All Articles

  • Purpose: During the pandemic of COVID-19, we have again felt the importance of 'information' and have also realized that medical and scientific technology alone cannot control the pandemic caused by disease. Hence, it is intended to discuss the role of intelligence agency under such uncertainties. Method: In order to study such social phenomena, the pandemic of COVID-19 situation has been analyzed over the past two years as well as the methods to collect the necessary information through many existing literature and data. The analysis attempted to interpret the meaning of the phenomenon through the intuitive insight of the researcher. Results: The result is that people's lives, as with COVID-19, may become insecure and unpredictable overnight. Furthermore, despite medical and scientific technology and development, the COVID-19 virus has expanded to delta mutations and omicron mutations, and hence, it is still unknown as to when this uncertain situation will end, which will have a direct impact on the national security. Conclusion: It is of the view that the medical and scientific technology alone cannot control situations such as the pandemic of COVID-19, and the ‘power of intelligence’ to prepare for and against such scenarios in the future should be supported, and this duty will become a new task for the intelligence agency.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Pandemic, National Security, Intelligence Agency, Duties
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the technology of the fourth industrial revolution on the changes in the operational environment, and present the operational employment concept and military buildup related directions of the Korean armed forces in accordance with the changed operational environment in terms of revolution in military affairs. Method: The existing studies of domestic and foreign academics on combat domain, fourth industrial revolution, revolution in military affairs, and joint operations, etc., and the literature focused on research papers published by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Army were explored. Based on which, the historical evolution process of technology and domain was examined, and after deriving the evolutionary direction of the field that the fourth industrial revolution will bring, an exploratory approach was attempted to present the joint operational concept and military buildup related direction in line with the characteristics of the new domain. Results: The impact of the fourth industrial revolution across all sectors of society is reflected in the military field as well, fundamentally changing the concept of weapon systems and military operations. The advancement of military science and technology is creating a multi-domain environment by expanding the cross domain. In such a multi-domain environment, joint operations ought to include not only the integrated operation of traditional military types, but also the integrated operation of the domain at the same time. Furthermore, it was confirmed that in order to secure cross domain capabilities appropriate for the multi-domain environment, it is necessary to review the basic concept of joint operation, develop a new paradigm for the appropriate allocation of capabilities, and set a variable point of equilibrium for efficient operation of capabilities. Conclusion: Revolution in military affairs is a process which dramatically amplifies combat effects by developing a new power system by applying the new military science and technologies, and innovatively developing and harmoniously operating joint operational concept and the organizational structures related thereto. Hence, approaching the multi-domain operation (MDO) of the US Army in terms of revolution in military affairs rather than operational aspects will offer useful implications for the Korean armed forces.
    Keyword:Fourth Industrial Revolution, Revolution in Military Affairs(RMA), Multi-Domain Environment, Joint Operational Concept(OEC), Military Buildup
  • Purpose: In the case of the U.S., a representative country of the anti-terrorism war, this study focused on the 'National Strategy for Domestic Terrorism in 2021' published based on various cases and analysis and analyzed its implications and suggested the direction of Korea's anti-terrorism national strategy. Method: Based on the literature analysis, the U.S. predicts the trends and prospects of terrorism through its national strategy and background analysis of terrorism in Korea. In addition, a comparative study was conducted on the PVE policies of the United Nations, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Results: The United States uses information sharing, community utilization, office establishment, violent extremism prevention education, Internet proliferation program development, and a comprehensive approach by experts in various fields. Conclusion: Domestic terrorism should be addressed as a task of establishing legal concepts, sharing information, using local communities and partners, inviting experts in various fields and taking comprehensive and active approaches to resolving various social, cultural and political conflicts.
