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A Review Study of Information-Structural Perspectives on THERE Existential Sentences

Vol.6 (No.3) 2021
2021-09-30 11:14


Purpose: This paper is to review some recent studies on There existential sentences under the notion of Information Structure, showing that the main purpose of using There sentence is to stress negative or quantifier words within the sentence. It begins with some research data on the patterns of There existential sentences in two English novels, one Korean-English translation and three versions of English-Korean translation: ‘Sense and Sensibility’, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen; and three English-Korean translations of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ . Then, it follows two empirical studies on the acquisition level of There sentences.

Method: There are two studies on research data analysis and two empirical studies. The first research data of two novels is from Literature Online Collection(Lion) and uses AntConc corpus analysis toolkit( In the second study, ‘The Vegetarian’ is chosen as a representative of Korean-English novel because it won The Man Booker International Prize. However, the three English-Korean translated versions of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ are randomly chosen. Then, the first acquisition level study has 17 university students answer 9 questions on information structure sentences; There expletive, passive and inversion sentences, and the second study has 75 students answer 12 questions on There sentences only. Both studies use SPSS 20.0 for the data analysis.

Results: According to the text analysis, more than 50% of There sentences have negative words or quantifiers with nouns as a way of end-focus realization. In other words, one of the main reasons to use the There construction is to stress the non-existence of a certain noun or the quantity of a noun using There expletive. Thus, the data from translations says There sentences with quantifiers are more realized than those with negatives, and this also applies to the level of acquisition. The survey participants of the empirical studies are shown more aware of the sentences with quantifiers than negative words.

Conclusion: English writers or speakers use There expletive sentences for specific reasons and one of them is to make readers or hearers to focus on some negatives or quantifiers with the nouns within the sentence. However, it seems that this reason has not been considered in both English education and English-Korean translation. Even though the studies mentioned in this paper need more back up data in both research and empirical area, this summary of previous studies will be a starting point to lead to further studies in this field.

Keyword:Information Structure, There Existential Sentences, End-Focus Realization, Negatives, Quantifiers
  • Purpose: In this study, the correlation between Job Stress, Perceptions of Professional-ism, and Job Satisfaction that people in the beauty industry, where there is a steady demand for manpower even in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. It aims to increase the public value of workers who do repetitive and emotional labor together. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between factors through empirical analysis and to obtain effective human management data for job satisfaction. Method: This study was conducted for Korean Hair-beauty Shop workers, and to verify the research question, 611 questionnaires distributed and collected nationwide were used. Empirical statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 program, and frequency analysis, factor analysis were used. To understand the relationship be-tween variables, multiple regression analysis and mediating effect analysis were performed. In the statistical analysis, statistical significance was determined based on the significance level of 5%. Results: First, in the relationship between expert perception and Job Satisfaction, Use of Reference Groups, Service Belief, and Autonomy were found to have a significant positive(+) effect on Job Satisfaction. Second, Use of Reference Groups, Service Belief, Self -regulation and Autonomy were found to have a significant positive(+) effect on Welfare and Salary Satisfaction. Third, Use of Reference Groups, Service Belief, and Autonomy were found to have a significant positive(+) effect on Relationship Satisfaction. Fourth, Job Stress of Hair-beauty shop workers had a negative(-) effect on Job Satisfaction, and played a mediating role in the relationship between Perceptions of Professionalism and Job Satisfaction. Conclusion: Since the hair and beauty industry has both emotional labor and professional attributes, the stress received from customers was generally large. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to have professional knowledge and to explain or convince the customer. In addition, creating a work atmosphere where free communication is possible will help relieve stress and boost morale among employees. In addition, by increasing the Perceptions of Professionalism of Hair-beauty Shop workers, it is possible to not only increase Job Satisfaction but also to decrease Job Stress, and the lowered Job Stress can result in raising Job Satisfaction again. Therefore, professionalism and stress management of Hair-beauty shop workers can contribute to increasing the production efficiency of the shop by increasing Job Satisfaction.
