All Articles

  • Purpose: This study aims to develop a gamification model for flipped learning for the systematization and simplicity of gamified teaching and learning design for teachers and for learners’ enjoyable, self-directed learning during the pre- and post-classes. As the world has recently experienced a crisis in the form of the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching and learning environments have changed a lot. Flipped learning can be used as an alternative strategy for improving educational effectiveness while considering the issue of learners’ safety in crisis situations. Flipped learning enables mastery learning and improves learning effects with a learning style that suits students and increases learner participation. Method: To verify the validity of the gamification model for flipped learning derived through FGI , the content validity and face validity were verified by a group of experts using a testing tool. The criteria established for selecting the group of experts were those who had a doctorate degree in a major field or had more than ten years of educational experience and who are currently teaching in universities or public educational sectors. The validity test criteria consisted of ‘validity,’ ‘utility,’ and ‘usefulness’ as a class design model, and ‘understanding’ and ‘value’ for the explanation , and they were each scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The average value of the validity for each evaluation item was found to be within the range of 4.2 to 4.6, indicating that all the elements of the model were properly recognized. The calculations for each evaluation factor also show that the ratio(CVR) was distributed within the range of 0.75 to 1.00. A final model for flipped learning classes incorporating gamification was derived, validated, and verified. The four procedural elements of flipped learning using gamification are navigate(N), aim(A), build(B), and implement(I). Conclusion: A gamification model for flipped learning, consisting of navigate, aim, build, and implement(NABI) procedures, was developed and has been proven to be valid. A strategic approach was needed to improve the current state of flipped learning, and gamification, which can lead to the active participation of participants, was necessary. These attempts will serve as a significant opportunity to implement flipped learning more dynamically. It is also expected that gamification will be a catalyst for learners’ enjoyable, effective, memorable, sustainable and meaningful learning experiences inside and outside the classroom.
    Keyword:Gamification Model, Flipped Learning, Instructional Strategy, Self-Directed Learning, Mastery Learning
  • Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relation between BCMS operating factors and organization internalization. To achieve the purpose of this study, the followings detailed objectives are established. First, the differences are clarified through comparative analysis by investigating the operating status of the BCMS of domestic commercial banks according to the Financial Supervisory Service's BCP standards. Second, the operating factors are analyzed and organized to see if they affect the internalization of each bank's BCMS organization in the BCMS operation process. Third, to examine the methodology of organizational internalization of the bank BCMS, in-depth interviews are conducted with the relevant expert group, and the methodology of organizational internalization of the banking BCMS is proposed. Method: In order to study the operating factors for internalization of BCMS in organization, the author investigated BCP operating level by comparison analysis the BCMS status quo of the four commercial Banks in Korea. The operating factors identified as scope of this study are BIA(Business Impact Analysis), RA(Risk Assessment), Business Management Strategy and BCP exercise, In addition, an FGI(Focus Group Interview) was conducted for BCM experts to study the methodology for raising the level of organizational internalization of BCMS. The FGI conducted qualitative surveys through in-depth interviews with the experts. Results: The operating way for BCP exercise, cycle and exercise types etc, are the factors to impact the level of BCMS organization internalization. The author derived the methodology for the BCMS internalization to the Bank, it is considered in terms of education and training for staffs, activation of communication between organizations and individuals, BCMS operating standards in detailed level to avoid any doubts in BCM operation and organizational culture. Conclusion: The author reached the conclusion that organization need to enhance the cognitive level of the members through education/BCP exercise, activated communication, operating detailed BCP procedure, interest and participation of top-management and establishment organization’s culture which respect the BCM, especially in order to form an organizational culture, mutual respect and the formation of a trust relationship are continuously needed since culture is not formed in short period of time.
    Keyword:BCMS, BCP Exercise, Bank, Internalization, Crisis
  • Purpose: With the deepening of global aging, how to control and prevent the health crisis of the elderly has become the focus of global attention. To address this problem, a large number of studies have been conducted around the world, and physical activity has been shown to be closely linked to health risks in the elderly. In order to sort out the results of many researches, this paper made a scientometrics analysis of the relevant researches in the past 10 years. This can not only systematically understand the current research trend, but also serve as a reference for subsequent research. Method: This study adopted scientometrics and visual analysis methods, thus CiteSpace Visualization based on Java programming was employed as the main tool of the study. Literature searched from Web of Science database from 2010 to present and was used to show the topic evolution of research related to the research topic after analysis. Results: According to the statistics on the time and quantity of the literature on physical activity and health risks of the elderly, it was found that the literature had a stable increasing trend from 2010 to 2012, from 2013 to 2015, from 2016 to 2018, and from 2019 to 2020. Through the analysis of the co-occurring map of institutions on physical activity for elderly, it was found that colleges and universities were the core in the institutions in this field. Geriatrics & Gerontology, Public Environmental & Occupational Health, General & Internal Medicine, Medicine, Nutrition & Dietetics and Physical provided basic for the researches on physical activity and health risks of elderly. The research hotspots were showed as physical activity, risk, risk factor, Older adult, elderly, exercise, mortality, health, prevalence, association. This indicated that the researches on physical activity and health risk of the elderly at this stage mainly focused on the health and physique of the elderly. In the second stage, there were abundant experimental studies on the physical function of the elderly, the physiological dimension of different types of senile chronic diseases, and the risk factors of disease prevention. In the third stage, the researches on the elderly' personal health behavior and lifestyle, social support and health promotion began to be prominent. Conclusion: This paper took Web of Science as the data source and used CiteSpace, a scientific measurement tool, to draw the knowledge map of physical activity and health risks of the elderly scientifically and rigorously, and systematically analyzes the basic characteristics, research hotspots and topic evolution of this research field. However, there are still some limitations in the time period, database and search scope of the research results, which we hope can be solved in the follow-up research.