    Keyword:Domestic Terrorism, Terrorism, USA National Strategy, CVE , Violent Extremist
  • Purpose: In this study, after the North Korean defectors enter into South Korea and undergo education and training for a certain period, they are transferred to the police and take the first step towards their settlement in the South Korean society under the protection of the security police for a certain period of time. This means that the security police officers are playing and performing such a crucial role in the process of their settlement and social adaptation for the North Korean defectors. Hence, the purpose of this study is to analyze the perception and attitude of the security police towards the North Korean defectors and explore a policy related plan for the impact on the North Korean defectors' successful settlement in the South Korean society. Method: In this study, the perception and attitude towards the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors was analyzed through the Self-Administration Method applied survey of 100 police officers in the security department of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, which is the police educational institution of South Korea. Among the main variables for measurement, educational background, rank, and job acquisition path were used. In particular, among the various characteristics of security police, the study has focused on how the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors varies according to the educational background and rank job acquisition path of the security police department. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, it turned out that the higher the educational background of the security police, the higher the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors. Across most of the questions which demonstrated statistical significance in terms of the job acquisition path, it turned out that the security police officers from the executive candidates evaluated the safety awareness of the North Korean defectors far more positively than the general police officers or special recruits. Conclusion: In order for the security police officers from the relatively low educational background and the general police officers to renew more voluntary and active safety awareness of the North Korean defectors, it is first necessary to improve the overall job acquisition path of the entire police organization, including the security police. The negative evaluation of the North Korean defectors by the security police officers with a relatively low educational background and general police officers may be a kind of negative reaction to the problem which the security police organization is constantly undergoing changes according to the government's political inclinations. Hence, in the future, the government, political circles, and the police leaders should not make abrupt changes to the security police organization according to the government's political orientation and microscopic changes in terms of the inter-Korean relations.
    Keyword:Protection of the North Korean Defectors, South Korea's Security Police, Job Acquisition Path, Educational Background, Rank
  • Purpose: 18-year occupation of the United States and NATO in Afghanistan has ended. The ideal goal of removing terrorism desired by the international community and forming a democratic and liberal state through the formation of a government has been broken by the Taliban's ruling. There are several factors that do not form a state in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to consider these factors. Method: For the purpose of research, it is important to look at the historical context and social structure of Afghanistan and to look at the results of the Western 'anti-terrorism war'. First, we examine the tribe-centered decision-making system(Jirgah) and the ideological role of Islam. And we examine whether the formation of a national state has been stagnant through wars since the late 19th century and the civil war in Afghanistan. Results: The role of the extreme Sunni Islamic group played a role in the rapid growth of the Taliban. Mujahideen was formed during the war against Britain and the Soviet Union, of which the Taliban of the Pashtun people living in southeastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan grew their power during the civil war in Afghanistan, and the Taliban was given a representative position in the war against the United States. In addition, the Taliban succeeded to some extent in integrating a divided ethnic society by force. Conclusion: After the United States-Taliban ‘Doha Agreement’ (Peace Agreement), where the Afghanistan government was excluded, the Taliban occupied most of Afghanistan in a short period of one month. Although the Taliban group does not have a unified leadership system, it will become the ruling power of Afghanistan in the future. The Taliban's Wahhabism or Salafism will serve as the norm of social integration in Afghanistan.
