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  • Due to poor socioeconomic conditions such as declining wages and high unemployment rates, unskilled young people may be drawn to the commission of crime. Several recent studies have found that worsening economic conditions cause social disorder and crime. The purpose of this study is to assess whether various socioeconomic indicators have a positive impact on both violent and property crime rates at the county level within the state of Texas in the United States. The present study hypothesizes that: 1)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with high levels of poverty; 2)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with high levels of unemployment; 3)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with low levels of median household income; 4)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with low levels of educational attainment. The data used in the analysis was collected from the Uniform Crime Report(UCR) and the United States Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Service(USDA) for the year 2015. Within the present study, the total enumeration of counties(254) located in the state of Texas(United States) was designated as the units of analysis. This study measures two dependent variables: violent crime rates and property crime rates. Four unique independent variables were chosen for the analysis based off findings in the current body of literature: (a)poverty, (b)unemployment, (c)median household income, and (d)educational attainment. An Ordinary Least Squares(OLS) regression model is employed to empirically investigate the relationships between socioeconomic indicators and crime rates. In addition, Geographic Information Systems(GIS) were employed to demonstrate the link between unemployment, violent crime, and property crime. The findings of the current study reveal that (1)violent crime rates are on average higher in counties with high levels of unemployment; (2)property crime rates are higher on average in counties with higher levels of unemployment. To clarify, a 1 Standard Deviation(SD) unit increase in unemployment predicts a 6% increase in the expected count of violent crime(p < .001). Also, a 1 SD unit increase in unemployment predicts a 29% increase in the expected count of property crime(p < .001). Unemployment is the only significant independent variable and can thus be viewed as a possible source of criminality within the counties in Texas. One method of reducing unemployment and ultimately reducing crime is by implementing a community development model. This will lead to the creation of a “community network” that draws local resources, services, and facilities together for the creation of more jobs. The contributions, limitations and suggestions for the future study were discussed in conclusion.
    Keyword:Socioeconomic Conditions, Violent Crime, Property Crime, Ordinal Least Squares Regression, Community Development Model
  • CPTED(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) theory was first introduced in Korea in late 1980s, and research began in full scale from late 1990s. Moreover, academic circles have vigorously pressed ahead with research into the preconditions for CPTED application, supportive organization activities, physical environment design factors, analysis of citizens’ awareness based on pilot projects, etc. While various researches have been conducted in Korea, ranging from consideration of traditional theories to actual applications, criticisms have been raised about passive implementation of projects focusing on conceptual elements of CPTED. This study was intended to introduce the cases of CPTED applications in Korea and to examine the anticipated effects of crime prevention based on results of such CPTED applications. Additionally, the results would provide theoretical basic data for constructive alternative for CPTED application projects, along with discussion on future direction of CPTED application projects. Additionally, the results would provide theoretical basic data for constructive alternative for CPTED application projects, along with discussion on future direction of CPTED application projects. In practical application of CPTED strategy, surveillance network should be put into place which serves as in-visible psychological barrier blocking criminals, as well as physical environment creation such as natural surveil-lance, access control, and boundary reinforcement. Collaborative network with security organizations can be built, buttressed by the attention and support of residents. Constant efforts to create bright image of streets bustling with residents and maintain a pleasant environment will eventually lead to crime reduction. Active participation and attention of local residents is of utmost importance for placing a lot of pressure on criminals conscious of around-the-clock surveillance on them by local residents and reinforcing the boundaries unnatural and difficult to access for criminals. The image of safe village, which is embedded in the minds of the public, has been benchmarked as a best practice in the neighboring area. CPTED is highlighted in the process of improving the quality of life. Thus, future CPTED application projects should serve as pivot for vitalization of local community and induce active participation of local residents. For the purpose, a process should be established to heed the opinions of residents from the stage of project planning and allow residents to take initiatives spontaneously.
