All Articles

Theoretical Approach to Radicalization and Violent Extremism that leads to TERRORISM

Vol.2 (No.2) 2017
Author
admin
Date
2017-12-30 12:20
Views
860

Abstract


As Korea is changing into a multi-racial and multicultural society, the number of immigrants has exceeded two million people, making heterogeneous members in Korea society increase. The changes in Korean society are similar to those of the international migration phenomenon that occurs globally.
The phenomenon that individuals of diverse nationalities leave their origin country affects the various institutions of origin and destination countries, playing a key role in social transformation. However, not everyone agrees with this change. There is also a movement to resist social change derived from international migration, which usually appears in the form of fundamentalism. In addition, social and economic instability is presented as a key link in the process of transforming this fundamentalism into violent extremism.
It is argued that radicalization and violent extremism are root cause of recent terrorist attacks in Europe as a form of lone wolf terrorism. Even though political and religious motives are different from each case, it is remark-able to focus that radicalism and violent extremism are commonly observed in these cases as the underlying causes.
Republic of Korea is not free from violent extremism spreading to Asia, making it urgent to homegrown terrorism and lone wolf terrorism. In order to prevent violent extremism, all aspects of social efforts are required. Therefore, it is appropriate to prevent violence from the economic, social and educational level as well as the law enforcement related to police activities.
That is, the response to radicalism is characterized by a social and economic response to the improvement of the environment that promotes radicalization and the spread of violent extremism, in which not only the government but also religion, education, business, and civil society participate. In particular, it is pointed out that the social integration of social minority groups and vulnerable groups, which can be transformed into violent extremism with radicalism, is the most important.
This article is an exploratory research for the prevention of violent extremism in the context of Korea Peninsula, reviewing on the explanatory models on violent extremism.

Keyword:Radicalization, Violent Extremism, Terrorism, Counterterrorism, Countering Violent Extremism
  • Purpose: The modern police of the Republic of Korea today were established in Shanghai on April 11, 1919 by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and moved to various areas of China for 27 years until the liberation of the country in 1945 for independence movement. In the face of such hardship, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea needs to be aware of the police organization and activities of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, which belongs to the Ministry of Interior as head of administration. Method: The Civil Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the head of the administration of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, confirmed through literature evidence that Kim Gu was the apex and tried to change the organization while breaking through the crisis. The police organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was active in 1919 with the Police Department and Yeong-Tong-je, 1923 with the Police Department, 1941 with the Guards, and with the 1943 with the Police Department, referring to the Baekbeom Ilji, the National History Compilation Committee, the National Police Agency documents, and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea data book. Results: The focus of this study is to give the meaning of finding the issue of Police Day and the legitimacy of the police. The result suggested by this study was an opportunity to overcome the dark period of loss of the country signed by the Eulsa Treaty in 1910 by examining the organizational structure of the Police Department of the Korean Empire and the Police Department of the Provisional Government of the Provisional Government in the Joseon Dynasty. Conclusion: It was judged that it could affect the continuity of the current Korean police, and research was conducted. Also, in response to the common truth that 'as long as there is a state, there is a police', the police organization of the Provisional Government did not change its name even during the Japanese imperialism period. It calls for the existence of a police that is directed towards
    Keyword:Provisional Government Police Organization of the Republic of Korea, Police Department, Conscripted Police Force(Ui-Gyeong-Dae), Contact System(Yeong-Tong-Je), Guards(Gyeong-Wi-Dae)
  • Purpose: Since 1947, India and Pakistan have been at war, competing for nuclear weapons, and at odds with terrorism. The cause of the conflict between the two countries begins with the recognition of the substance of Muslims due to the British separation of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian government's political discrimination against Muslims led by the National Congress has resulted in Pakistan's independence promoted by the Islamic League, and since the independence of Pakistan, the two countries have maintained a conflict at the expense of many people. Method: There were four wars between the two countries. The war provocation was by Pakistan. Among them, we will look at the three wars that Pakistan started, and analyze the results of the Indo-Pakistan war and international relations. It also looks at how state-sponsored terrorism and nuclear development are affecting both countries in situations of military and economic asymmetry. Results: In the 20th century, the people of the Indian continent united to escape British colonial rule. However, as the political conflict between Hindus and Muslims was expressed, it was divided into two countries during the independence of independence. The fact that the territory was divided and no clear border was drawn for the Kashmir region became the seed of conflict. In addition, as India developed nuclear weapons due to security concerns about neighboring countries, Pakistan also attempted to develop nuclear weapons, and the conflict be-tween the two countries reached its peak. The interested countries of the two countries adopt diplomatic and military policies of support and acquiescence according to their calculation methods. Conclusion: The conflict in the Indian continent is a typical legacy of colonial rule. The great powers used ethnic confrontation to rule the colonies, and the borders were drawn by compromise between the great powers without the consent of the local indigenous people, causing conflict in the future conflicts. The Indian continent has not deviated from this formula either. At this point, the intervention of the great powers could induce a temporary ceasefire rather than coordinating a lasting peace. The problem of ethnic, cultural, and religious discrimination that is not resolved domestically is bound to be a long-term task.