    Keyword:Hair-Beauty Shop, Worker, Perceptions of Professionalism, Job Satisfaction, Job Stress
  • Purpose: This study aims to identify the factors affecting self-esteem, which is recognized as an important motive and major factor in human behavior in all areas of life for customers who use beauty services. The purpose of this study is to verify the mediating and sequential mediating effects of Appearance Satisfaction and Body Image Recognition in the relationship between Appearance Management Behaviors and Self-esteem. Through this, basic data for vitalization of the beauty industry can be obtained. Method: A total of 225 questionnaires were collected online for men and women over the age of 20 who had experience using beauty salons nationwide. As the empirical analysis method, SPSS 25.0 was used, and frequency analysis, validity, reliability, correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to verify the validity of the measurement tool used in this study. In addition, in order to verify the mediating effect, it was analyzed using Process Macro No. 6 model. Results: The results of the analysis conducted are as follows. First, self-esteem did not show a significant correlation with Appearance Management Behaviors(p>.05), and showed a statistically significant positive correlation with Appearance Satisfaction(r=.563, p<.001). Self-esteem showed a statistically significant positive(+) correlation with Body Image Recognition(r=.214, p<.01), and Appearance Satisfaction showed a statistically significant positive(+) relationship with Appearance Management Behaviors. negative correlation(r=.180, p<.01). Body Image Recognition showed a statistically significant positive(+) correlation with Appearance Management Behaviors(r=.381, p<.001). Second, as a result of the mediating effect verification, the self-esteem of Appearance Management Behaviors The total and direct effects were not statistically significant. Mediating effect Looking at the significance results for each pathway, it was determined that the mediating effect of Appearance Satisfaction was statistically significant in the relationship between Appearance Management Behaviors and Self-esteem. In the relationship between Appearance Management Behaviors and Self-esteem, the mediating effect of Body Image Recognition was judged to be statistically significant. Each showed a complete mediating effect. However, in the relationship between Appearance Management Behaviors and Self-esteem, the sequential mediating effects of Appearance Satisfaction and Body Image Recognition were judged not to be statistically significant. Conclusion: It was found that Appearance Management Behaviors do not directly affect self-esteem, but affect self-esteem by increasing Appearance Satisfaction and Body Image Recognition. It has been further clarified that Appearance Management Behaviors affect not only the external changes of an individual, but also the internal part. In this study, we were able to integrated analyze variables and identify specific processes. Based on the results of this study, in order to increase self-esteem, which is an important need of modern people, it is necessary to help them recognize the correct body image. There is a need to inform customers who use beauty shops about obesity and health, and to diversify body shape management programs. In order to improve appearance, it is expected that various beauty industries that can enhance body image recognition as well as hair styling, makeup, face-oriented skin care, and fashion styling are expected to increase actively.
    Keyword:Appearance Management Behaviors, Body Image Recognition, Self-Esteem, Beauty Services, Appearance Satisfaction
  • Purpose: In this study, the purpose is to, by analyzing the MZ subjects to verify the regulatory effect of individual personality in terms of the relationship between the characteristics of short-form beauty contents and the behavioral intention, and by studying how individual personality affects short-form characteristics of beauty con-tents and the behavioral intention, present the basic data for the effective digital scalability that provides an optimal experience to Generation MZ and a strategy to induce the users to consume beauty contents while feeling the curiosity and interest of users about planning, producing and sharing form beauty contents. Method: The subjects of this study were analyzed by using the SPSS 25.0, AMOS 22.0 program for 406 online questionnaires in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon metropolitan area and non-metropolitan area to verify the research problem targeting Generation MZ who used short-form beauty contents at least once. The exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed to secure the validity and reliability of the scale, and the Pearson correlation analysis was performed to confirm the correlation between the major variables. To verify the regulatory effect, the hierarchical regulation regression analysis was performed, and the test was confirmed with a simple slope graph according to the significant interaction effect. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, significant results were confirmed with a focus on the three stag-es in which all variables were input together. In the first stage, the characteristics of short-form beauty contents of the independent variables were static, all in playfulness, information, reliability, creativity, and interactivity. As the influence of individual personality on the behavioral intention in the second stage, it was confirmed that extroversion, affinity, and neurosis were significant. It was verified that the interaction variables that can confirm the regulatory effect in the third stage were the interaction between playfulness and sincerity(=.114, p<.05), the interaction between playfulness and neurosis(=.091, p<.05), reliability and the interaction of affinity(=.096, p<.05) was positively significant, and the interaction of information and affinity was negatively significant(=-.156, p<.01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was possible to learn that, playfulness and reliability reinforce the behavioral intention in the characteristics of short-form beauty contents. Behavioral intention increases as individual personality integrity, neurosis, and evolution are regulated, whereas informationality deteriorates as the evolutionary nature increases, and it was also found that a strategy of creating and planning useful information that may be enjoyed or shared is necessary to provide an optimal experience of content, considering the characteristics and individual personalities of Generation MZ users, and accordingly, offers a meaning for the basic data for digital marketing.
