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  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the selective attributes of North Korean Tteok, examine and articulate the causal relationship between selective attributes, satisfaction and repurchase intention, and suggest practical implications for management. Method: In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the data were collected using Saeteomin, who have their experiences in purchasing Tteok as a sample group. A nationwide survey of 400 Saeteomins was conducted from January 2022 for about 4 weeks. As a result, 370 copies(effective rate of 92.5%) were used for the empirical analysis. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, and simple(multiple) regression analysis were per-formed for the analytical methods of the collected data. Results: The research results and implications through the empirical analysis are presented as follows. First, as North Korean Tteok's selective attributes, the 4 factors of price, taste, nostalgia, and diversity were derived. Second, among the selective attributes factors, diversity, taste, and nostalgia turned out to have a positive effect on satis-faction. Through which, in order to increase satisfaction after purchasing North Korean Tteok, it is necessary to stimulate the nostalgia of North Korean Tteok for the consumers, develop various types, and manufacture Tteok that improves health and taste. Third, among the selective attributes factors, diversity and taste turned out to have an effect on repurchase intention in a positive direction. Through which, in order to induce the consumers to repurchase North Korean Tteok, it is necessary to promote and manufacture various North Korean Tteoks and make products that emphasize health and unique taste of North Korean Tteok. Fourth, satisfaction turned out to affect repurchase intention in a positive direction. That is, in order to increase the repurchase rate, North Korean Tteok must have manufactured the products that increase satisfaction with nostalgia, variety, and taste. Conclusion: This study sought to examine and articulate the North Korean Tteok's selective attributes of Saeteomin, but an in-depth North Korean Tteok investigation was insufficient given the lack of data and information on North Korean Tteok, and studies on such are insufficient. Hence, it can be said that future research is necessary to study the ways to enable the Korean people to consume and purchase North Korean Tteok with interest.
    Keyword:Saeteomin, North Korean Tteok, Selective Attributes, Satisfaction, Repurchase Intention
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to not only explore, in regards to the international students studying in Korea, the influence of external motivation for studying abroad on the academic adjustment and the educational satisfaction, but also the infrastructure services, which are currently various external motivations for the international students at each university, thereby preparing the basic data needed to build the customized practical cases appropriate for the future society. Method: In this study, from November 2019 to January 2020, 450 international students enrolled at universities in Daegu and Gyeongbuk were surveyed, and the cluster sampling method was used, and the survey was conducted using the self-administration method. Among the collected questionnaires, 322 questionnaires were used as a valid sample, excluding the data in which the responses were insincere or some of the contents of the survey were omitted, and a questionnaire was conducted on the external motivation, academic adjustment, and educational satisfaction among the international students. For the data processing of the study, using the SPSS 23.0, frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and the multiple regression depending on the purpose of data analysis were used. Results: As a result of the factor analysis and reliability test for external motivation in factor analysis and reliability test, the eigenvalue and reliability of the factor turned out to be 2.873(α=.832) and 2.801(α=.806), and the academic adjustment turned out to be an adjustment factor of 2.942(α=.825), educational satisfaction turned out to be a facility/administrative factor of 2.531(α=.776), and a teaching/class factor of 2.149(α=.766). Overall, it turned out that the external motivation affects the academic adjustment and the educational satisfaction. Conclusion: It is significant in that it examines the correlations between 'motivation to study abroad', 'study adaptation', and 'educational satisfaction' of the international students from the perspective of transnationalism which leads to 'study-employment-immigration'. Accordingly, in order for the international students to adapt to their studies and satisfy their education, the infrastructure services, which are motives outside of studying abroad, must be strengthened.