    Keyword:Kashmir Conflict, Nuclear Development, Terrorism, National Congress, Muslim League
  • Purpose: The war crimes allegedly committed against the civilian population in Ukraine by Russian military forces has generated multiple detrimental outcomes. Due to these war crimes, Russia was suspended from the United Nations Human Rights Council(UNHRC) as of April 2022. Russia’s alleged war crimes currently are under-going thorough investigations by the UNHRC’s Commission of Inquiry. The current humanitarian situation in war-devastated Ukraine has been somewhat under researched. Method: This paper employs the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) theory to examine the present and future of potential application of R2P in Ukraine. Based on resources from the R2P and human rights related research by the US government, the UN and its agencies, scholars, and experts, This article analyzes the failure of Russia to ob-serve the principle of distinction between civilians and combatants as required by the Geneva Conventions, war-affected citizens in Ukraine, as well as potential application of the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) and its implication that the international community has a duty to protect civilians against Russian aggressions. Results: The paper finds that the potential application of R2P in Ukraine will likely face some operational challenges within the UNSC, the potential application of R2P seems feasible as it is both legitimate and justifiable action in accordance with the international law. The actual application of R2P should however carefully be considered since the nature of use of force- often does more harm than good. The potential application of R2P might result in more harm to civilians if additional casualties are generated. Conclusion: The international community should employ additional countermeasures such as added economic sanctions. Pressure should be brought to bear until Russia decides to refrain from war and negotiate a peace be-tween Russia and Ukraine. The potential application of R2P in Ukraine should therefore be most carefully considered and maybe used as a last resort, to avoid and prevent a potential Third World War in coming months.
    Keyword:The Responsibility to Protect(R2P), Humanitarian Law, Human Rights, Ukraine, Russia
  • Purpose: This paper intends to examine the background of Putin's invasion of Ukraine and to find out the implications of the Ukrainian situation on the Korean Peninsula. President Vladimir Putin has long ruled Russia by turning it into a powerful totalitarian country. At the heart of Putin's neo Eurasian policy are the construction of the Eurasian Empire, the establishment of centralization, opposition to Western values, and hostility to the United States advocating Russia's religion and traditional values. Influenced by Lugin's philosophy, Putin had a huge vision to build a Eurasian empire to undermine U.S. hegemony by integrating former Soviet countries with Eastern Europe and putting EU countries under the protection of Russia. Method: This paper analyzes the political implications of Ukraine’s crisis on the Korean Peninsula by using Tucker’s political leadership processes. Robert C. Tucker suggests the political leadership process as an authoritative diagnosis of the situation, preparing policy alternatives to solve problems, and mobilization of support to achieve it. Russia implemented a gray zone strategy to achieve its goal of restoring the lost territory in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Results: North Korea successfully launched allegedly a Hwaseong-17 intercontinental ballistic missile on March 24, 2022. North Korea can also try to provoke hybrid warfare by benchmarking Russia, and the expected types of provocations are information warfare, cyber warfare, diplomatic warfare, and special warfare by demonstrating nuclear capability. The threat to hybrid warfare by North Korea includes nuclear weapons, special forces, and cyber-attacks by the strong centralized command control. Conclusion: First, the peace process on the Korean Peninsula is expected to be difficult. Under the Ukrainian cri-sis, China and Russia are working together to keep the global influence of the United States in check. The United States cannot seek China's cooperation in the peace process on the Korean Peninsula. Because the United States is preparing a secondary boycott on China which helps Russia. Secondly, the arms race between the two Koreas will accelerate. North Korea, using Ukraine as a lesson, is stepping up its test-firing of ICBM and tactical nuclear weapons tests to strengthen its self-defense capabilities. In preparation for such heightened tensions in North Korea, South Korea needs to cooperate with the US and maintain close cooperation with its allies. Third, we should prepare for the possibility of North Korea imitating Russia's hybrid war against Ukraine. North Korea is likely to carry out intelligence warfare, cyber warfare, diplomatic warfare, and special warfare using gray zone strategies.