    Keyword:Short-Form, Characteristics of Beauty Contents, Behavioral Intention, Individual Personality, Generation MZ
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the operation of the extracurricular program by examining whether it is effective for university life adjustment and student competency improvement according to the motivation to participate in the extracurricular program and the participation in the extracurricular pro-gram. Method: As for the data collection, a survey was conducted with freshmen in the natural science department of O University O located in in the metropolitan area. 1. To analyze as to whether the motivation for participation in the extracurricular program has an effect on the university life adjustment, the validity of the motivation to participate and the university life adaptation factors was verified, then the inter-individual effect was verified. 2. Group statistics were analyzed to analyze as to whether the participation in the extracurricular program has an effect on the university freshmen's adaptation to the university life. 3. To verify the effect of participation in the extracurricular program and the student competency enhancement, the O University’s 5L Core Competency Diagnostic Tool(2021) was used, and the competency evaluation scores for the 4 competencies except for L3 were compared on an ex ante and ex post basis. Results: The motivation to participate in the extracurricular program for Research Question 1 was verified to have an effect on the university freshmen's adaptation to the university life, and consequently, it was apparent that motivation is more important before publicity or program improvement for the participation in extracurricular program. As a result of analysis as to whether to participate in the extracurricular program for Research Question 2 and the university life adjustment of freshmen, the participation in the extracurricular program was effective for all questions about university life adaptation. As a result of analyzing the effect of the extracurricular program for Research Question 3, it was apparent that the extracurricular program related to the auditory personality competency L1, future learning competency L2, and job-based competency L3 was effective in enhancing the student competency, and it is considered that the extracurricular program related to the competency L5 needs to be improved for quality control to strengthen the student competency. Conclusion: This study was conducted with freshmen in the natural science department, and hence, there are limitations to generalizing to all university students. In the future studies, if factors such as segmentation by category and program learning efficacy are considered together, it will be possible to present a more specific way to activate the extracurricular program.
    Keyword:Freshman, Motivation to Participate, University Life Adjustment, Student Competency, Effect of the Extracurricular Program
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the selective attributes of North Korean Tteok, examine and articulate the causal relationship between selective attributes, satisfaction and repurchase intention, and suggest practical implications for management. Method: In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the data were collected using Saeteomin, who have their experiences in purchasing Tteok as a sample group. A nationwide survey of 400 Saeteomins was conducted from January 2022 for about 4 weeks. As a result, 370 copies(effective rate of 92.5%) were used for the empirical analysis. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, and simple(multiple) regression analysis were per-formed for the analytical methods of the collected data. Results: The research results and implications through the empirical analysis are presented as follows. First, as North Korean Tteok's selective attributes, the 4 factors of price, taste, nostalgia, and diversity were derived. Second, among the selective attributes factors, diversity, taste, and nostalgia turned out to have a positive effect on satis-faction. Through which, in order to increase satisfaction after purchasing North Korean Tteok, it is necessary to stimulate the nostalgia of North Korean Tteok for the consumers, develop various types, and manufacture Tteok that improves health and taste. Third, among the selective attributes factors, diversity and taste turned out to have an effect on repurchase intention in a positive direction. Through which, in order to induce the consumers to repurchase North Korean Tteok, it is necessary to promote and manufacture various North Korean Tteoks and make products that emphasize health and unique taste of North Korean Tteok. Fourth, satisfaction turned out to affect repurchase intention in a positive direction. That is, in order to increase the repurchase rate, North Korean Tteok must have manufactured the products that increase satisfaction with nostalgia, variety, and taste. Conclusion: This study sought to examine and articulate the North Korean Tteok's selective attributes of Saeteomin, but an in-depth North Korean Tteok investigation was insufficient given the lack of data and information on North Korean Tteok, and studies on such are insufficient. Hence, it can be said that future research is necessary to study the ways to enable the Korean people to consume and purchase North Korean Tteok with interest.
