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  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the learning and emotional difficulties that students with ADHD tendencies experienced at a local university where its’ learning environment has changed dramatically due to the crisis of COVID-19. The differences in learning behaviors, online learning satisfaction, and university satisfaction according to university students’ ADHD tendencies, gender, and the level of emotional difficulties such as depression and anger were investigated. The effects of the coexistence of ADHD tendencies and emotional difficulties on those differences were also examined. Method: A total of 1,032 students in the K university at Daegu participated in this study. The learning behaviors, online learning satisfaction, university satisfaction, and the level of emotional difficulties including depression and anger were surveyed. The collected data were analyzed, first, using t-test in order to examine the differences according to ADHD tendencies, gender, and the level of emotional difficulties. Next, the participants were divided into four groups according to their ADHD tendencies/depression level and ADHD tendencies/anger level, and then t-test and ANOVA were conducted. Finally, two-way ANOVA was implemented to investigate whether the differences among those four groups differed by gender. Results: First, university students with ADHD tendencies tended to be more passive and neglected in their learning than those without ADHD tendencies. And, their online learning satisfaction and university satisfaction were also significantly lower than those of students without ADHD tendencies. Second, while female students were more active in learning and their level of online learning satisfaction and university satisfaction were higher than those of male students, they also showed higher levels of emotional difficulties such as depression and anger than male students. Third, the learning behavior, online learning satisfaction, and university satisfaction of the students, who had the coexistence of ADHD tendencies and emotional difficulties such as depression or anger, were significantly lower than those of students who had not, regardless of their gender. Conclusion: This study shows that there are differences in learning behavior, online learning satisfaction, university satisfaction, and emotional difficulties of university students according to their ADHD tendencies and gender. As COVID-19 shows no signs of subsidence, universities in Korea are more likely to offer online classes in 2021 again. At the same time, the problem of depression and anger among university students is likely to become even more serious due to prolonged COVID-19. This study indicates that university students' ADHD tendencies, gender, and emotional difficulties need to be considered in order to effectively implement online learning in Korean universities in the COVID-19 crisis.
    Keyword:ADHD, Learning Behavior, Online Learning, Satisfaction, Emotional Difficulties
  • Purpose: This study was to identify the trends of laughter therapy and to analyze the effect size of laughter therapy Method: KISS, KMDB, KERIS and the National Assembly Library was searched for relevant journals by using the following key words ‘laughter treatment’, ‘laughter intervention’ and ‘laughter therapy’. 48 journals were included in this study. Data were analyzed using CMA ver. 2.0 and effect size was calculated by ‘the standardized mean difference Results: The major findings of this study were as follows. 1)The overall effect size of laughter therapy was 0.668. 2)The sub-group effect size were social(0.863), psycho-somatic(0.836), emotional(0.775), psychological(0.679), physiological(0.464), physical(0.653) by each. 3)As the laughter therapy program, the effect size of only laughing therapy was larger than parallel therapy and the effect size of 4 step program was larger than 3 step program. More program in a week was larger effect size of laughter therapy. Conclusion: It might be useful for this study to review systematic research on laughter therapy in Korean journals. Laughter therapy was also effective therapy for people and develop program based on knowledge from laughter therapy research.
    Keyword:Effect Size, Laughter Intervention, Laughter Therapy, Laughter Treatment, Meta-Analysis
  • Purpose: The integrated art play using safety-related picture books is as the effect of structure comprehension and inference comprehension on the safety-related story structure of disabled children is verified, it provides basic data on safety education using safety-related picture books in the future. Method: The activities were conducted five times a week and a total of 70 times over 14 weeks, and safety-related picture book activities done until week 1 to 7 were presented repeatedly in 8 to 14 weeks. The inspection tool was used by Mikyung Park, which consists of questions from 1 to 10 for story structure comprehension, and questions from 11 to 14 for story inference comprehension. It was scored 2 for voluntary answers, 1 for clue-provided answers, and 0 for non-response, a total of 21 points can be obtained in story structure comprehension, and 16 points in story inference comprehension. Results: The analysis results showed that all children in the study scored higher in the post-test examination compared to the pre-examination, but in the story reference comprehension, there were children with the same score in the pre-examination and post-mortem examination. In other words, integrated art plays using safety-related picture books were found to be more effective in promoting story structure comprehension than in story reference comprehension for disabled infants. Conclusion: According to the research results, reading safety-related picture books and then playing integrated art can be seen as helping infants with disabilities improve their knowledge related to safety or problem-solving skills. It also suggests that integrated art play activities, including art, music, and dramatic elements, are suitable ways to help infants with disabilities learn how to solve problems and participate in voluntary activities, and to understand the need for safety and the overall content of the picture book.