    Keyword:Ukrainian Crisis, Hybrid Warfare, Neo-Eurasianism, Greyzone, Strategy
  • Purpose: To compare and analyze the differences in the purpose, class structure, and the organization of the police in North and South Koreas. Thereafter, an analysis was performed as to how West Germany and East Ger-many completed their integration, each of which had adopted different police systems, among the overseas cases. The purpose of this analysis is to present a standardized integration plan for the integration of the North and South Korean police organizations and the integration of police laws based on this analysis. Method: Based on a review of the previous studies related to the integration plan of the North and South Korean police after unification, a case analysis of how the police force was operated and integrated during the unification process in Germany, and a comparison of the purpose, class structure, number of people, and organizational structure of the North and South Korean police The differences between the North and South Korean police organizations and police laws were analyzed accordingly. Results: As examined in the case of police integration in Germany, it was possible to recognize the different circumstances, such as the history and purpose of the police in North and South Koreas, and find out the issues that could arise in the process of integration, so that the Koreans could come up with a plan for integrating the police organization and the police system between the two Koreas. Conclusion: After the unification, for the unification of the South and North Korean police, trans-fer to general administrative agencies, such as railways and resident registration, which the North Korean police are in charge of. will need to be strengthened.
    Keyword:North Korean Police, Social Safety, Police System, Police Law, Police Integration
  • Purpose: In Korea's industrial sites, the state standardizes the skills required to perform duties and supports to foster the field-oriented talents, yet the use of the National Occupational Competency Standards in the security industry is very inadequate. Method: In this study, the current status of the security industry and the operation of the National Occupational Competency Standards are reviewed, and the National Occupational Competency Standards for the development of the security industry are conducted based on the interviews with the experts applying to the security industry using the National Occupational Competency Standards towards the efficient use of the Standards. Results: In the security industry, the National Occupational Competency Standards are not functioning properly given the dual contents provided by the existing Security Services Industry Act and the new National Occupational Competency Standards. Accordingly, it is required to change the legislative system which can more actively utilize the Security Services Industry Act and National Occupational Competency Standards and further improve the National Occupational Competency Standards. Conclusion: For the development of the security industry, this study presents the following conclusions. First, in the security industry and the NCS-based education system, the curriculum of the Security Services Industry Act and the education system of the NCS must be unified to reestablish the curriculum. Second, the classification of the duties of the Security Services Industry Act and the level of the NCS according to the occupational rating must be reestablished in a systematic and progressive direction by comprehensively examining the industrial reality and foreign cases. Third, it must be redeveloped as a comprehensive and efficient model by collecting the opinions of experts in each field for the inspection of the security industry and the NCS-based system.
    Keyword:Security Industry, Security Services Industry Act, National Occupational Competency Standards, Security Guard Training, Security and Guard
  • Purpose: During the pandemic of COVID-19, we have again felt the importance of 'information' and have also realized that medical and scientific technology alone cannot control the pandemic caused by disease. Hence, it is intended to discuss the role of intelligence agency under such uncertainties. Method: In order to study such social phenomena, the pandemic of COVID-19 situation has been analyzed over the past two years as well as the methods to collect the necessary information through many existing literature and data. The analysis attempted to interpret the meaning of the phenomenon through the intuitive insight of the researcher. Results: The result is that people's lives, as with COVID-19, may become insecure and unpredictable overnight. Furthermore, despite medical and scientific technology and development, the COVID-19 virus has expanded to delta mutations and omicron mutations, and hence, it is still unknown as to when this uncertain situation will end, which will have a direct impact on the national security. Conclusion: It is of the view that the medical and scientific technology alone cannot control situations such as the pandemic of COVID-19, and the ‘power of intelligence’ to prepare for and against such scenarios in the future should be supported, and this duty will become a new task for the intelligence agency.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Pandemic, National Security, Intelligence Agency, Duties
