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  • An elementary school is a place where a group of youths with lively physical activities are active and are always exposed to the risks of accident, therefore, it is required for the elementary school students who are lacking in the ability, knowledge and judgment in crisis responses to have crisis education. The crisis situation for South Korean children and adolescents is very high among OECD countries with an average of 25.6 deaths in children and adolescents in the past between 1991 and 1995. From 2009 to 2010, the mortality rate of per 100,000 children and adolescents was 9.7 persons(traffic accident), 7.1 persons(murder), 5.1 persons(suicide), 1.8 persons(drowning), 1.7 persons(falls), 0.5 persons(fire accident), and 0.1 persons(poisoning accidents). Crisis Education in South Korean Elementary School is supporting disaster control, life safety, traffic safety, violence and personal safety, drug and harmful material safety, internet addiction and first aid in relation to safety related matters by greatly increasing the safety budget in 2016. However, the safety education conducted at South Korean elementary schools is often insufficient for students to make them cope with and overcome crises. Even if elementary schools have to carry out every year over 44 hours of safety education such as six hours of disaster preparedness education, missing and abducted person prevention and traffic safety, they are replaced with only 2 ~ 6 hours of disaster training for the reason that there is no specific guidance. As a result of the ‘Survey on Children’s Safety Education’ conducted from October to November last year by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Security Administration and so on in terms of 21,540 teachers from nationwide kindergartens and elementary schools, 12.9% of elementary school teachers and 30,6% of kindergartens teachers observed the mandatory time for safety education, however, most of them have been replaced by audiovisual materials, and only 18.1% of elementary school teachers and 28.1% of kinder-garten teachers had participatory education. The participatory method for the safety education for elementary school students, based on the assumption of an actual emergency situation, was more effective, however, most of delivering methods were to render the relevant content as lectures. Therefore, the crisis education for elementary school in South Korea needs to be systematically developed as follows. 1)It is necessary to conduct participatory education on the contents and the method of crisis education at schools. 2)It is necessary to expand the professional workforce in charge of crisis education at schools. 3)It is necessary to learn crisis education by experience in order to act it out in case of a crisis by implementing crisis education periodically by systemizing it according to the levels of students. 4)It is necessary to provide various crisis response experience sites. Therefore, this study aimed to be helpful in keeping oneself from dangers by learning personal methods of crisis management response and ability by the opening of crisis education curriculum so that students may understand proper crisis management and learn proper responsibility through the curriculum of South Korean elementary school.
    Keyword:Elementary School, Crisis, Management, Education, Risk
  • Identity theft victimization is a pervasive issue that affected 17.6 million people in the United States in 2014. In recent years, criminals have leveraged an expanding field of technologies, tactics, and various systems to com-mit identity theft. According to the Department of Justice, 7% of all Americans ages 16 and older were victimized. This 7% accounted for an estimated $50 billion in losses in 2016. Routine activities theory is often used as a theoretical lens and is frequently considered in conjunction with victim’s online profiles and routine activities. Routine activities theory states that crime is more likely to occur when these three elements are present: a motivated offender, suitable targets, and lack of available guardian-ship. Various studies have focused on the measurements of victim’s online exposure to motivated offenders, online proximity to motivated offenders, online target suitability, online self-guardianship (target hardening), and demographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine identity theft victimization in the United States through the lens of cyber-routine activities theory. A subsample of 84,823 respondents from a 2014 National Crime Vic-timization Survey was analyzed. The current study provided a more concise measurement on capable self-guard-ianship. Specifically, the researchers looked at two types of self-guardianship, online and offline self-guardianship. Online self-guardianship was defined as a protective behavior or online tool that could help potential victims secure themselves from perpetrators. These include but are not limited to changing passwords, firewalls, and antivirus programs. In accordance with routine activity theory, offline self-guardianship was defined as protective behavior or target hardening in the physical world. These protective measures served to prevent conventional types of crimes in both the physical world and cyberspace. In an attempt to address the gaps in the literature regarding a concise measurement of self-guardianship, the following hypotheses were evaluated in the present study: 1)individuals who have a higher level of online self-guardianships(e.g. changing passwords or using security software) are less likely to be victimized by identity theft; 2)individuals who have a higher level of offline self-guardianships(e.g. checking credit report or statement) are less likely to be victimized by identity theft. The findings indicated that online and offline self-guardianship was statistically significant effect on the reduction of identity theft victimization. Lastly, the study concluded with a discussion of the policy implications and a discussion of limitations of the current research.
