All Articles

  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether evidence-based police activities can be one of the alternative methods in situations where the Korean police's counter-terrorism response capabilities are limited in various ways. Method: The concept, function, and content of evidence-based police activities were reviewed to achieve the research objectives. Based on this, the possibility of applying evidence-based police activities as an alternative philosophy for improving the Korean police's ability to respond to terrorism was discussed. Results: As a result of the study, evidence-based police activities based on the scientific method of verification and analysis will be able to contribute to securing the legitimacy of the police's counter-terrorism activities, and it is thought that the application of this will be necessary. Conclusion: This study is meaningful in that it was the first to examine the applicability of the philosophy of evidence-based police activities to counter-terrorism police activities in Korea.
    Keyword:Evidenced-Based Policing, Counter-Terrorism, Policing, Rule of Law, In Korea
  • Purpose: As modern society becomes dense, complex, and wide-ranging, even small accidents often cause a series of infrastructure collapse or human casualty which leading to a national crisis. The government always promises to be thoroughly prepared to prevent the same accident in the future, but despite many proposals and measures, similar types of accidents occur repeatedly after a certain period of time. Now, distrust is building up in the government which has failed to manage the disaster. In this paper, considering this reality, we believe that national capabilities should first be invested intensively in initial measures for appropriate actions at Golden Time, and we would like to present a plan to secure capabilities by dividing them into software and hardware parts for appropriate initial action. Method: Inappropriate initial measures in post-evaluations are pointed out as problems every time a disaster occurs. Research would like to check what problems are there through recent cases in Korea and draw implications for effective initial measures in the future. Based on previous national crisis and disaster, case study method is conducted to analyze military, state, local government, police and coast guard’s initial measures and action. Research focused on 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking, 2014 Sinking of MV Sewol and 2019 defecting of North Korean wooden boat cases. Overviews of each cases will be introduced and case analysis of each cases’ initial measure will be discussed. Results: Case analysis of previous disaster’s initial measures show importance of initial measure. Re-searchers suggest that improvement measures must be prepared to utilize the police’s 112 system in times of crisis such as disasters. In this paper, researchers suggest two different way(legal and physical) to improve initial measure of the police and coast guards’ in the event of a disaster. In legal way, research focuses on law and regulation of authorities, police, coast guards and the Disaster Safety Act. Physical way discuss about equipment, expert training, and overall system of comprehensive disaster management. More detail will be discussed later. Conclusion: Problems commonly pointed out in the BAI reports, media, civic groups, and investigative agencies that have analyzed accidents in the past are inexperienced initial measures within Golden Time. There is a golden time in every crisis, so appropriate measures can save people, minimize property damage, or end the case early by putting only a small national capability in dealing with it afterward. Researchers believe that limited national resources can be efficiently responded in the event of a disaster by first strengthening the field of initial measures. In the future, when the autonomous police system is implemented, the national · autonomous police officers will be separated and the 112 system will be separated too. In that situation, Central Disaster and Safety Countermeasures Headquarters, local government, National Coast Guards, and National Fire Agency will have hard time in communication and chain of command. In the event of a crisis while receiving a crisis-related report or on-site patrol, it should be clearly stipulated that all reports should be dispatched first regardless of authorities.
    Keyword:National Crisis, Disaster, Initial Measures, Disaster Safety Act, Golden Time
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the factors influencing the occurrence of suicide terrorism. Specifically, the nationality of the suicide terrorist and the country belonging to the group that committed suicide terrorism were checked, and the factors that influence the occurrence of suicide terrorism were identified after comparing the social indicators of the outbreak country and the non-occurrence country. In addition, the purpose of this study is to prepare measures to prevent the occurrence of suicide terrorism based on this. Method: After confirming the suicide terrorism incident that occurred in 2014, the factors influencing the occurrence of suicide terrorism were identified from a macroscopic point of view, and the world peace index was used for this. A Poisson regression analysis was performed to confirm the influence on the occurrence of suicide terrorism by setting the variables corresponding to the general strain factor and the relative deprivation factor of the Global Peace Index(GPI) as independent variables. Results: As a result of the analysis, macroscopic factors influencing the occurrence of suicide terrorism could be identified. Factors influencing the occurrence of suicide terrorism include the country's crime perception level, murder rate, possibility of violent demonstrations, violent crime level, fatality index from domestic and foreign disputes, military expenditure, ratio of migrants to population, domestic and foreign It was confirmed that the factors of conflict affect the occurrence of suicide terrorism. Conclusion: Based on such research results, policy suggestions to prevent the occurrence of suicide terrorism were suggested. First of all, in relation to political terrorism, it can be said that there is a need for an institutional plan to prohibit political terrorism such as torture for reasons of ideology, religion, race, and ethnicity. In addition, it can be said that there is a need for an institutional plan that can resolve domestic disputes in a peaceful way rather than in a violent way, and efforts to create a safe environment by trying to reduce military expenditures are needed.