    Keyword:CPTED, Situational Crime Prevention Theory, Citizen Participation, Urban Environment Improvement, Crime Monitoring
  • The problem of the elderly is an issue that many people do not recognize among social problems caused by aging. In Korea, the damage caused by elderly crimes has increased every year since 1995. These elderly crimes are occurring commonly not only in Korea but also in other countries worldwide. More seriously, elderly crimes are increasing steadily at the same time as violent crimes such as murder, larceny, arson, assault, bodily harm, etc. Most of the elderly crimes were motivated primarily for survival and livelihood previously, but in recent years, the crimes committed by the elderly have increasingly fallen into the category of the major 5 crimes. The inci-dence and proportion of elderly crimes have been increasing steadily over time. In addition, some incidents of crimes perpetrated by the elderly population are indescribably horrendous, compared to those of the past, and therefore, thorough countermeasures would need to be mapped out. There has been a growing importance of practical research, such as the research into characteristics of elderly crime, factors inducing elderly crimes, and polices for prevention of elderly crime, etc., from the standpoint of criminology in respect of crimes committed by the elderly population in Korea. Thus, it would be important to analyze the characteristics of elderly crimes committed recently in Korea based on various statistical data and literature related to elderly crimes, and based on that, to identify the causes of skyrocketing elderly crimes and establish countermeasures. With the increase in the relative ratio of elderly crimes and elderly population, it is expected that elderly crimes would be highlighted as a serious social problem when the baby boomers join the ranks of elderly population in the period ahead. Therefore, this study was intended to investigate current status and causes of the elderly crimes in Korea, which actually occurred or were likely to occur in Korea in the period ahead and to seek countermeasures. Thus, the study can consider the following policy proposals for achieving a society without elderly crimes. First, it would be necessary to promote a shift in the awareness of the public towards elderly crimes. Second, it is necessary to promote and strengthen role-sharing among social welfare organizations. Third, it is necessary to create a pool of professional manpower for prevention of elderly crimes. Efficient countermeasures would need to be taken against elderly crimes by securing professionals specialized in prevention of elderly crimes in order to accommodate the aging and environmental changes. Fourth, elderly crime control system would need to be es-tablished by criminal justice organizations. Elderly crimes are accidents that occur in communities and require cooperation with concerned local authorities and organizations.
    Keyword:Elderly Crime, Aging Society, Economic Poverty, Elder Crime Prevention, Social Alienation
  • In Korea, cultivation of humanity, which is traditionally the role of family, was transferred to the school as the transformation from complex family types to nuclear family type has progressed. As a result, schools have be-come a space for realizing institutionalized whole education, not a place for knowledge acquisition and training to achieve learning goals. However, as verbal abuse, violence, bullying, sexual assault, etc., among students in schools have emerged as social issues, schools can no longer be a protected area or a haven for students. In Korea, the prevailing perception was that school violence cannot be present until the term ‘school violence’ began to be used widely in the society, and the response to school violence, such as physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying, etc., among students relied primarily on ethical guidance of teachers rather than dealing with school violence as crime. However, a series of suicides caused due to school violence have been reported through media, leading to an emphasis on the importance of preventing school violence, and eventually legislation has been made to prevent school violence. The 「Act on the Prevention and Countermeasures against Violence in School」 was enacted in 2004 and institutional measures have been proposed. However, no significant results have been achieved as short-term and temporary responses were made, rather than systematic response based on precise diagnosis of causes. And the study intended to present the possibility of leveraging the sports activities and education based on sports such activities as one of educational techniques while emphasizing the importance of school violence preventive education on the basis of the recognition that approach from various perspectives is important for prevention of school violence. In addition, the study intend to present school violence prevention activities through sports edu-cation in Korea and discuss the impact that such school violence prevention activities would have on the society. Therefore, it would be necessary to promote physical education in school, and at the same time, to recognize the importance for establishing moral values based on the influence of martial sports and martial art instructors as part of personality cultivation education for prevention of school violence, and furthermore, to provide insti-tutional support. Moreover, it would be also necessary to cultivate fair-play spirit through martial sports and to increase the interest in fostering professional martial sports instructors to guide the students in the cultivation of personality.