    Keyword:Saeteomin, North Korean Tteok, Selective Attributes, Satisfaction, Repurchase Intention
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to not only explore, in regards to the international students studying in Korea, the influence of external motivation for studying abroad on the academic adjustment and the educational satisfaction, but also the infrastructure services, which are currently various external motivations for the international students at each university, thereby preparing the basic data needed to build the customized practical cases appropriate for the future society. Method: In this study, from November 2019 to January 2020, 450 international students enrolled at universities in Daegu and Gyeongbuk were surveyed, and the cluster sampling method was used, and the survey was conducted using the self-administration method. Among the collected questionnaires, 322 questionnaires were used as a valid sample, excluding the data in which the responses were insincere or some of the contents of the survey were omitted, and a questionnaire was conducted on the external motivation, academic adjustment, and educational satisfaction among the international students. For the data processing of the study, using the SPSS 23.0, frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and the multiple regression depending on the purpose of data analysis were used. Results: As a result of the factor analysis and reliability test for external motivation in factor analysis and reliability test, the eigenvalue and reliability of the factor turned out to be 2.873(α=.832) and 2.801(α=.806), and the academic adjustment turned out to be an adjustment factor of 2.942(α=.825), educational satisfaction turned out to be a facility/administrative factor of 2.531(α=.776), and a teaching/class factor of 2.149(α=.766). Overall, it turned out that the external motivation affects the academic adjustment and the educational satisfaction. Conclusion: It is significant in that it examines the correlations between 'motivation to study abroad', 'study adaptation', and 'educational satisfaction' of the international students from the perspective of transnationalism which leads to 'study-employment-immigration'. Accordingly, in order for the international students to adapt to their studies and satisfy their education, the infrastructure services, which are motives outside of studying abroad, must be strengthened.
    Keyword:International Students, Study Abroad, External Motivation, Academic Adjustment, Educational Satisfaction
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the types of consumers in their teens through their 30s who care for their appearance by analyzing the socio-cultural attitude types and related factors towards appearance using the potential profile analysis, and provide a practical assistance for marketing in line with the consumer type. Method: In this study, 520 online questionnaires were collected from among those in their teens and their 30s, and using SPSS 25ver and M-plus 7.0 programs, the basic analyses including frequency analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, etc., as well as appearance using potential profile analysis were performed while cross-analysis and variance analysis were performed to identify differences in major variables according to the socio-cultural attitude type related classification and derived types. Results: First, as a result of the potential profile analysis, 4 groups were found to be the most appropriate, and the graphs were named 'overall low group', 'media awareness centric group', 'overall high group', and 'other per-spective centric group'. As the main results of the difference test, the older the age group and the more office workers, the more likely they were to belong to the group that emphasized the point of view of others, while the interest in skin beauty and appearance were highly likely to belong to the general high-class and media aware-ness-centric group. That is, in the Korean society, there is a culture that emphasizes how you appear to others rather than yourself as you get older and enter social life, but this tendency does not have a positive effect on your interest in skin care or appearance. Whereas, such tendency can be interpreted as not having a positive effect on interest in skin beauty or appearance. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the age group which entered society and occupation, etc. are highly likely to belong to the other-centric group because appearance is important, but the interest in appearance and skin beauty tends to be higher in the media recognition-centric group. It can be seen that when it comes to taking care of one's appearance, it is more important for one to recognize the necessity through the media than to emphasize the interest of others. Hence, through this study, it is intended to be used as a promotional marketing strategy and provide services desired by consumers to increase their satisfaction and assistance lead to their reuse.
    Keyword:Socio-Cultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Interest in Skin Beauty, Interest in Appearance, Potential Profile, Generation MZ
  • Purpose: This study aims to understand the structural relationship between values and major satisfaction, career decision self-efficacy, and job preparation behavior recognized by college students majoring in aviation service. In a positive effect on the active job preparation behavior of college students majoring in aviation service, the exact job value of their choice is vital for major satisfaction and career decision self-efficacy. Method: The population of this study conducted an online survey from April 11 to April 24, 2020, for students in the 2nd to 4th grades of airline service-related departments. Of the 412 collected questionnaires, 398 valid questions were used for analysis after excluding those that responded faithfully. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 statistical packages based on the data collected to verify the hypothesis of this study. Results: As a result of hypothesis verification, it was confirmed that the perceived work values of college stu-dents majoring in airline service have a significantly positive(+) influence on major satisfaction, career decision-making self-efficacy, and employment preparation behavior. However, it was shown that major satisfaction did not have a significantly positive(+) influence on employment preparation behavior. However, it was confirmed that major satisfaction and career decision-making self-efficacy had a double mediating effect between job value and job preparation behavior. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant positive influence on employment preparation behavior for major satisfaction of college students majoring in airline service. This means that even if the overall satisfaction with the major recognized by college students majoring in airline service is high, it does not affect the full-fledged employment preparation behavior. However, in this study, as it was confirmed that major satisfaction and career decision-making self-efficacy had a double mediating effect between work values and employment preparation behavior, it was confirmed that students' psychological and internal positive factors play an important role in employment preparation behavior.
