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  • Purpose: This study was conducted to articulate and specify as to how the women's beauty care behavior after COVID-19 influences their psychological Happiness. Towards this end, the beauty care behavior was set as an independent variable, and beauty interest, information search, beauty behavior, and appearance satisfaction were derived as the sub-factors, psychological Happiness variables were set as dependent variables, environmental control, personal growth, purpose of life, and positive interpersonal relationships were derived as the sub-factors. Method: As for the research participants, they were collected and analyzed from among 231 online participants including freelancers, self-employed, workers, and students from related departments working in the beauty health industry in City S and Province G in Korea. For the analysis method, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between the participants' beauty care behavior and psychological Happiness, and the enter method was used to make entries. Results: This study was conducted from this point of view to examine and understand how the women's beauty care behavior after COVID-19 will influence their psychological Happiness. Subsequent are the contents of the analytical results verifying the relationship of effect with the beauty care behavior variable, which has beauty interest, information search, beauty behavior, and appearance satisfaction as independent variables, and the psychological Happiness variable as dependent variables. Conclusion: In this study, it was evident that new changes have taken in the beauty care behavior and psychological Happiness of the women participants after COVID-19, and in particular, it was confirmed that many changes have taken in the direct beauty behaviors. Based on the results of this study, a theoretical discussion of the beauty health was provided, and it is meaningful in that the information on the psychological health according to the beauty care behavior was provided.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Women's, Beauty Care, Behavior, Psychological Happiness
  • Purpose: The fourth industrial revolution and prolonged COVID-19, which will bring about technological advances, are calling for changes in our universities. Therefore, it is necessary to look back on the essential meaning of education and the direction of education to examine the current status of university education. So, this study would like to look at how the social environment of the classroom affects the satisfaction of life through the student’s grit. Method: This study conducted on online survey of university students majoring in aviation services in consideration of the COVID-19 situation. 230 people responded, and 216 were used for the final analysis. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 Statistics Program. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to verify the hypothesis, and three-step mediated regression was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the grit between the social environment of the classroom and life satisfaction of students. Results: First, the social environment of the classroom(emotional support between students, facilitating mutual respect and teacher’s emotional support) had a significant effect on student’s grit(passion). On the other hand, the social environment of the classroom had no significant impact on the student’s grit(perseverance). Second, the social environment of the classroom had a significant effect on students’ life satisfaction. Third, the passion among grit had a significant effect on the student's life satisfaction, but the perseverance among grit did not significantly affect students’ life satisfaction. Fourth, only passion among grit showed a mediating effect between the social environment of the classroom and life satisfaction. Conclusion: The higher the ‘emotional support between students’, ‘facilitating mutual respect’, and ‘emotional support of teachers’ among the social environment of the classroom, the higher the students’ grit(passion). The impact of emotional support on students’ passion for achieving long-term goals in the social environment of the classroom is a wake-up call for the role of teachers in the university setting. In addition, fulfilling the original role of university education is a way to increase the life satisfaction of university students majoring in aviation services. Due to the current COVID-19, it is difficult to conduct face-to-face classes in the department of aviation services, which includes a lot of practical subjects in the curriculum. However, it is necessary for universities to provide various non-face-to-face programs related to their majors so that students can continue their perseverance and passion through steady success experiences. If the professor provides steady emotional support in the process, students will be able to maintain high life satisfaction.
    Keyword:Social Environment in the Classroom, Grit, Life Satisfaction, Major in Aviation Service, COVID-19
  • Purpose: In this study, a number of industrial accidents occur, and occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. As a result of this occupational accident, many workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Numerous industrial accidents occur every year, and the approval of occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder is increasing. In particular, in the case of industrial accident trauma, workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder that is more severe than other trauma patients in that workers are continuously re-exposed to the accident scene and re-experienced the accident. Method: Therefore, exposure treatment techniques for patients suffering industrial acci-dent trauma using VR(virtual reality) and measurement systems introduction was necessary. Using the disaster and disaster contents developed through this research and development, measure user reaction and secure data on the degree and timing of user reaction according to each accident event, so that it is possible to obtain reference data for appropriate exposure setting according to the level of trauma became. As a methodology, a population composition for setting the exposure level and a hypothesis design for verification and a scenario design for hypothesis testing were established. In addition, the user reaction data for each accident event in the virtual experience was regarded as heart rate data, and a sensor and related system design that can measure data through the experiment were made, and the experiment was analyzed according to the scenario. Results: So, by measuring the heart rate of the experimenter using VR(virtual reality) to experience a traumatic disaster, Measuring heart rate variability(HRV) by disaster and environmental factors and observing stress changes. It is expected that it will be possible to obtain data on the extent to which the user reacts in a specific disaster by securing a measurement value of how and at what point in time the user reacts. Conclusion: This made it possible to analyze the post-traumatic disability later. In particular, through the results of this experiment, it was possible to present the need for an indicator that can objectively evaluate the effectiveness of VR content for education and objective data of the indicator. In addition, a lot of data such as stability, movement, reaction, etc. were secured as basic indicators for the development of the “Crane VR Education Content” evaluation system.
