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  • In most cases, private security companies are operated by large companies in South Korea, which leads to competition among small companies rather than the private security companies of large companies. And it is true that a vicious circle has been repeated in which inefficient work system and high turnover due to the mini-mum-level wage, limited opportunities for promotion, and insufficient education & training result in the lack of expertise in most private security guards. As a result, the importance of private security guards' vocational ethics as well as their expertise is perceived more than ever. This study investigated the effects of private security guards' vocational ethics on their job attitudes and job involvement. A questionnaire survey using the self-administration method was carried out, with private security guards belonging to private security companies in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do as the subjects. And data from a total of 221 subjects were used in the final analysis, using cluster sampling among non-probability sampling. As for the data analysis of this study, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, cross tabulation analysis, t-test, F-test, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out, using the SPSS WIN 18.0 program. As a result, the following findings were derived. First, in terms of socio-demographic characteristics of the private security guards, the subjects showed differ-ences in vocational ethics according to marital status and turnover intention; showed differences in morality according to income and business area; and showed differences in diligence according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job attitude according income and turnover experience; and showed differences in job satisfaction according to income. They showed differences in identification according to income, continuous service year, and turnover experience; showed differences in organizational commitment according to income and turnover experience; and showed differences in work attitude according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job involvement according to income and turnover experience; showed differences in iden-tity according to income and turnover experience; and showed statistically significant differences in conscious-ness of participation according to income and turnover experience. Second, it was found that there were high positive(+) correlations among private security guard's vocational ethics, job attitude and job involvement. Vocational ethics showed a high correlation with job attitude, and job attitude and job involvement showed a high correlation with each other. Third, it was found that private security guard's morality and diligence had significant effects on job satisfac-tion, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude. And morality and diligence were found to have significant effects on consciousness of participation and identity. Fourth, it was found that private security guard's job satisfaction, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude had significant effects on job involvement, and that work attitude, job satisfaction, and organ-izational commitment had significant effects on consciousness of participation.
    Keyword:Criminal, Private Security Guards, Vocational Ethics, Job Attitude, Job Immersion
  • Today, there are many different types of crime taking place, many of which sophisticated, with our changing society. Conducting public safety activities for keeping public peace and order has once been considered an exclusive area of duty for the police, but the police, with their limited manpower, cannot handle tasks like protecting those who report crime from harm and other related tasks, given that the existing laws exclusively use the police force for this work, when they are heavily understaffed for the job. Hence, it is realistically difficult for the police to constantly protect these whistle-blowers who have reported crime especially on any ongoing basis and we have come to a point where the reality of the situation must be faced. This study examined the practical feasibility for private security to be used to effectively protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm in a collaborative relationship with the police, and it looked at areas that could be improved to better keep these whistle-blowers safe from harm. To that end, we conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory, gathered data, and examined and analyzed the phenomenon. As a result, we came up with recommended policy measures and attempted to tie them with the utility of using private security. This study reached the following conclusions on the utility of using private security to achieve the goal of protecting the society and to substantially protect whistle-blowers who report crime in a supporting role to the police. First, legislation in South Korea related to protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm is considerably poor and any changes made are not systematic enough. Laws on steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm should be aligned with the goal of better public safety and welfare, and therefore they should aim to serve these whistle-blowers who report crime. Second, it certainly must be inadequate to try to use only the police force to take the steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm. Therefore, private security must be utilized in a supporting role with the police. At the basic level, security services provided by the police simultaneously target all of the whistle-blowers of a country, and there are no differentiating levels between the services provided. Therefore, using private security to fill that gap in particular providing services for protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm has sufficient merit of consideration from a national policy perspective given the police would be too understaffed to handle this task adequately by itself. Third, with a recent expansion of its role, private security is performing its function in an assistant role in maintaining public peace and order, when it used to be that it only handled private security matters. Given ongoing guidance, supervision and systematic management by the administrative agency to help utilize private security in a supplementary role in protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm, substantial and efficient provision of services to maintain public peace and order would be possible as private security and public security work together in a kind of symbiotic relationship.