    Keyword:International Students, Study Abroad, External Motivation, Academic Adjustment, Educational Satisfaction
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the types of consumers in their teens through their 30s who care for their appearance by analyzing the socio-cultural attitude types and related factors towards appearance using the potential profile analysis, and provide a practical assistance for marketing in line with the consumer type. Method: In this study, 520 online questionnaires were collected from among those in their teens and their 30s, and using SPSS 25ver and M-plus 7.0 programs, the basic analyses including frequency analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, etc., as well as appearance using potential profile analysis were performed while cross-analysis and variance analysis were performed to identify differences in major variables according to the socio-cultural attitude type related classification and derived types. Results: First, as a result of the potential profile analysis, 4 groups were found to be the most appropriate, and the graphs were named 'overall low group', 'media awareness centric group', 'overall high group', and 'other per-spective centric group'. As the main results of the difference test, the older the age group and the more office workers, the more likely they were to belong to the group that emphasized the point of view of others, while the interest in skin beauty and appearance were highly likely to belong to the general high-class and media aware-ness-centric group. That is, in the Korean society, there is a culture that emphasizes how you appear to others rather than yourself as you get older and enter social life, but this tendency does not have a positive effect on your interest in skin care or appearance. Whereas, such tendency can be interpreted as not having a positive effect on interest in skin beauty or appearance. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the age group which entered society and occupation, etc. are highly likely to belong to the other-centric group because appearance is important, but the interest in appearance and skin beauty tends to be higher in the media recognition-centric group. It can be seen that when it comes to taking care of one's appearance, it is more important for one to recognize the necessity through the media than to emphasize the interest of others. Hence, through this study, it is intended to be used as a promotional marketing strategy and provide services desired by consumers to increase their satisfaction and assistance lead to their reuse.
    Keyword:Socio-Cultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Interest in Skin Beauty, Interest in Appearance, Potential Profile, Generation MZ
  • Purpose: This study aims to understand the structural relationship between values and major satisfaction, career decision self-efficacy, and job preparation behavior recognized by college students majoring in aviation service. In a positive effect on the active job preparation behavior of college students majoring in aviation service, the exact job value of their choice is vital for major satisfaction and career decision self-efficacy. Method: The population of this study conducted an online survey from April 11 to April 24, 2020, for students in the 2nd to 4th grades of airline service-related departments. Of the 412 collected questionnaires, 398 valid questions were used for analysis after excluding those that responded faithfully. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 statistical packages based on the data collected to verify the hypothesis of this study. Results: As a result of hypothesis verification, it was confirmed that the perceived work values of college stu-dents majoring in airline service have a significantly positive(+) influence on major satisfaction, career decision-making self-efficacy, and employment preparation behavior. However, it was shown that major satisfaction did not have a significantly positive(+) influence on employment preparation behavior. However, it was confirmed that major satisfaction and career decision-making self-efficacy had a double mediating effect between job value and job preparation behavior. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant positive influence on employment preparation behavior for major satisfaction of college students majoring in airline service. This means that even if the overall satisfaction with the major recognized by college students majoring in airline service is high, it does not affect the full-fledged employment preparation behavior. However, in this study, as it was confirmed that major satisfaction and career decision-making self-efficacy had a double mediating effect between work values and employment preparation behavior, it was confirmed that students' psychological and internal positive factors play an important role in employment preparation behavior.
    Keyword:Work Values, Employment Preparation Behavior, Major Satisfaction, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Double Mediating Effect
  • Purpose: Hard-boiled mystery fictions were treated as low-level literature simply because they were mostly published in cheap pulp magazines and their readers were mostly uneducated manual workers. Thus, by examining the circumstances of the time portrayed in Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest, the influence of Red Harvest on other fields of art and its background, and how Dashiell Hammett viewed the chaotic US society at the time and suggested solutions, the author intends to re-evaluate the value of the hard-boiled mystery fictions. Method: First, this paper is intended to examine the characteristics of the characters in the hard-boiled mystery fiction, the story development, and how Hammett reflects the chaotic US society in the 1920s in his work with focus on Red Harvest. Second, Red Harvest influenced later films Yojimbo and A Fistful of Dollars. By examining how Red Harvest was incorporated into other fields of art. Results: Through Red Harvest, it could be seen that the detective in the hard-boiled mystery fictions was portrayed as a worker demanding remuneration, unlike previous righteous detectives and that the evil, the basis of the story, was not limited to individuals, but was prevalent in social structures such as villains, capitalists, and public authorities, thus reflecting the situation of the time. As a result, the author could find the justification for the hard-boiled mystery fiction to be re-valuated as valuable literature in that it reflected the situation of the time, suggested solutions, and influenced other fields of art. Conclusion: Hard-boiled mystery fictions, in fact, gave the most vivid view of the situation of the time. The need of most ordinary people, who were treated ignorant but in fact supported the chaotic era, for social purification could be seen through the detective. These merits were attractive enough to be incorporated into other fields of art, such as film. Thus, hard-boiled mystery fictions should no longer be treated as low-level literature, and their value should rather be re-evaluated.