    Keyword:Pashtun, Jirgah, Mujahideen, Deobandi, Taliban
  • Purpose: Homegrown terrorism is an act of using violence to achieve a certain purpose or facilitate caution or publicize one's own claim with one's own power, which surfaces in the form of terrorism that causes casualties in connection with socio-political complaints or grievances between nations which are broader than domestic terrorism. The purpose of this study is to block the occurrence of domestic homegrown terrorism in advance by analyzing the causes of domestic homegrown terrorism and actual case analyses. Method: The concepts of terrorism and homegrown terrorism are defined, and the analyses are performed in regards to the increase of illegal immigrant workers, increase of the students of foreign nationality attending school in Korea, increase of the Muslims residing in Korea, the causes of domestic terrorism including cyber terror threats of North Korea, as well as the recent cases of following international terrorist organization of IS and the case of financial aid for international terrorist organizations among other cases analyzed including the domestic homegrown terrorism. Results: No nation or individual is safe from against terrorism. Even in the Korean society, various types of discrimination and prejudice have become the factors of conflict due to an increase in the number of illegal aliens, students of foreign nationality attending school in Korea, and the Muslims residing in Korea. This could provide a potential cause for the homegrown terrorism in Korea. Furthermore, it has been identified that there have been recent cases of homegrown terrorism in Korea. Conclusion: As evident in the cases of homegrown terrorism in Korea, Korea is no longer a safe zone from against terrorism. The best way to prevent terrorism is to eliminate the causes and environment of terrorism. Towards this end, it is even more necessary to share information based on international cooperation and build a cooperative system with relevant institutions.
    Keyword:Homegrown Terrorism, Illegal Aliens, Students of Foreign Nationality Attending School in Korea, Muslims, Cyber Terrorism
  • Purpose: This article examines the impact of the science and technology development and artificial intelligence on cyber threats in the era of the 4th industrial revolution and consideration of national-level defense response to the cyber threats. Method: The theoretical approach referred to monographs and papers published in academic journals, and technical and current data were studied through the Internet and literature research. Results: The development of artificial intelligence has provided efficiency, speed, and convenience of mission performance in cyberspace, but threats from unspecified forces in cyberspace are becoming more covert, advanced, and intelligent. Impairment of mission performance and damage to property has emerged as a national crisis. It has become a new security issue that must be dealt at the national security level. In response to cyber threats, the development tasks include nurturing cybersecurity experts, developing artificial intelligence-based security control management highlighting hacking and malicious code breaches based on artificial intelligence, and im-proving cybersecurity awareness. Conclusion: Defense, which plays a pivotal role in national security, is expected to serve as an opportunity to strengthen cybersecurity capabilities as a game-changer to respond to cyber threats on the battlefield along with the 4th industrial revolution and the innovative development of artificial intelligence.
    Keyword:The 4th Industrial Revolution, Artificial Intelligence, Cyber Space, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity
  • Purpose: The re-occupation of Afghanistan by the U.S. troops and the Taliban gives many lessons to the security of the Korean Peninsula. As shown in Vietnam Communization, the poor Taliban troops beat the rich troops of the U.S.-backed Kabul regime, which lacks a will to fight and strategy. The purpose of this study is to discover the implications of the Biden administration's withdrawal from Afghanistan with a neoliberal perspective and its implications for security and denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula. Method: This paper analyzes the US withdrawal from Afghanistan with the theory of Radall Schweller's neoclassical realism and explains political implications toward the Korean Peninsula. This paper will examine four major domestic factors in neoclassical realism focus on nationalism, military ability to mobilize, the influence of domestic interest groups, and nationalism and ideology. It suggests four implications over security and denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula by using the theory of the Neo-classical realism's perspective. Results: First, the withdrawal of the U.S. from Afghanistan can be seen as an expression of shrinking nationalism stemming from the U.S. priority that has emerged since the Trump era. Second, the continued burden of the war due to the worsening financial situation in the U.S. due to COVID-19 and the fatigue of the accumulated war was a cause for the US to withdraw from Afghanistan. Third, to win the votes of the white middle class in the Midwest of the United States, known as Trump's supporters, President Biden decided to withdraw from the need to rebuild the middle class. Fourth, the U.S. Biden administration decided to withdraw troops to focus on checking China, an authoritarian regime, based on value diplomacy that values democracy and human rights. Conclusion: As the Biden administration put more weight on checking China, the declaration of the end of the war pushed by the Moon Jae-in administration has been put on the back burner. The end-of-war declaration pushed by the South Korean government is opposed by the U.S. government as it weakens the justification for the presence of U.S. troops in South Korea that is a strategic hub for checking China. The Biden administration is implementing a policy to actively intervene in human rights issues in China and North Korea, focusing on value diplomacy, and is tightening sanctions against those involved, worsening the atmosphere of dialogue for negotiations. South Korea needs quiet diplomacy to promote the peace process. The U.S. sanctions on North Korea are creating an atmosphere and cause for North Korea to provoke more militarily in the future, raising the need to maintain a military response posture to South Korea and the US.