    Keyword:uicide Terrorism, General Strain Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, Global Peace Index, Poisson Regression
  • Purpose: North Korea's drug production and trafficking have the longest history of illegal activities by the North Korean authorities as a means of earning foreign currency. In the 1990s, scientists smuggled large quantities of drugs from North Korea's Suncheon and Pyeongseong pharmaceutical plants to China. Drug manufacturing and trafficking in North Korea is a well-known public fact. Drugs from North Korea are being smuggled into South Korea through China through various methods. The purpose of the study is to block the entry of North Korean drugs into South Korea. Method: Define the concept of drugs and methamphetamine, look at the background of North Korea's trafficking, the status of smuggling to the world, the production and distribution of drugs in North Korea are handled at the national level, and analyze how they are smuggled into South Korea. Results: Drugs have been manufactured in the mountains of North Korea, which are hard to find outside, and are flowing into South Korea through China. Smuggling methods are highly intelligent, mainly using diplomatic bags, hidden in other goods of merchants, etc. Drugs in circulation are in large quantities and are understood to be in circulation at various stages. Conclusion: The reason why North Korea produces, manufactures and trafficks drugs is to cover insufficient foreign currency and use it as a cost of maintaining the regime. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation between South Korea and neighboring countries to prevent smuggling of North Korean drugs into South Korea, expand the international drug crime investigation organization, and strengthen investigation capabilities.
    Keyword:North Korea, Drugs, Methamphetamine, Drug Manufacturing, Drug Trafficking
  • Purpose: This study aims to establish international systems and cooperative relations for disaster relief, one of the non-traditional security threats, to strengthen security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and to expand and strengthen them to traditional concepts of security threats, thereby contributing to the stability and prosperity of Northeast Asia. Method: This study applies functional approach of regional security cooperation. It covers empirical case study to strengthen regional security cooperation and contribute to peace, stability and prosperity in the region through national and transnational cooperation such as state actors, non-state actors, NGOs(Non-government Organization), and so on. Results: Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief(HA/DR) issue, one of the non-traditional security threats, has been emerged as new security issues. Therefore, Republic of Korea(ROK) military needs to establish various measures and the role of disaster relief for international cooperation. Korea should also recognize the importance of these problems and study ways to mitigate them. Conclusion: HA/DR is on the human security agenda as one of the non-traditional security threats and is a growing international security issue. Nowadays, HA/DR extends the traditional concept of security threats. In conclusion, the ROK military should play a key role in strengthening security cooperation in Northeast Asia. The active participation of the ROK military will contribute to the stability and prosperity of Northeast Asia.
    Keyword:Disaster Relief, Non-Traditional Security, Cooperative Security, Humanitarian Assistance, Operations Other Than War(OOTW)
  • Purpose: As the competition for supremacy between the United States and China intensifies, the strategic instability of neighboring countries is gradually increasing, and the Cold War era's new competition structure, which requires the choice of one of two options: the United States and China, is being recreated. In this situation, Australia is the most active country in the US containment policy toward China, expressing concerns about the rise of China without filtering. This study attempts to examine the reasons 'why Australia, which is located at a distance from China and has high economic interdependence, is recognizing China as a threat and actively participating in the US-led containment policy of China'. Method: In this study, we will look at Australia's policy toward China from the perspective of Constructivism in order to find out the factors that form Australia's perception of threats to China. First of all, the framework of the analysis was formed through basic discussions on Constructivism, looking at the conflict between Australia and China, and focusing on the results of the survey that analyzed Australian people's identity and historical perspective and perception of China by looking at the culture and perception formed in Australia, I want to achieve my research purpose. Results: The United States and Australia are independent countries from the United Kingdom and share a racial, religious and cultural base. The United States and Australia, which have been working together to resolve important international conflicts and wars since World War I, maintain a solid alliance system based on ANSUS. Moreover, after the COVID-19 incident, the spread of hatred toward the Chinese in Australia, the expansion of China's influence, and the issue of the South China Sea are rising, increasing awareness that the national interests of the United States and Australia are infringed. Australia, which shares its perception and identity of China from a constructivist point of view with the United States, will continue to actively cooperate with the United States' containment policy toward China and strengthen cooperation with Western countries centered on the United States. Conclusion: Although Australia is located in Asia, Australian identity, culture and historical values are closer to the Western world. As a member of the Commonwealth, Australia maintains partnerships in various fields, including politics, economic security and academia, along with the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, which are expected to continue in the future. Australia, which has a Western identity, will strengthen cooperation with the Quad Council for stability and protection of national interests in the Indo-Pacific region and strengthen checks against China. Australia's foreign policy can be assessed as being influenced by the national identity of the United States, which shares threats to China, and strengthens cooperation with security alliances such as the United States and the United Kingdom, which share traditional values and culture, to check China. I will do it.
    Keyword:Australia, China, Constructivism, Quad, ANSUS