All Articles

  • Purpose: The customer satisfaction strategies to improve sports center management performance are developed, and for this purpose, they are strengthening internal marketing activities for their employees. These internal marketing activities are not only related to the service quality provided to the users by the employees, but also the importance of the role of customer orientation development is being emphasized. Hence, from this point of view, the purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effect of internal marketing on the customer orientedness and market orientedness in order to present the basic data for establishing the customer oriented marketing for the sports centers. Method: In this study, as of 2022, 230 employees of sports centers in Daegu Metropolitan City were surveyed, and the convenience sampling was used for the sampling method, and the survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 228 questionnaires were used as the valid samples, except for the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the contents of the questionnaire. The measurement tool was a questionnaire, and the data processing was carried out by the SPSS 22.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification performed, the internal marketing turned out to be education and training factor α=.894, community factor α=.870, and compensation system factor α=.825, and customer orientation was customer care factor α=.866, customer understanding factor α=.852, customer management factor α=.795. The market orientedness was shown as the market orientedness factor α=.812. Overall, internal marketing of sports centers affects the customer orientation and the market orientation. Conclusion: In this study, the internal marketing of sports center affects the customer orientedness and the market orientedness, and for the efficient management of sports center and the more stable profit generation, it is necessary to provide a customer oriented service differentiated from the sports centers competing through the internal marketing activities which reflect the needs and desires of sports center users.
    Keyword:Customer Orientedness, Market Orientedness, Sports, Sports Center, Internal Marketing
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate the difference in the perception of North Korean defectors by focusing on variables according to the period of service of the security police and the police’s total period of service, which can provide a high accessibility and experience based results for the North Korean defectors. Method: In this study, 100 South Korean police officers in 2020 were surveyed among the police officers of the security department who had work experiences related to the North Korean defectors, and among the trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, the police institute of education in South Korea. The survey was conducted by the self-administration method, and 91 people’s questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or missing part of the survey information. Results: In terms of the difference in the perception of North Korean defectors according to the period of police service, the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference for the Q-22 question at the level of 5%. That is, it turned out that the longer the total police service period, the more the North Korean defectors had the perception to receive legal support for the purposes of visiting the police station. Furthermore, as for the difference in the perception of the North Korean defectors according to the period of the security police service, the analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the Q-24, Q-34, and Q-38 questions at the 5% level. That is, it turned out that the security police perceived the problems of the North Korean defectors to be personal safety and understanding of the South Korean society, and perceived that the average monthly economic income of the North Korean defectors is stable. Conclusion: As the conclusion of this study, while the police generally perceive the work involving the North Korean defectors as a legal support and a business processing, the longer the service period of the security police, the difference in their perception turned out such that, the more problems with the personal safety of the North Korean defectors and their understanding of the South Korean society. Furthermore, in terms of the security police who are directly in charge of he North Korean defectors, they have a common perception about the North Korean society, such as problem solving through violence, awareness of and avoidance of damages according to the compliance of law, and the justification of individual sacrifice by groups. Hence, it may be interpreted as a result of recognizing it as a result of a lack of personal protection against violent crimes and a lack of understanding of the South Korean society.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Regulation, South Korean Security Police, Period of Service as Police, Perception
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to collect and analyze big data related to food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Specifically, this study analyzes what potential tourists consider food tourism in Jeollanam-do under the COVID19 regulation. It is to analyze the perception about Jeonnam as a destination for food tourism perceived by potential tourists through big data analysis. From big data analysis, this study analyzes why tourists visit Jeollanam-do for food tourism. Method: The big data collected for analysis ranged from January 1 to December 31, 2021 using the Textom and came from the “N” firm, the largest portal site in Korea. Big data was collected from blogs, cafes, and news among various channels owned by the firm using the keyword ‘Jeonnam food tourism’. Two years have been since the first case of COVID-19 infection was reported in Korea on January 20, 2020. Word pairs were selected using the N-gram, which is a number that records the number of consecutive expressions of two words in the data. Key words were visualized using word cloud analysis. Results: First, according to the frequency analysis through text mining, tourists who visit Jeollanam-do perceive Jeollanam-do as a food tourism destination. Second, in the frequency analysis using the N-gram, many words for tourism activities, tourism resources, tourism products, culture, and the like were presented in addition to food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Third, as in the frequency analysis using the N-gram and the result from word cloud, a specific region in Jeollanam-do such as Beopseongpo and a specific food such as kimchi were showed in the top search terms. Conclusion: First, those officials who are charged in public relations and tourism in Jeollanam-do should prepare environments to provide unique tourism activities linked to food tourism and should develop various tourism programs in connection with food tourism in Jeollanam-do. Second, it is necessary to provide and promote fascinating programs that can be experienced from visit to Jeonnam, such as cultural tourism activities linked with food tourism and local tourism experiences. Finally, as the capital of food tourism, numerous advertisement and promotions for Jeonnam food and effective food-related festivals and events are necessary.