    Keyword:Virtual Reality, Occupational Accident, Trauma, HRV, Stress
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of mindfulness in the stress management of military leaders. In the long-term situation in the COVID-19, the military leaders are increasingly anxious and also they are often exposed to extreme stress environments. Considering this situation, the contents of mindfulness were combined in leadership coaching program, and the military leaders were able to confirm the psychological well-being and stress relief after the mindfulness program before the lecture. Method: For this purpose, the program was designed based on the results of previous studies and needs surveys, and the problems revealed through expert verification and preliminary program implementation were revised and supplemented. The effects of coaching lectures on subjective well-being and psychological well-being were verified by arranging 8 military leaders participants in the experimental group, the comparative group(the psychological well-being program) and the control group, respectively, with the students participating in the main executive course. Results: As a result, the experimental group showed significant differences in both subjective well-being and psychological well-being of the comparative group and the control group. To measure the cognitive factors of subjective well-being, the Satisfaction With Life Scale(SWLS) developed by Diener et al.(1985) and adapted by Ryu Yeon-ji(1996) was used. This scale consists of five questions in total, and consists of seven-point scales. The emotional factors were used the Index of General Effect, which was translated by Lee Soo Il(1997). This scale is a tool to measure positive-negative emotional aspects, with a total of 9 questions, each of which is paired with two adjectives and a seven-point scale. In this study, Cronbach's value was .83 and Cronbach's value of emotional well-being was .86. Conclusion: In the analysis of participants' experience reports and the observations of the hosts, it was confirmed that the experimental group who participated in the psychological well-being promotion program for the stress management of the military leaders had a positive change in the psychological well-being improvement. However, this study has a limitation in generalizing the results of the study to all military leaders because it causes sampling errors by recruiting applicants, which is a non-probable sampling method, in the recruitment of research subjects. In addition, since only 8 people were assigned to each group, it is necessary to conduct a study that has sufficient number of people considering external validity.
    Keyword:Mindfulness, Stress Management, Leaders, Psychological Well-Being, Subjective Well-Being
  • Purpose: Multi-use facilities frequently used by unspecified people can cause a lot of casualties if a crisis occurs, so prepare and train manuals for crisis situations from peacetime. Based on three years of multi-use facility crisis preparation and training consulting experience commissioned by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, this study aims to provide development plans and policy suggestions on how to prepare and train multi-use facility manuals to operate in crisis situations. Method: To achieve the purpose of the research, the conceptual research on multi-use facility manuals and government policies were first analyzed through literature surveys, case studies on major accidents in multi-use facilities were derived through various papers and research reports, and the actual situation was analyzed based on the consulting experience of multi-use facility. Through this, it was studied by presenting development projects and policy suggestions to prepare multi-use facility manuals that can operate in crisis situations. Results: Multi-use facilities will need to analyze vulnerabilities and identify crisis types in preparation for crisis situations, organize and dress up crisis response organizations, secure and operate communication networks to control crisis situations, and re-establish training. It should also reflect guidelines on securing a command and communication network in the Ministry of Public Administration and Security's standard manual, preparing for crises linked to multi-use facilities, and long-term development plans(including securing budgets) to compensate for vulnerabilities against crises. Conclusion: The Ministry of Public Administration and Security is preparing a manual to prepare for a crisis, even though many multi-use facilities at the site need to apply it according to the facility characteristics to prepare for the crisis. Development tasks and policy suggestions presented in this study should be utilized to prepare for crisis situations by preparing manuals for crisis situations at ordinary times.
    Keyword:Manual, Multi-Use Facilities, Crisis, Crisis Situation, Disaster Cases
  • Purpose: The quality of beauty service which directly influences the survival and growth of the industries is a crucial issue. Therefore, in this study, the effect on the customer satisfaction is examined by using the newly developed dimension of beauty service quality, and the effect of service quality on each group by mediating the customer satisfaction between the customer loyalty. The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for attracting customers and creating profits for and in the beauty service industry through the service quality, customer loyalty, and the customer satisfaction. Method: In this study, he customers using the beauty service companies were selected, and samples for each region were allocated and a total of 300 copies of the questionnaires were distributed and recovered, among which, a sample of 239 companies were tested with hypothesis. The questionnaire survey was conducted from September 1, 2020 until December 31, 2020. Results: Hypothesis 1 which provides that the service quality has a significantly positive(+) effect on the customer satisfaction was partially adopted. Among the 4 sub-factors of the service quality, interaction service quality, waiting service quality, and outcome service quality have had a statistically significantly positive effect, and the environment service quality has had a significant effect on the customer satisfaction, yet was dismissed as it turned out to have a negative(-) effect. Hypothesis 2 which provides that the service quality positively mediates the customer satisfaction between the customer loyalty turned out to have a partially mediating effect. Among the 4 sub-factors of the service quality, interaction service quality, waiting service quality, and outcome service quality among interaction service quality, waiting service quality, environment service quality, and outcome service quality turned out that the customer satisfaction between the customer loyalty has a statistically significantly positive(+) effect as to have a mediating effect, and environment service quality turned out to have a significantly negative(-) mediating effect on the customer satisfaction between the customer loyalty, but was dismissed. Conclusion: As for the results of this study, it was confirmed that interaction service quality, waiting service quality, and outcome service quality were significantly important variables for the beauty service quality. Furthermore, customer satisfaction is very important, and it is determined that the customer loyalty also operates positively if service workers are satisfied. However, since the beauty service provides both the tangible and intangible services simultaneously, the values perceived by the users of services, that is, the users' tendencies, emotions, time leeway, and their expectations may vary from each other. Accordingly, special efforts made by the service providers are required to meet the service quality which the users of service seek. Hence, this study emphasizes that it is important to find venues to improve the service quality for the beauty services, which are highly dependent on the human services, and based on which, the satisfaction of service users was empirically reflected, and it is meaningful that it was proven as a result.