    Keyword:Criminal, Security, Private Security, Protecting, Whistleblowers
  • In the 21st century, the importance and necessity of neuroscience have been on the rise as a great deal of brain mechanism, which is a mutual interest in various fields including psychology, medicine, engineering and etc., has been brought to light. Accordingly, we can see that the specific studies are closely related to the field of security when it comes to identification of Security Crisis factor and etc. However, despite the accelerated ad-vancement of today’s neuroscience and its long continued researches and accumulated experiences as well as the application of the Sixth Sense to identify security crisis factors, there have not been sufficient scientific grounds to support its existence. Hereupon, in this research, scientific grounds to the application of the sixth sense in identifying security crisis factors are provided through three research questions hoping that it would help security agencies to be better prepared and ready for this regards. The following are the three research questions: First, How much is known about the sixth sense and how much of it is actually accepted in the real world security scenes? Second, Can the sixth sense be thought of as a scientific phenomenon? Third, What is the limitation of the sixth sense as a tool to identify security crisis factors and what is the course of action to support the limitation? The following studies were reviewed as scientific grounds: Joshua Brown and his research team, Study on ‘Pre-emptive Early Warning towards Risks’, Washington University(2005), Steven Bennett and his research team, Study on ‘Detection and Recognition of Explosives’, US Army Research Laboratory(2009). As a result, considering the current status of security environment where a lot of crisis factors have to be detected, blocked, and prevented from a number of people within a limited time, the importance of intuitive decision-making ability and its development was revealed. With regards to the above, even thought it was proven by the state-of-the-art neuroscience, since this alone cannot be concluded as a sufficient evidence for the identification of security crisis factor due to the limitation of its application in the security field, I would like to provide an alternative of combining various security equipment such as MDs(walk through metal detectors), X-ray scanners, and searching questions that utilizes information knowledge of security events. Then, I would like to put forward that the most important elements of the ultimate goal of security are transcendental and above the law liability for the absolute safety of security recipients.
    Keyword:Crime, Security, Neuroscience, Bodily Response, The Sixth Sense
  • Human beings always look for a suitable career for them and seek self-realization as well as economic stability through professional activities. Hence, college life can be seen as a particularly important time facing a transition to the world of work in terms of career preparation and career decision making. However, today's society is rapidly changing so that it causes uncertainties about college students' future courses who are supposed to graduate from college, achieve capacities and then contribute to the nation, society and organization. Therefore it seems that colleges need to be more proactive in their students' career issues. This study is to analyze the effect relationship of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity among students of security services, understand how the causal relationship of variables is, and em-phasize the need to conduct research for the development of security industry and universities with the depart-ment of security services. Subjects of this study consist of 500 students who attend one of 6 universities with the department related to security services. This study used SPSS 20.0 version. In order to ensure reliability and validity of questionnaires, Cronbach's Alpha of Internal Consistency Method and Exploratory Factor Analysis were conducted. While fre-quency analysis was conducted to analyze demographic characteristics of this sample, ANOVA was applied for identify differences among variables by each demographic characteristic. Correlation analysis on measurement variables and multiple regression analysis were conducted in order to analyze effects of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity. First, as results of difference analysis on self-directed learning ability, self-determination and career maturity by each demographic characteristic, mostly there was no significant difference, however, behavioral domain by gender was higher among females than males and compromise was significantly higher among females than males. Cognitive, affective, behavioral domain and competence by grade were significantly higher among those scored higher than those scored lower. Second, as results of effect analysis of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity, it appeared that self-directed learning ability positively influences on self-determination and career maturity. Sub-factors of self-directed learning ability, cognitive domain(.185), affective domain(.273) and behavioral do-main(0.96) all positively influence on self-determination. Also, it appeared that sub-factors of self-directed learn-ing ability, cognitive domain(.109), affective domain(.305), behavioral domain(.095) all positively influence on self-determination. Consequently, through improving self-directed learning ability which enables security services students to take the initiative in their learning, set and conduct learning objectives and strategies and evaluate learning outcomes, they can solve the problems related to college maladjustment and career issues since it can positively influence on their thoughts, behaviors and career issues.
    Keyword:Security, Protection Science, Self-Directed Learning Ability, Self-Determination, Career Maturity
  • Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, community policing has been adopted in most of police agencies in the United States as well as many other countries to improve overall effectiveness of police departments and enhance citizen’s perception toward police. Under the philosophy of community policing, police-community relation is considered as one of important elements to success their missions. That is, effective community policing requires input of citizens regarding the needs and problems of the community. Thus, public attitude toward police can be very influential and should be one that is positive. For instance, there has always existed a cyclical relationship between the police and the public: distrust towards the police affects their effectiveness of crime control, which leads to an increase in crime that, ultimately, results in further distrust. Nationwide, principally in countries that have a widespread allocation of poverty and interference from an overreaching state or government, law en-forcement has been viewed particularly disapprovingly and untrusting due to past behaviors of their own police involved in corruption and dishonesty. Although there has been an extensive body of research that has been conducted on public confidence in the police, there has been limited research that has focused on press freedom and other nations. The purpose of current study, therefore, is to shed light on the public confidence in police across 15 OECD countries using the World Value Survey(2010-2014). Moreover, the study attempts to determine how press freedom influences the public confidence in policing forces across 15 countries. The findings from this study partially supported our research hypothesis where press freedom positively influ-enced public confidence in the police agencies across the OECD countries. More specifically, consistent with prior research, individual characteristics of the respondents were statistically significant while the press freedom be-came a non-significant factor on police confidence. In particular, people who were older, female, and have a high level of education tend to report a higher level of police confidence. In addition, two country level variables were statistically significant. That is, crime rates had a negative impact on police confidence while economic growth were positively related to the police confidence. Although the current study improves our understanding of the effect of press freedom on police confidence, there are several limitations, and future study needs to be con-ducted to better understand police confidence. Finally, implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    Keyword:Criminal, Crimes, Police Confidence, Press Freedom, OECD Countries