    Keyword:Dashiell Hammett, Red Harvest, Hard-Boiled Mystery Fiction, Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction, The Val-ue of Hard-Boiled Fiction
  • Purpose: The career decision-making self-efficacy is a belief about an individual's ability to successfully accomplish a given task. Students do not demonstrate an active attitude when they are faced with various stresses and anxiety about their own career or employment, and even some are passive and self-reliant, and they learn throughout their lives by becoming helpless when faced with numerous challenges due to their lack of responsibility or low self-esteem, thereby demonstrating symptoms of learned helplessness. As a result of the study which identified the relationship between learned helplessness and career path, the students with a high level of learned helplessness had a relatively high percentage of independent and dependent decisions in the overall process such as career selection, search, and decision relative to the students with a low sense of helplessness, and it was also claimed that the children with high learned helplessness showed relatively low means to solve career-related problem situations promptly. Hence, it is evident that by conducting the group art therapy, negative cognition and behavior can be changed through the group interaction and successful experiences in the art therapy process. This paper seeks to specifically examine the effects of group art therapy, which is very useful among the various treatment techniques which can help solve internal problems, on the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy formed through the repeated failures. Method: Twenty mentally challenged high school students enrolled in special classes at average high schools were assigned to the experimental group and 10 to the control group. The group program was conducted twice a week, for a total of 10 sessions of 80 minutes per session. For the prepost-additional-tests on learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy, repeated measure analysis of variance and simple main effect analysis were performed. Results: The experimental group in receipt of the group art therapy program was statistically significantly higher in the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy scores than the control group both after and additional. Such results are meaning in that they help not only the mentally challenged high school students who are about to graduate, but also the mentally challenged high school students currently enrolled in the school to increase their self-confidence and self-esteem to ensure that they can make career choices that align with the reality through the positive understanding of themselves and the correct perception related changes. Conclusion: The group art therapy helps to address issues and problems through deep insight into one's inner self, and helps to improve the self-esteem by having a positive self-image, further to being an important factor for improvement. Hence, through this study, the group art therapy program should make an active effort to give a sense of achievement for the human growth, convert negative motives to positive motives, and diversify the scope of application of group art therapy programs for addressing realistic problems.
    Keyword:Group Art Therapy, Learned Helplessness, Career Decision Making, Self-Efficacy, Mentally Challenged
  • Purpose: This study aims to explore the various influencing factors that influencer channel characteristics have on users, targeting university students who are the main users of various social media after the pandemic. Method: in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 college students to investigate their influencer usage behaviors, explore factors affecting their use, and develop a related research model. Results: First of all, in the early days of using content, they encountered content for reasons such as topicality, information, friend recommendation, and curiosity, and there was a tendency to select content based on similar tastes through algorithm and friend recommendation. In particular, the highly topical contents of influencers recommended by friends played an important role in forming peer culture with friends. It was found that sincerity and candor revealed in the content were important factors influencing the period when an influencer's channel was subscribed and used continuously and intimacy was formed. When they felt their sincerity and honesty, they realized that they were different from other influencers and continued to watch them. It was found that the interaction factor plays a decisive role in forming intimacy with influencers and continuously using the channel for more than 3 months, forming a fandom and recommending content to others. Conclusion: This usage behavior of college students has great implications for companies that want to pro-mote and market through the influencer channel. As the factors that affect users vary depending on when they use the influencer channel, a promotional strategy that reflects this is needed. In addition, as integrity and honesty are important factors in building users' trust, it should be given more important value than anything else in maintaining and managing channels.