    Keyword:School Violence, Cyber Bullying, Personality Education, Sports, Martial Arts Education
  • Korea has strengthened inspection of respective social welfare facilities and schools for handicapped and dis-abled across the country in response to the emergence of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities as a social issue. Children with disabilities often find it painful to live with disabilities, but are unable to protect or defense themselves or are sometimes unaware that they are being victimized due to their mental illnesses and physical disabilities, etc. Even if when they want to claim that they have fallen victim to by sexual assault crime, they do not know how to come forward and make their cases. Another problem is that perpetrators of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities are not punished and that compensation and treatment are not provided properly to those children, the victims of sexual assault crimes. In addition, sexual assault crimes committed against children with disabilities pose many problems in whole processes until the cases are closed. To resolve such problems, the priority would need to be given to understand-ing the specificity of children with disabilities in the process of crime cases. Efforts need to be made constantly to establish the system ensuring thorough investigation and imposing strong punishment on perpetrators of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities and to improve human rights for persons with disabilities. Thus, this study was intended to identify current status and problems of sexual assault crimes perpetrated against children with disabilities and to propose measures at policy level for prevention of such sexual assault crimes. When the sexual assault crime against children with disabilities was brought up as a social issue, it was pos-sible to see controversies swirling and then subsiding over time. Therefore, long-term policies need to be mapped out constantly for prevention of sexual assault crimes, instead of one-time countermeasure, to fundamentally resolve the issue of sexual assault crimes perpetrated against children with disabilities. For the purpose, first of all, it is necessary to understand the specificity of children with disabilities and reflect it in the process where cases of such crimes are handled. Additionally, more stringent punishment and expeditious and precise investigation would be needed in making response to sexual assault crime against children with dis-abilities. Moreover, the new government would need to devise comprehensive measures in parallel with practical support through amendment of Social Welfare Service Act so as to ensure human right protection for children with disabilities.
    Keyword:Sexual Violence Crime, Children with Disabilities, Prevention Policy, Human Rights Protection, Social Prejudice
  • In most cases, private security companies are operated by large companies in South Korea, which leads to competition among small companies rather than the private security companies of large companies. And it is true that a vicious circle has been repeated in which inefficient work system and high turnover due to the mini-mum-level wage, limited opportunities for promotion, and insufficient education & training result in the lack of expertise in most private security guards. As a result, the importance of private security guards' vocational ethics as well as their expertise is perceived more than ever. This study investigated the effects of private security guards' vocational ethics on their job attitudes and job involvement. A questionnaire survey using the self-administration method was carried out, with private security guards belonging to private security companies in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do as the subjects. And data from a total of 221 subjects were used in the final analysis, using cluster sampling among non-probability sampling. As for the data analysis of this study, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, cross tabulation analysis, t-test, F-test, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out, using the SPSS WIN 18.0 program. As a result, the following findings were derived. First, in terms of socio-demographic characteristics of the private security guards, the subjects showed differ-ences in vocational ethics according to marital status and turnover intention; showed differences in morality according to income and business area; and showed differences in diligence according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job attitude according income and turnover experience; and showed differences in job satisfaction according to income. They showed differences in identification according to income, continuous service year, and turnover experience; showed differences in organizational commitment according to income and turnover experience; and showed differences in work attitude according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job involvement according to income and turnover experience; showed differences in iden-tity according to income and turnover experience; and showed statistically significant differences in conscious-ness of participation according to income and turnover experience. Second, it was found that there were high positive(+) correlations among private security guard's vocational ethics, job attitude and job involvement. Vocational ethics showed a high correlation with job attitude, and job attitude and job involvement showed a high correlation with each other. Third, it was found that private security guard's morality and diligence had significant effects on job satisfac-tion, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude. And morality and diligence were found to have significant effects on consciousness of participation and identity. Fourth, it was found that private security guard's job satisfaction, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude had significant effects on job involvement, and that work attitude, job satisfaction, and organ-izational commitment had significant effects on consciousness of participation.