    Keyword:Health Risk of the Elderly, Scientometrics Research, Physical Activity, Visual Analysis, Knowledge Map
  • Purpose: For safety purpose, the airline has a safety education and management system for flight crew and cabin crew so that they can accurately understand and deliver how to deal with emergency situations and how to use emergency equipment. In order to ensure the safety of passengers in unexpected emergencies, passengers must also familiarize themselves with safety information and emergency escape tips. In response, this study applied planning behavior theory to explore the impact relationship between passengers' perception of aviation safety information on aviation safety behavioral intentions. Method: This study conducted an online survey of people with less than a year of air travel experience and collected 352 copies. The final 341 copies of the data, except for 11 copies of the unfaithful answer sheet, were used for empirical analysis and hypothesis verification through statistical programs in SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0. Results: Perceptions of aviation safety information have significant implications for aviation safety attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control. This study shows that perceptions of aviation safety information have a significant positive relationship with aviation safety behavioral intention. On the other hand, the relationship between aviation safety subjective norms and aviation safety behavioral intention does not have significant positive influence. Conclusion: The lack of awareness of aviation safety information by passengers in the event of an aircraft accident may lead to more casualties due to the inability to respond effectively to emergencies. This study investigates the relationship between perception, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and behavioral intentions of aviation safety. Therefore, to raise perception of aviation safety information, it is necessary to inform the importance of being directly connected to individual lives and to study that passengers can judge and control themselves through aviation safety education and information provision.
    Keyword:Air Passenger, Aviation Safety Information, Perception, Theory of Planned Behavior, Safety Behavioral Intention
  • Purpose: Safety Accidents have caused many victims and injuries around the world at various Events held by crowds. The importance of safety did not start yesterday, it will be even more important in Event venues crowded with the multitude. Method: Therefore, in this study, Event-related accidents occurred in Korea were examined, and Safety Fences, which play an important role of safety facilities at Events, were examined to prevent recurrence of similar accidents. Results: Safety Accidents have occurred due to various Events due to the development of local self-government and the Performance culture industry. There is a need to establish standards for Safety Fences in preparation for Safety Accidents at Events. Conclusion: When it is necessary to establish the standards for Safety Fences in consideration of the behavioral characteristics of the audience according to the characteristics of the Event, and it is necessary to establish a standard for proper use of products capable of bearing weights of load strength.
    Keyword:Events, Safety Fences, Performances, Local Festivals, Safety Accidents
  • Purpose: Since the beginning of times, humans have had to deal with food, clothing, and shelter. As they evolved and progressed, they did not have any medium of protection when dangers emerged from the environment, like animals. The origins of the army, was as a group of humans who had to protect themselves. Camouflage started when humans had to protect themselves from other humans, rather than animals or external factors, so they needed an additional protection apart from weapons. Method: This study concluded that military camouflage pattern characteristics were concealment, display, and distortion, respectively. Based on these features, camouflage makeup patterns were conceived. Concealment is hiding in order to permeate terrain in a war; showiness is a means of showing one’s rank or situation by means of a military uniform; and distortion is similar showing a distorted appearance by concealing it. Results: Based on Camouflage Art, which shows us as if we're one in our surroundings.Using the camouflage characteristics of the military look, three works were made with makeup, symbolic colors were added to make each characteristic visible, and objects were used to express them. Conclusion: This work is a research on makeup patterns that use protective media such as camouflage in crisis. It is believed that this study can have a good influence not only in the industrial application of beauty but also in the military and fashion circles.