    Keyword:Beauty Service, Interaction Service, Waiting Service, Environment Service, Outcome Service
  • Purpose: Recently, sports marketing has been recognized in Korea as an efficient means for strengthening the brand assets for companies, and efforts are increasingly made to develop games and licensed products as a venue to maximize them. For the sports consumers, purchasing licensed products for a sports team may be a way of strengthening a mental bond with the team they support, and it is a kind of consumption behavior for the sports fans to visit the stadium and watch games in person. The purchase of licensed products from which the fans may bring profits to the club may also be said to be a consumption behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to articulate and specify the effect of professional sports’ quality of service on the identification of team and the brand loyalty in the professional sports market, which is experiencing difficulties such as reductions in the number of games and reductions in the number of spectators due to the COVID-19, thereby presenting a strategic plan to promote the purchase and sales of licensed products. Method: In this study, as of 2021, among the professional sports spectators, those experienced in purchasing sports licensed products were targeted and gathered as the population, while the sampling method for 450 people was the convenience sampling, and the self-administration method. The questionnaires of 367 people were used as valid samples, excluding the data in which responses were insincere or any part of the survey contents were omitted. The data processing for this study was conducted but performing the frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, factor analysis, and the correlation analysis by using the SPSS 25.0 Program, a statistical package program. The multiple regression was also used. Results: The quality of service, identification of team, and the brand loyalty were consisted of 3, 1, and 1 factors, each respectively, and as for the reliability, the result quality factor turned out to be 3α=.882, environmental quality factor α=.785, interaction quality factor α=. 732, identification of team factor α=.901, and the brand loyalty factor turned out to be α=.912. Furthermore, as a result of performing the correlation analysis, it turned out that there was a positive(+) relationship between all of the factors. In the effect of quality of service on the identification of team and the brand loyalty, it turned out that the result quality factor, environmental quality factor, and the interaction factor of quality of service have the effect on the brand loyalty factor of the brand loyalty and the brand loyalty factor of the brand loyalty. Conclusion: The quality of service turned out to have an effect on the identification of team and the brand loyalty. The quality of service in principle is excellent performance in game, and to provide fans with such excellent performance, the development of excellent players is a priority. Therefore, teams seek to build a system for fostering excellent players and provide a springboard for improving their performance. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop licensed products by using the images of players and diversify products incorporating new technologies. Beyond which, it will be helpful to increase sales online and offline and offer various discounts and events to make the experience of purchasing products easier.
    Keyword:Disaster, Quality of Service, Identification of Team, Brand Loyalty, Licensed Product
  • Purpose: With the economic crisis and recession caused by COVID-19, people from all over the world are facing insecurity of employment and losing hope for the future. Consequently, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of hope scale on the makeup psychology and psychological well-being among female college students in such a crisis. Method: A questionnaire method was selected in this study to survey female college students in Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, hope scale, psychological well-being, and makeup psychology. Frequency, percentile, and average were analyzed to understand the demographic characteristics of the study subjects, and the causal relationship among hope scale, psychological well-being, and makeup psychology was examined through single regression analysis. Results: In terms of the effects of hope scale on makeup psychology, only planning power was found to have a statistically significant effect on etiquette and social life, only determination on self-expression and pursuit of beauty, and both determination and planning power on satisfaction and attractiveness. Similarly, for the effects of hope scale on psychological well-being, both determination and planning power were found to have a statistically significant effect on personal growth and self-acceptance and only determination on positive interpersonal relationship. Conclusion: The psychology behind wearing makeup plays an important role in one’s etiquette and social life, while serving the role of expressing and satisfying oneself. Psychological well-being seems to be affected by the existence of hope; when people with a significant level of psychologically well-being have hope, they can overcome disasters and have the willingness to express self through makeup.
    Keyword:Dispositional Hope Scale: DHS, Psychological Well-Being, Cosmetic Psychology, Female College Student, Disaster