    Keyword:Criminal, Private Security Guards, Vocational Ethics, Job Attitude, Job Immersion
  • Today, there are many different types of crime taking place, many of which sophisticated, with our changing society. Conducting public safety activities for keeping public peace and order has once been considered an exclusive area of duty for the police, but the police, with their limited manpower, cannot handle tasks like protecting those who report crime from harm and other related tasks, given that the existing laws exclusively use the police force for this work, when they are heavily understaffed for the job. Hence, it is realistically difficult for the police to constantly protect these whistle-blowers who have reported crime especially on any ongoing basis and we have come to a point where the reality of the situation must be faced. This study examined the practical feasibility for private security to be used to effectively protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm in a collaborative relationship with the police, and it looked at areas that could be improved to better keep these whistle-blowers safe from harm. To that end, we conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory, gathered data, and examined and analyzed the phenomenon. As a result, we came up with recommended policy measures and attempted to tie them with the utility of using private security. This study reached the following conclusions on the utility of using private security to achieve the goal of protecting the society and to substantially protect whistle-blowers who report crime in a supporting role to the police. First, legislation in South Korea related to protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm is considerably poor and any changes made are not systematic enough. Laws on steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm should be aligned with the goal of better public safety and welfare, and therefore they should aim to serve these whistle-blowers who report crime. Second, it certainly must be inadequate to try to use only the police force to take the steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm. Therefore, private security must be utilized in a supporting role with the police. At the basic level, security services provided by the police simultaneously target all of the whistle-blowers of a country, and there are no differentiating levels between the services provided. Therefore, using private security to fill that gap in particular providing services for protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm has sufficient merit of consideration from a national policy perspective given the police would be too understaffed to handle this task adequately by itself. Third, with a recent expansion of its role, private security is performing its function in an assistant role in maintaining public peace and order, when it used to be that it only handled private security matters. Given ongoing guidance, supervision and systematic management by the administrative agency to help utilize private security in a supplementary role in protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm, substantial and efficient provision of services to maintain public peace and order would be possible as private security and public security work together in a kind of symbiotic relationship.
    Keyword:Criminal, Security, Private Security, Protecting, Whistleblowers
  • In the 21st century, the importance and necessity of neuroscience have been on the rise as a great deal of brain mechanism, which is a mutual interest in various fields including psychology, medicine, engineering and etc., has been brought to light. Accordingly, we can see that the specific studies are closely related to the field of security when it comes to identification of Security Crisis factor and etc. However, despite the accelerated ad-vancement of today’s neuroscience and its long continued researches and accumulated experiences as well as the application of the Sixth Sense to identify security crisis factors, there have not been sufficient scientific grounds to support its existence. Hereupon, in this research, scientific grounds to the application of the sixth sense in identifying security crisis factors are provided through three research questions hoping that it would help security agencies to be better prepared and ready for this regards. The following are the three research questions: First, How much is known about the sixth sense and how much of it is actually accepted in the real world security scenes? Second, Can the sixth sense be thought of as a scientific phenomenon? Third, What is the limitation of the sixth sense as a tool to identify security crisis factors and what is the course of action to support the limitation? The following studies were reviewed as scientific grounds: Joshua Brown and his research team, Study on ‘Pre-emptive Early Warning towards Risks’, Washington University(2005), Steven Bennett and his research team, Study on ‘Detection and Recognition of Explosives’, US Army Research Laboratory(2009). As a result, considering the current status of security environment where a lot of crisis factors have to be detected, blocked, and prevented from a number of people within a limited time, the importance of intuitive decision-making ability and its development was revealed. With regards to the above, even thought it was proven by the state-of-the-art neuroscience, since this alone cannot be concluded as a sufficient evidence for the identification of security crisis factor due to the limitation of its application in the security field, I would like to provide an alternative of combining various security equipment such as MDs(walk through metal detectors), X-ray scanners, and searching questions that utilizes information knowledge of security events. Then, I would like to put forward that the most important elements of the ultimate goal of security are transcendental and above the law liability for the absolute safety of security recipients.