    Keyword:Strategic Situation, Neoclassical Realism, Withdrawal, Political Implication, Peace Process
  • Purpose: In this study, the Cheongju Spy Ring incident offers a clear answer for the question of “Are there still spies?” in some parts of our society. It confirms the fact that North Korea is continuously carrying out espionage in South Korea regardless of the situation between the North and South Koreas. Hence, it is intended to discuss the legitimacy of the National Security Act, which is faced with the possibility of repealment, and the ripple effect of its repealment via an actual analysis of the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. Method: This study examines the legitimacy of the National Security Act and its ripple effects when it is repealed by analyzing the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. It will examine the differences of opinion on the controversy over the existence of the National Security Act to date. The content analytical method and the literature analytical method were implemented comprehensively and specifically for the contents of various aspects of the incident. Results: Concerning the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act, it is necessary to respond with a clear awareness from the perspective of national security and the maintenance and development of the liberal democratic system. The National Security Act has the purpose to guarantee the people's freedom and human rights by restricting anti-state activities which undermine the national security, not anti-unification-anti-democratic-anti-civil evil laws as North Korea claims. Furthermore, as evident in foreign cases, it can learned that the law is by no means a strong law. Conclusion: In conclusion, when the National Security Act is repealed, then first, from the security and military perspective, it would be impossible to punish the North Korean spies and the anti-state activists. Second, in terms of the political aspect, political instability will be aggravated by the conflicts between the ruling party pushing for the repealment of the National Security Act and the opposition party opposing thereto, which will further lead to the political instability and social disturbance. Third, in terms of the social aspect, the conflicts between the left and the right wings over the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act will intensify, and the division of public opinion and social unrest will further expand at best. Fourth, the political instability is expected given the increased conflicts among relevant departments within the government. Fifth, in terms of the inter-Korean relations, the federal unification drive after the repealtment of the National Security Act by the North will be a prerequisite for improving the inter-Korean relations, thereby growing the pressure on South Korea. Ultimately, the repealment of the National Security Act will undermine the constitutional system of the Republic of Korea by threatening and destroying not only the security of the Republic of Korea but also the basic order of liberal democracy in the political, economic, and social areas.
    Keyword:Cheongju Spy Ring, National Security Act, National Security, Anti-Government Organization, Spy in South Korea
  • Purpose: Various risks exist in the field for security guards. Given such risk factors, the need for security guard increases while the security industry is developing. However, security guards carry only portable equipments, which are very passive from against risk factors in the workplace. This causes a lot of stress and sacrifices further to injuries for the security guards. Method: Therefore, in this study, the portable equipment of the security guard was examined, and the baton was examined based on the issue of the security guard’s portable equipment. Results: Security guard is making much effort to help protect the safety of those subject to personal protection and facilities subject to security from against various risk factors in the workplace. However, the equipment to protect the safety of those subject to personal protection and facilities subject to security from against dangerous weapons which are becoming more aggressive and dangerous as the number of hazardous goods is diversified fails to reflect the reality. For the safety of the security guard and those who are subject to their protection, it is necessary to re-establish the standards for the baton among the portable equipments. Conclusion: Various efforts for the portable equipments of security guard are required. Regarding the security guard’s portable equipment, it is a device which can respond to threats from against violent crimes and aggressive harmful weapons, the redevelopment of the standards which may be used to safely respond to factors of danger and which may be used appropriately is needed.
    Keyword:Security Guard, Portable Equipment, Baton, Harmful Equipment, Safety