    Keyword:Integrated Art Play, Infants with Disabilities, Story Structure Comprehension, Story Inference Comprehension, Safety-Related Picture Books
  • Purpose: The pension insurance fund serves as the lifeline for a majority of Chinese people due to its close connection with people’s personal interests. Method: The increasing severity of becoming an aging society, compounded with the requirement of preserving and increasing the value of the basic pension insurance fund, has made the investment and management of the pension insurance fund especially important. Results: With more than 30 years of experience running a pension insurance fund, South Korea(ROK) has implemented a set of standardized investment policies for pension insurance investment, together with an actuarial mechanism, boasting relatively high transparency in terms of information disclosure. This study analyzes the actual effectiveness of investment policies and operation efficiency of the ROK pension insurance fund. Subsequently a summation and assessment of the fundamental features and experiences in its operation and investment are provided. Conclusion: This paper then produces insights and advice on reforming and optimizing the investment and operation of the Chinese pension insurance fund, in hopes that these suggestions can play a positive role in supporting the sustainable, healthy development of the pension insurance fund in China.
    Keyword:Pension Insurance Investment, ROK’s Pension Insurance System, Chinese Pension Insurance Fund, Operation of the Pension Insurance Fund, Investment Model
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review denuclearization talks between the US and DPRK and map out policy alternatives for South Korea by analyzing Trump’s strategy toward the DPRK. The denuclearization of North Korea remains an important issue for the security of Northeast Asia and has been the subject of a variety of negotiation strategies. Despite the failure of previous negotiations to achieve the objective of denuclearization, they still hold important lessons for ongoing efforts. Method: This paper analyzes the negotiations between North Korea and the United States(US) through the lens of Fisher and Ury's model of principled negotiations. It offers the possibility for dealing with some of the most intractable and potentially destructive conflicts, such as that surrounding a nuclear deal with the DPRK. In particular, Fisher and Ury’s negotiation model can be a suitable analysis framework for denuclearization talks between the US and DPRK because it raises the prospect of a win-win situation for all the entities. Results: First, for the rational solution of the negotiation, the South Korean government has to differentiate issues from actors. Second, we need to focus on benefits or interests rather than positions. The positions taken in the negotiations must reflect the central interest or purpose, that of denuclearization, rather than political interests, which may be just a modified populism. Third, we need to focus on the benefits of a denuclearization settlement between the US and North Korea. If the denuclearization negotiations between the US and North Korea are concluded and the DPRK agrees to complete denuclearization, economic cooperation between the two Koreas will be accelerated and it will be a win-win situation for both parties. Fourth, in the process of denuclearization talks, South Korea has to keep consistency based on objective criteria. South Korean government has to obtain the consent of all actors by mapping out a roadmap for the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. Conclusion: As the negotiation process for the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula may take a long time and may not be smooth due to conflicting interest(or at least, in Fisher and Ury’s terminology, positions), it is important that as a first step, the three parties can agree on a definition of denuclearization and its constituent elements. As part of this process, South Korea should be able to present a credible denuclearization roadmap that can construct a consensus between North Korea and the US.
    Keyword:Denuclearization, Negotiation Models, North Korea, South Korea’s Role, Trump Administration
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study were to develop a self-determination improvement program for patients with schizophrenia and to confirm their effects on autonomy, competence, relationship, and self-care agency. Method: The study was in a pre-test, post-test for a nonequivalent control group design. The participants were 47 inpatients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia(experimental group:24; control group:23). The self-determination improvement program was provided in 8 session over 4 weeks. Data was collected from September to October 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 25.0 program with Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the independent t-test. Results: After participating self-determination improvement program, the experimental group showed a significant increased in autonomy(t=4.24, p<.001), competence(t=5.33, p<.001), relationship(t=7.90, p<.001) and self-care agency(t=2.49, p=.016) compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings of this study it was confirmed that the self-determination improvement program for patients with schizophrenia improves basic psychological needs(autonomy, competence, relationship) and self-care agency. This suggests that it is useful as an intervention program for the recovery of patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice.
    Keyword:Autonomy, Competence, Relationship, Schizophrenia, Self-Care