    Keyword:Military Look, Camouflage, Concealment, Showiness, Distortion
  • Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to provide the basic data for the prevention of knee joint damages by analyzing differences in the isokinetic muscular function of knee joints as per the pitching speed of 21 intramural baseball players of colleges and universities. Method: The subjects of this study were 21 intramural baseball players of colleges and universities, whose length of experiences were 2 to 7 years. By measuring the pitching speed, they were classified as S1 group whose maximum ball speed was 110km/h or greater, S2 group whose maximum ball speed was less than 110km/h to 100km/h or greater, and S3 group whose maximum ball speed was less than 100km/h, respectively. The isokinetic muscular strength of knee joints was measured for all of the 3 groups, and the strength of the left and right flexors and extensors were measured at 60°, 180°, and 240°, respectively. The data processing for this study was performed by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each of the items, and the one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the differences for each item by group, while using the Tukey method as an ex post analysis between the groups. Furthermore, the multiple linear regression was performed to identify the influence of the isokinetic muscular function of knee joints according to the angular speed on the pitching speed. The statistical significance level was set to p<.05, respectively. Results: The results of measuring the isokinetic muscular strength of knee joints are as follows. As for the PT and WPR measured at an angular speed of 60°, the S1 group turned out to be significantly higher(p<.05) in the left flexors and extensors than S3 group. As for the PT and WPR measured at an angular speed of 180°, the S1 and S2 groups turned out to be significantly higher(p<.05) in the left extensors than the S3 group. As for the PT measured at an angular speed of 240°, S1 and S2 groups in the left extensor turned out to be significantly higher(p<.05) than S3 group. As for the WPR, S1 group turned out to be significantly(p<.05) higher than S3 group. The results of performing the multiple linear regression are as follows with a view to discover the effect of isokinetic muscular strength of knee joints on the pitching speed. At the angular speeds of 180° and 240°, the regression segments of the left knee joint extensors for both the PT and WPR turned out to have a significant effect at the 5% level. R2, which is the explanatory power of the regression model which explains changes in the pitching speed for the left knee joint extensors, turned out to have an explanatory power in the range of 37.9-55.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Gathering the results above, it turned out that the higher the pitching speed for the group, the superior the muscular function, and in particular, the extensors on the left side demonstrated such remarkably pronounced characteristics. Such results suggest that the extensor muscles could influence the pitching speed for the stretching motion(acceleration) of the left legs during the pitching. Furthermore, in order to prevent injuries, attention ought to be paid to strengthening the counter muscular of the muscles which are primarily used.
    Keyword:Knee Joint, Isokinetic Muscular Strength, Muscular Function, Intramural Baseball Pitchers of Colleges and Universities, Pitching Speed
  • Purpose: The study examines the impact of Safety Awareness on the Selection Attributes, Satisfaction, and continuation of participants' participation, which not only affects the management of Water Leisure Sports facilities but also affects the image of sports events due to safety accidents. In addition, the purpose is to provide basic data necessary for promoting Safety Awareness and developing education services and establishing specific strategies to revitalize the water leisure industry in the Water Leisure Sports industry with high growth functionality. Method: In this study, 250 users of the Daegu-Gyeongbuk area water leisure center were the subjects of the study, and a questionnaire was conducted using the convenience sampling method. By adopting the self-evaluation writing method, the survey respondents were asked to see the questionnaire and mark it in the corresponding section.A valid sample is a questionnaire of 223 people using data from 250 final responders who are unresponsive or missing part of the survey. For data processing, after collecting the distributed questionnaire, data that are judged to be inadequate or unreliable in response are excluded from the research subject. After inputting the data that can be analyzed individually into the computer, statistical verification was performed with the statistical package programs SPSS Program 25.0 and AMOS 18.0 according to the purpose of data analysis. The structural equation modeling was used as an empirical statistical method. Results: In this study, there was a statistically significant correlation between most of the variables, and since the values of all correlation coefficients did not exceed .8, there was no multicollinearity problem. Model goodness-of-fit verification has shown to satisfy all the goodness-of-fit indices. As a result of hypothesis verification, first, it was found that safety Safety Awareness has an effect on the Selection Attributes(β=.098, t=1.532, p<.001).Second, Safety Awareness was found to have an effect on Satisfaction(β=.117, t=2.724, p<.001). Third, Safety Awareness was found to have an effect on Continued Participation(β=.136, t=3.457, p<.001). Therefore, the following activities must be undertaken such as safe driving of Water Leisure Sports users, securing of systematically trained experts, thorough safety education before activities, expansion and financial investment of safety facilities and safety equipment, qualification training of water sports safety management personnel, and supplementation of legal systems, etc. After that, it can raises participants' sense of safety and makes them feel satisfied.Finally, it will help expand the base of Water Leisure Sports and revive related industries. Conclusion: Safety Awareness was found to have a positive effect on the Selection Attributes, Satisfaction, and Continued Participation. Therefore, development and implementation of educational programs for accident prevention at Water Leisure Sports facilities or workplaces, pre-training for quick action in the event of an accident, and compensation for follow-up measures and safety education are required. In addition, related agencies need to make constant efforts to protect valuable lives and popularize Water Leisure Sports by developing safety management tasks for users through strengthening the crackdown on violations of the law and revise the regulation due to active efforts and securing many experts.
    Keyword:Water Leisure Sports, Safety Awareness, Selection Attributes, Satisfaction, Continued Participation