    Keyword:Capable Guardianship, Crisis of Identity Theft, Cyber-Routine Activities Theory, National Crime Victimization, Binary Logistic Regression
  • Recently, as the Chinese economy has focused on the decline in economic growth rate, economic restructuring, and assimilation of demand stimulus policies, the burden of maintaining the growth rate of the Chinese economy is increasing. Previously, the three northeastern provinces of CHINA once led the growth due to the rich the nat-ural resources and the Chinese government's policy support, but, after the reform and opening up, the three northeastern provinces have been falling rapidly in the comparative advantage or the share of GDP and stagnat-ing in comparison with other regions. In particular, after CHINA entered the New Normal in 2014, the Chinese government implemented supply-side reforms completely, and put the focus of this reform on overcapacity of heavy industry and reform of state-owned enterprises. As a result, the economic growth of the three northeastern provinces, where heavy industries and state-owned enterprises accounted for a large portion of the economy, has been falling, and this trend is becoming more serious. Based on the economic situation of the three northeastern provinces in 2016, this report analyzes the three aspects of industrial structure, corporate governance structure, and elemental resources, and chooses the three major causes of the economic CRISIS in the three northeastern provinces. First, there is a single industrial struc-ture. Among the regional GDP, heavy industries, that is, the resource-intensive industries, account for a large portion of industry, and the development of technology-intensive industries is far behind. Second, the proportion of state-owned enterprises is very high. In other words, the structural problem of a company directly affects production efficiency. Third, the outflow of human resources is very serious. Due to various problems such as low-level industrial structure, lack of policy support, lack of enterprise innovation environment, etc. of the three north-eastern provinces, high-quality human resources have escaped to other cities to find a better opportunity, which has hampered the development of high-tech industries in the region and further slowed down the advanced industrial structure. The analysis concludes that the three northeastern provinces should undergo fundamental reforms in terms of industrial structure and corporate governance structure, under the background of the strengthening of CHI-NA's supply-side reforms. First, in the aspect of industrial structure, the industrial structure should be diversified and the industrial structure should be upgraded. And, through improving the corporate governance structure, the efficiency of the local economy should be improved by converting the less efficient state economy into a more efficient private economy. It is necessary to establish local preference policies that can attract core human re-sources while solving the problems of industrial structure and corporate governance structure.
    Keyword:Crisis, Three Northeastern Provinces in China, Industry Structure, Corporate Governance Structure, Human Resources
  • Korean public education is in crisis. So-called ‘School collapse phenomenon’ is worsening along with ever-flourishing private education, school violence, and failure of personality education. Taken for granted educational standards are being lost, and traditional pedagogical paradigm is being negated. Representation and legitimacy of educational research are at risk, while prudent choice and authentic dialogue from educational practice can be found nowhere. In the midst of the crisis, this article is suggesting a variety of ideas to innovate the endan-gered Korean public education. At the center of the ideas is the ‘Affiliated Schools’. Affiliated schools in Korea have a great potential to reform and innovate the public schooling in that they share many characteristics as ‘practical research community’. Therefore, this study suggests organizing a community of practical research and learning, composed of college of education and its affiliated schools, while teachers in the community work as a ‘performer of institutional function’, ‘leader’, ‘learner’, ‘cultural mediator’, and ‘critical reflector’. This study also suggests installing a central agency to diffuse and expand the research outputs and local knowledge from that community and the agency is named as KTCLC, Korean Teacher Consulting and Leadership Center. There is nei-ther a clear solution nor a driving force to overcome the present crisis of Korean education. In the midst of this stalemate, establishing a practical research and learning community can be a seed of hope for endangered Ko-rean public education. Hopefully the teachers, who are leaders, learners, practical researchers, critical reflectors, and cultural mediators, can create and to become a foundation for more just education where every single stu-dent can bring out their best potential possibilities. Then we can dream of the education for hope, to replace this age of pain.
    Keyword:Professional Development, Affiliated School, Community of Practical Research and Learning, Pub-lic Education Reform, Korean Public Education in Crisis