All Articles

  • This study focused on the role of the bystander in the school violence situation and tried to understand the choices of the bystander by applying “Theory of Planned Behavior”. In school violence situations, there are bystanders in addition to bullies and victims, and bystanders play significant roles in the situation. Sometimes their choices can determine the outcome of the school violence. According to TPB(behavior, intention, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control), the reasons why they choose to be an outsider rather than a defender can be interpreted as follows. They perceive the indifferent behaviors of a bystander and its results as positive and believe that others around will remain outsiders. Also, there is no difficulty in being a bystander, as it does not require an active action. On the other hand, they do not show the behavior of defenders because they perceive the defender's behavior and its result as negative, believe that the students in a classroom have the norm against the defender's behavior. Even if they want to take an action, they do not know what to do. And they may not be confident in taking an action even when they know what to do. In order to resolve school violence, the bystanders should respond effectively to the situation as defenders of victims. To this end, it is necessary to actively utilize the result of verifying bystander selection in school violence applying TPB. In particular, we must improve students’ attitudes toward the outsiders’ and defenders’ behaviors and the behavioral outcomes. And Concrete and explicit norms for helping behaviors should be built in their classroom. Finally, we need to inform students how to help victims and improve their confidence in those behaviors. So, we will be able to solve school violence problems by reducing outsiders and increasing defenders when designing and operating an anti-bullying program based on the TPB in the school environment.
    Keyword:Crisis, Theory of Planned Behavior, School Violence, Bullying, Bystander
  • Purpose; This paper intends to develop evaluation indicators of safety education for the Republic of Kore Army(ROKA) personnel. In Korea, there are a lot of accidents and disasters that Korean people had never been experienced including earthquakes, fire casualties, and marine accidents. There are many physical and psychological risk factors including explosion, injury, fire, traffic accident, and psychological violence, etc. Researchers suggest that ROKA soldiers are vulnerable to daily risk factors but do not receive enough safety education due to the lack of appropriate manual, instructor, and time. This study thoroughly reviewed the literature including the US Army field manual on the safety education and studies of industrial safety. Seventeen areas of safety management in the military bases were described in the field manual and counter-measures of each area were reviewed. Thirty evaluative indicators were presented based on the literature review and the value of each indicator was suggested as a milestone for designing and conducting the safety education. The 30 indicators are composed based on the CIPP(context-input-process-product) model and each of the indicator implies theoretical meanings and practical suggestions. The indicators begin with analyzing the hazard of the workplace and they contain : (1)collecting and analyzing the hazards in the workplace, (2)collecting and analyzing the information about the health management system, (3)making the safety management plan in the workplace, (4)reflecting the opinions of military personnel in making the safety management plan, (5)investigating the implementation of health education and evaluation for military personnel, (6)reflecting the military personnel’s need for health and safety education, (7)evaluating the leader’s interest in the safety and health promotion, (8)investigating the military personnel's consciousness of safety, (9)employment of officer in charge of safety management, (10)percentage of the officers in charge of the safety management, (11)employment of the officers in charge of safety and health education, (12)qualification of the officers in charge of the safety and health education, (13)presence of department of safety and health management and education, (14)volume of contents of the safety and health education, (15)Percentage of budget for safety and health education, (16)implementation of regulations on safety and health, (17)specification of educational objectives on safety, (18)review of the appropriateness of the safety education objectives, (19)diversity of educational method for the safety education, (20)specification of the safety education contents, (21)implementation of the educational plan, (22)checking the military personnel's awareness of the safety objectives, (23)the military personnel's satisfaction in the safety education, (24)participation of the military personnel in the safety education, (25)availability of resources for the safety education, (26)communication about the contents of the safety education, (27)changes in the consciousness of the safety, (28)changes in the knowledge of the safety, (29)changes in the attitude toward the safety, (30)changes in the real actions in the safety management and implementation.
    Keyword:Safety, Republic of Korea Army, Safety Education, Evaluation, Indicator
  • With radical development of information and communication Technology, Internet of Things(IoT) era has come. All the things around us are connected through internet so that it enables objects to exchange data with connected devices and is expected to offer new advanced services that goes beyond the value where each existing objects could have offered respectively. Concerns regarding security threat are being raised in adopting IoT as the number of internet-connected appliances are rapidly increasing. So, we need to consider how to protect and control countless objects. However, traditional security systems including intrusion detection systems(IDSs), firewalls(FWs), anti-viruses(A/Vs), etc., focus on low level attack or anomalies, and raise alerts independently. And IoT services have different types of security frameworks. As a result, it is difficult for human security manager or attack response systems to understand the alerts and take appropriate actions. In this paper describes the analysis of security methods in the area of IoT and describes a mechanism that analyzes logs generated by IoT devices attacks. Data collected from the lightweight application is sent to the network component for further analysis. The collaborative component is used for collecting data in the distributed network and indicates the possible attacks. Also this paper suggests enterprise security management including IoT services which are based on distributed environments, and presents a practical technique to address this issue, and introduces Event Correlation Model(ECM) which is a simple free text causal language. We show how the concept of class in object-oriented methodology is used to provide scalability to our approach. Graph and coding theories are used for correlation.
    Keyword:Safety of IoT Services, Network Security Management, Enterprise Security Management, Log Analysis, Event Correlation
  • The purpose of this study was to overcome the nursing staff shortage crisis at small and medium sized hospitals by examining the mediation effects of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on the relationship between job stress and turnover intention. To do so, this study used Price’s voluntary turnover model and suggested an integrated model by exploring the moderated mediation effects of changes in self–efficacy. Methods: The survey was conducted with 344 nurses working at small to medium sized hospitals in C city. Data collection was conducted for two weeks, from June 1 to 15, 2016, and the collected data were analyzed using Hayes’ macro process models 4 and 8 in SPSS 22.0. Results: The findings indicated that organizational commitment and job satisfaction have indirect effects on the relationship between job stress and turnover intention. Self-efficacy was found to have a moderation effect between job stress and mediating variable pathways and also have a mediation effect on job satisfaction pathways. Conclusion: In order to reduce the turnover intention of nurses in small to medium sized hospitals, it is necessary to develop a practical self-efficacy improvement program and action plan for the nursing work place.
    Keyword:Nursing Crisis, Turnover Intention, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Self-Efficacy