    Keyword:Crime, Security, Neuroscience, Bodily Response, The Sixth Sense
  • Human beings always look for a suitable career for them and seek self-realization as well as economic stability through professional activities. Hence, college life can be seen as a particularly important time facing a transition to the world of work in terms of career preparation and career decision making. However, today's society is rapidly changing so that it causes uncertainties about college students' future courses who are supposed to graduate from college, achieve capacities and then contribute to the nation, society and organization. Therefore it seems that colleges need to be more proactive in their students' career issues. This study is to analyze the effect relationship of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity among students of security services, understand how the causal relationship of variables is, and em-phasize the need to conduct research for the development of security industry and universities with the depart-ment of security services. Subjects of this study consist of 500 students who attend one of 6 universities with the department related to security services. This study used SPSS 20.0 version. In order to ensure reliability and validity of questionnaires, Cronbach's Alpha of Internal Consistency Method and Exploratory Factor Analysis were conducted. While fre-quency analysis was conducted to analyze demographic characteristics of this sample, ANOVA was applied for identify differences among variables by each demographic characteristic. Correlation analysis on measurement variables and multiple regression analysis were conducted in order to analyze effects of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity. First, as results of difference analysis on self-directed learning ability, self-determination and career maturity by each demographic characteristic, mostly there was no significant difference, however, behavioral domain by gender was higher among females than males and compromise was significantly higher among females than males. Cognitive, affective, behavioral domain and competence by grade were significantly higher among those scored higher than those scored lower. Second, as results of effect analysis of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity, it appeared that self-directed learning ability positively influences on self-determination and career maturity. Sub-factors of self-directed learning ability, cognitive domain(.185), affective domain(.273) and behavioral do-main(0.96) all positively influence on self-determination. Also, it appeared that sub-factors of self-directed learn-ing ability, cognitive domain(.109), affective domain(.305), behavioral domain(.095) all positively influence on self-determination. Consequently, through improving self-directed learning ability which enables security services students to take the initiative in their learning, set and conduct learning objectives and strategies and evaluate learning outcomes, they can solve the problems related to college maladjustment and career issues since it can positively influence on their thoughts, behaviors and career issues.
    Keyword:Security, Protection Science, Self-Directed Learning Ability, Self-Determination, Career Maturity
  • Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, community policing has been adopted in most of police agencies in the United States as well as many other countries to improve overall effectiveness of police departments and enhance citizen’s perception toward police. Under the philosophy of community policing, police-community relation is considered as one of important elements to success their missions. That is, effective community policing requires input of citizens regarding the needs and problems of the community. Thus, public attitude toward police can be very influential and should be one that is positive. For instance, there has always existed a cyclical relationship between the police and the public: distrust towards the police affects their effectiveness of crime control, which leads to an increase in crime that, ultimately, results in further distrust. Nationwide, principally in countries that have a widespread allocation of poverty and interference from an overreaching state or government, law en-forcement has been viewed particularly disapprovingly and untrusting due to past behaviors of their own police involved in corruption and dishonesty. Although there has been an extensive body of research that has been conducted on public confidence in the police, there has been limited research that has focused on press freedom and other nations. The purpose of current study, therefore, is to shed light on the public confidence in police across 15 OECD countries using the World Value Survey(2010-2014). Moreover, the study attempts to determine how press freedom influences the public confidence in policing forces across 15 countries. The findings from this study partially supported our research hypothesis where press freedom positively influ-enced public confidence in the police agencies across the OECD countries. More specifically, consistent with prior research, individual characteristics of the respondents were statistically significant while the press freedom be-came a non-significant factor on police confidence. In particular, people who were older, female, and have a high level of education tend to report a higher level of police confidence. In addition, two country level variables were statistically significant. That is, crime rates had a negative impact on police confidence while economic growth were positively related to the police confidence. Although the current study improves our understanding of the effect of press freedom on police confidence, there are several limitations, and future study needs to be con-ducted to better understand police confidence. Finally, implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    Keyword:Criminal, Crimes, Police Confidence, Press Freedom, OECD Countries