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the technology of the fourth industrial revolution on the changes in the operational environment, and present the operational employment concept and military buildup related directions of the Korean armed forces in accordance with the changed operational environment in terms of revolution in military affairs. Method: The existing studies of domestic and foreign academics on combat domain, fourth industrial revolution, revolution in military affairs, and joint operations, etc., and the literature focused on research papers published by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Army were explored. Based on which, the historical evolution process of technology and domain was examined, and after deriving the evolutionary direction of the field that the fourth industrial revolution will bring, an exploratory approach was attempted to present the joint operational concept and military buildup related direction in line with the characteristics of the new domain. Results: The impact of the fourth industrial revolution across all sectors of society is reflected in the military field as well, fundamentally changing the concept of weapon systems and military operations. The advancement of military science and technology is creating a multi-domain environment by expanding the cross domain. In such a multi-domain environment, joint operations ought to include not only the integrated operation of traditional military types, but also the integrated operation of the domain at the same time. Furthermore, it was confirmed that in order to secure cross domain capabilities appropriate for the multi-domain environment, it is necessary to review the basic concept of joint operation, develop a new paradigm for the appropriate allocation of capabilities, and set a variable point of equilibrium for efficient operation of capabilities. Conclusion: Revolution in military affairs is a process which dramatically amplifies combat effects by developing a new power system by applying the new military science and technologies, and innovatively developing and harmoniously operating joint operational concept and the organizational structures related thereto. Hence, approaching the multi-domain operation (MDO) of the US Army in terms of revolution in military affairs rather than operational aspects will offer useful implications for the Korean armed forces.
    Keyword:Fourth Industrial Revolution, Revolution in Military Affairs(RMA), Multi-Domain Environment, Joint Operational Concept(OEC), Military Buildup
  • Purpose: In the case of the U.S., a representative country of the anti-terrorism war, this study focused on the 'National Strategy for Domestic Terrorism in 2021' published based on various cases and analysis and analyzed its implications and suggested the direction of Korea's anti-terrorism national strategy. Method: Based on the literature analysis, the U.S. predicts the trends and prospects of terrorism through its national strategy and background analysis of terrorism in Korea. In addition, a comparative study was conducted on the PVE policies of the United Nations, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Results: The United States uses information sharing, community utilization, office establishment, violent extremism prevention education, Internet proliferation program development, and a comprehensive approach by experts in various fields. Conclusion: Domestic terrorism should be addressed as a task of establishing legal concepts, sharing information, using local communities and partners, inviting experts in various fields and taking comprehensive and active approaches to resolving various social, cultural and political conflicts.
    Keyword:Domestic Terrorism, Terrorism, USA National Strategy, CVE , Violent Extremist
  • Purpose: In this study, after the North Korean defectors enter into South Korea and undergo education and training for a certain period, they are transferred to the police and take the first step towards their settlement in the South Korean society under the protection of the security police for a certain period of time. This means that the security police officers are playing and performing such a crucial role in the process of their settlement and social adaptation for the North Korean defectors. Hence, the purpose of this study is to analyze the perception and attitude of the security police towards the North Korean defectors and explore a policy related plan for the impact on the North Korean defectors' successful settlement in the South Korean society. Method: In this study, the perception and attitude towards the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors was analyzed through the Self-Administration Method applied survey of 100 police officers in the security department of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, which is the police educational institution of South Korea. Among the main variables for measurement, educational background, rank, and job acquisition path were used. In particular, among the various characteristics of security police, the study has focused on how the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors varies according to the educational background and rank job acquisition path of the security police department. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, it turned out that the higher the educational background of the security police, the higher the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors. Across most of the questions which demonstrated statistical significance in terms of the job acquisition path, it turned out that the security police officers from the executive candidates evaluated the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors far more positively than the general police officers or special recruits. Conclusion: In order for the security police officers from the relatively low educational background and the general police officers to renew more voluntary and active safety awareness of the North Korean defectors, it is first necessary to improve the overall job acquisition path of the entire police organization, including the security police. The negative evaluation of the North Korean defectors by the security police officers with a relatively low educational background and general police officers may be a kind of negative reaction to the problem which the security police organization is constantly undergoing changes according to the government's political inclinations. Hence, in the future, the government, political circles, and the police leaders should not make abrupt changes to the security police organization according to the government's political orientation and microscopic changes in terms of the inter-Korean relations.
    Keyword:Protection of the North Korean Defectors, South Korea's Security Police, Job Acquisition Path, Educational Background, Rank