose of this research is to boost e-sports industries by conducting a comparative analysis on the current status of sponsor companies growing together with the Chinese professional e-sports competitions to understand the relationship between Chinese e-sports competitions and sponsor companies. Method: Based on the League of Legends Pro League, China's most influential e-sports competition, we would like to examine the relationship between sponsor companies and e-sports industries through longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons of sponsor status from 2014 to 2020. Results: This resulted in the following: First, due to the accurate positioning of users, the first party competitions showed higher recognition or influence than the third party competitions. Based on the fact that mobile e-sports products can easily attract young users due to their low entry barriers, mobile e-sports products and competitions are important growth engines for the development of the e-sports industry. In addition, it has been shown that non-pro leagues support the development of professional leagues and that professional leagues are indispensable to interact, complement and promote the development of non-professional leagues. Second, according to an analysis of the sponsorship status of global e-sports events, computer and peripheral companies as computer and related fields were most actively sponsoring e-sports competitions, and the support of global companies was steadily increasing. Finally, after looking at the sponsorship status of e-sports competitions in China, it was found that e-sports sponsorship is a major source of income in the e-sports industry and is growing together with the participation of influential sponsor companies. Conclusion: In the League of Legends event, China's most influential e-sports competition, teenagers and 30s were the main sources of income, with mostly male products-oriented sponsor companies. However, if women's participation is steadily increasing and men and women's competitions are held to attract sponsors and marketability, e-sports can grow together with the attraction and participation of global sponsor companies.
    Keyword:Esports, China's E-Sports Events, Sponsors, Sponsorship, Growth
  • Purpose: As it is the mission of coaches to appropriately guide their athletes on ethical and moral character, the role of sports coaches is crucial beyond anything, and it is also necessary to consider the guiding beliefs and methods which lead the students(or trainees) in the desired direction if sports coaching or guidance is more than merely an educational role to play. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine and articulate the professionalism and ethical sensitivity of coaches, which have an important effect on the sports leagues as well as sports teams and athlete management, further to the effect on the guiding beliefs, thereby exploring an efficient operational method for managing and fostering sports teams and athletes. Method: In this study, as of 2021, the coaches who were formerly professional sports athletes were used as the population, and as for the sampling method, 250 people were surveyed by the convenience sampling, while the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method, and among the collected questionnaires, those of 284 respondents were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the details of the survey. Results: As a result of the factor analysis performed on professionalism, ethical sensitivity, and guiding belief, the professionalism was consisted of professionalism factor and technical requirement factor, while ethical sensitivity was consisted of one factor for the ethical sensitivity factor, and guiding belief factor was consisted of the 3 factors of behaviorism factor, interactionism factor, and maturationism factor, respectively. As for reliability, it turned out that professionalism factor was α=.795, technical requirement factor α=.692, ethical sensitivity factor α=.799, behaviorism factor α=.800, interactionism factor α=.835, and maturity factor was α=.697, respectively. As a result of the correlation analysis performed, it turned out that there was a positive(+) relationship between all of the factors, and it also turned out that the professionalism factor influenced the ethical sensitivity factor and the educational belief factor. Conclusion: In order to achieve the purpose of this study, it is evident that the professionalism of sports coaches influences ethical sensitivity and guiding belief based on the results of the questionnaire. It is considered that it is necessary not only to explore the means to help improve the professionalism of sports coaches, which influences the ethical sensitivity and guiding beliefs of the sports coaches’ education, but also create and form an overall environment for the self-development of the sports coaches.
    Keyword:Sports, Coaches, Professionalism, Ethical Sensitivity, Guiding Belief