    Keyword:Work Values, Employment Preparation Behavior, Major Satisfaction, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Double Mediating Effect
  • Purpose: Hard-boiled mystery fictions were treated as low-level literature simply because they were mostly published in cheap pulp magazines and their readers were mostly uneducated manual workers. Thus, by examining the circumstances of the time portrayed in Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest, the influence of Red Harvest on other fields of art and its background, and how Dashiell Hammett viewed the chaotic US society at the time and suggested solutions, the author intends to re-evaluate the value of the hard-boiled mystery fictions. Method: First, this paper is intended to examine the characteristics of the characters in the hard-boiled mystery fiction, the story development, and how Hammett reflects the chaotic US society in the 1920s in his work with focus on Red Harvest. Second, Red Harvest influenced later films Yojimbo and A Fistful of Dollars. By examining how Red Harvest was incorporated into other fields of art. Results: Through Red Harvest, it could be seen that the detective in the hard-boiled mystery fictions was portrayed as a worker demanding remuneration, unlike previous righteous detectives and that the evil, the basis of the story, was not limited to individuals, but was prevalent in social structures such as villains, capitalists, and public authorities, thus reflecting the situation of the time. As a result, the author could find the justification for the hard-boiled mystery fiction to be re-valuated as valuable literature in that it reflected the situation of the time, suggested solutions, and influenced other fields of art. Conclusion: Hard-boiled mystery fictions, in fact, gave the most vivid view of the situation of the time. The need of most ordinary people, who were treated ignorant but in fact supported the chaotic era, for social purification could be seen through the detective. These merits were attractive enough to be incorporated into other fields of art, such as film. Thus, hard-boiled mystery fictions should no longer be treated as low-level literature, and their value should rather be re-evaluated.
    Keyword:Dashiell Hammett, Red Harvest, Hard-Boiled Mystery Fiction, Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction, The Val-ue of Hard-Boiled Fiction
  • Purpose: The career decision-making self-efficacy is a belief about an individual's ability to successfully accomplish a given task. Students do not demonstrate an active attitude when they are faced with various stresses and anxiety about their own career or employment, and even some are passive and self-reliant, and they learn throughout their lives by becoming helpless when faced with numerous challenges due to their lack of responsibility or low self-esteem, thereby demonstrating symptoms of learned helplessness. As a result of the study which identified the relationship between learned helplessness and career path, the students with a high level of learned helplessness had a relatively high percentage of independent and dependent decisions in the overall process such as career selection, search, and decision relative to the students with a low sense of helplessness, and it was also claimed that the children with high learned helplessness showed relatively low means to solve career-related problem situations promptly. Hence, it is evident that by conducting the group art therapy, negative cognition and behavior can be changed through the group interaction and successful experiences in the art therapy process. This paper seeks to specifically examine the effects of group art therapy, which is very useful among the various treatment techniques which can help solve internal problems, on the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy formed through the repeated failures. Method: Twenty mentally challenged high school students enrolled in special classes at average high schools were assigned to the experimental group and 10 to the control group. The group program was conducted twice a week, for a total of 10 sessions of 80 minutes per session. For the prepost-additional-tests on learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy, repeated measure analysis of variance and simple main effect analysis were performed. Results: The experimental group in receipt of the group art therapy program was statistically significantly higher in the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy scores than the control group both after and additional. Such results are meaning in that they help not only the mentally challenged high school students who are about to graduate, but also the mentally challenged high school students currently enrolled in the school to increase their self-confidence and self-esteem to ensure that they can make career choices that align with the reality through the positive understanding of themselves and the correct perception related changes. Conclusion: The group art therapy helps to address issues and problems through deep insight into one's inner self, and helps to improve the self-esteem by having a positive self-image, further to being an important factor for improvement. Hence, through this study, the group art therapy program should make an active effort to give a sense of achievement for the human growth, convert negative motives to positive motives, and diversify the scope of application of group art therapy programs for addressing realistic problems.
    Keyword:Group Art Therapy, Learned Helplessness, Career Decision Making, Self-Efficacy, Mentally Challenged