    Keyword:Influencer Channel Characteristics, Influence of Influencers, Influencers of Influencers on College Students, Motivations to Use Influencer Channels, Intention to Continue Using Influencer Channel
  • Purpose: The successful adaptation of students to college life is an important factor that significantly influences success or failure in life after college as well and it also correlates with the success or failure of important periods of life. Therefore, although many researchers have studied adaptation to college, so far studies have mainly focused on academic adaptation. However, as adaptation to college life includes not only academics but also various factors such as interpersonal relationships and emotional adaptation, it is also important to shed light on the relationship between variables other than academics and college life adaptation. This study aims to reveal important information that helps college students adapt to school by examining in detail how empathy and self-acceptance affect adaptation to college life. Method: Questionnaires about empathy, self-acceptance, and adaptation to college life were administered to 345 college students, and the analyses were performed based on the data of 318 students who answered faith-fully. First, a correlation analysis was conducted to confirm the relationship between each variable, and a variance analysis was conducted to see if there were any differences in empathy, self-acceptance, and adaptation to college life according to school year and gender. Finally, in order to comprehensively confirm the relationship be-tween the three variables, AMOS 22.0 was used to analyze the structural equations. Results: The results of the analysis indicated there was a significant correlation between empathy and self-acceptance and adaptation to college life. The results of examining whether there were any significant differences among the three variables according to gender and school year, showed that, in the case of empathy, female students' empathy was higher than that of male students, and there was no difference in self-acceptance according to gender. In the case of adaptation to college life, male students showed higher rates. In terms of differences by school year, there was no difference in empathy and self-acceptance, and there was a significant difference in college life adaptation by school year. Post-hoc analysis(Scheffe method) was performed to confirm specific differences by school year, but no significant differences were found. Examining the relationship between empathy, self-acceptance, and adaptation to college life, empathy had a positive effect on adaptation to college life and self-acceptance. Self-acceptance also had a positive effect on adaptation to college life. Conclusion: This study is intended to specifically elucidate the effect of empathy and self-acceptance on adaptation to college life. It was found that empathy and self-acceptance had a positive effect on adaptation to college life as predicted in this study. Also, it was confirmed that self-acceptance had a mediating influence on the effect of empathy on adaptation to college life. The results will be used as important data for various activities to improve adaptation to college life. This suggests that improving empathy and self-acceptance abilities should be included as an important factor in the process of developing a future program for college life adaptation.
    Keyword:Empathy, Self-Acceptance, Adaptation to College Life, Counseling, College Students
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effect of job satisfaction of the beauty service providers, which is highly dependent on human resources such as technology and services, on the goal orientation for public value. Method: The questionnaire method was used for women in their 20s and 50s. The questionnaire was consisted of job satisfaction, goal orientedness, and demographic variables. Frequency, percentage, and average were calculated, and to learn about the relationship between job satisfaction and goal orientedness, the multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: In terms of the effect of job satisfaction on learning avoidance among the goal orientations, only the salary satisfaction variable turned out to have a statistically significant negative(-) effect. In [Model 1], in terms of the effect of job satisfaction on performance approach and learning approach among the goal orientations, only the job satisfaction variable turned out to have a statistically significant positive(+) effect. In [Model 2], it turned out that the job satisfaction variable and the boss satisfaction variable had a statistically significant positive(+) effect. Conclusion: For the job satisfaction of beauty service providers, it will be necessary to improve the job environment and job conditions. Accordingly, it is expected that this study will serve as the basic data for understanding the improvement of the work environment of beauty service providers and also be used as the marketing data for beauty servicemen who are aiming for a goal.
    Keyword:Beauty, Beauty Service Provider, Public Value, Job Satisfaction, Goal Orientedness
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the core competencies, the developmental stages of competency, and the learning patterns of lifelong education instructors at local culture centers in department stores that function as a representative lifelong education institution attached to a company. Method: This study performed a qualitative case study. This included an in-depth interview with 8 people who have 25-35 years of experience as lifelong education instructors at culture centers in department stores. For the data analysis, thematic analysis and contents analysis methods were used. For the analysis framework of this study, Gardner's I/D/F system approach(individual/domain/field system approach: I/D/F) model, which was suggested in the theoretical background, was used. Results: The study derived three competency factors, three stages of competency development, and three learning types of lifelong education instructors at culture centers in department stores. Conclusion: First, there were three components of competency development of lifelong education instructors at culture centers in department stores: (1)knowledge and skills, (2)emotion regulation, and (3)performance and reflection. Second, the competency development stages of lifelong education instructors at culture centers in department stores were divided into three stages: (1)novice instructors → (2)professional instructors → (3)Outstanding instructors. Third, the learning types that promote the competency development of lifelong education instructors in culture centers in department stores were as follows: (1)learning by modeling, (2)learning by trial and error, and (3)anticipatory·creative learning.
    Keyword:Local Culture Centers in Department Stores, Lifelong Education Instructors, Components of Competency Development, Developmental Stages of Competency, Learning Patterns