    Keyword:Big Data, Food Tourism, Covid-19, Regulations, Jeonnam
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to compare institutional arrangements between precedent social enterprises with a focus on the change of third sector organizations. Along with this, it is also to give an implication for a latecomer that insufficiently institutionalized social enterprise from the side of precedent countries of social enterprise. Method: The article reviews the policy documents and legal data of the governments and public organizations involving the UK, the US, and South Korea as well as China by applying Krasner’s model of punctuated equilibrium that gives attention to macro, meso, and micro institutions. Chapter 2 explores the paths and types of social enterprise. Chapter 3 discusses the economic environment and regime change, the legalization and legal entity, and the support system and support measure of social enterprise. Chapter 4 discusses the comparison of the influence of multi-leveled institutions. Chapter 5 discusses an implication for a latecomer of social enterprise, China. Results: The article finds the influence of institution on social enterprise and an implication for a latecomer. First, the welfare liberal state with voluntary sector tradition forms the social enterprise as a separate legal entity as the state experiences an economic recession and low employment. Second, the welfare liberal state with non-profit sector tradition makes social enterprise a separable legal entity as the state undergoes economic recession and high employment. Third, the statism-centered state with an underdeveloped third sector forms social enterprise as an inseparable legal entity as the state goes through an economic recession and low employment. China as a latecomer puts together the cases of the precedent nations for its institution-building. Conclusion: This article concludes that the third sector development and character plays a critical role in forming social enterprise when state and market address external shock and internal conflict. Institutions tend to persist, but the social enterprise is formed as the existing third sector organization encounters an exogenous variable and is mediated by state and market.
    Keyword:Vertical Institution, Third Sector, Social Enterprise, Nonprofits, Legal Entity
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the current status of illegal online gambling, which is rapidly spreading recently, and to suggest policy measures to prevent gambling addiction of illegal online gambling users. Illegal online gambling is easier to access than the legal gambling industry, so it tends to be converted very quickly. Therefore, there is a need for a way to actively cope with this. Method: The seriousness of illegal gambling has been an important issue until recently. In Korean society, gambling culture is spread and has an acceptable sentiment for gambling. Many people buy lottery tickets hoping to win the lottery. However, gambling based on gambling leads to gambling addiction, which poses a risk of economic loss, family destruction, and crime. Therefore, this study aims to understand the status of the Korean gambling industry and point out the problems of gambling addiction caused by gambling. In addition, I would like to look at countermeasures from various countries against illegal online gambling, which is understood to play a key role in gambling addiction. Through this, we intend to provide suggestions for preventing the spread of illegal online gambling and solving gambling problems. Results: As a result of reviewing the existing KNGCC reports and literature data on illegal gambling, it was found that gambling is increasing throughout Korean society. Koreans are expected to make a lot of money by buying lottery tickets and betting on sports every week. Unfortunately, however, many people are suffering from gambling addiction. Gambling addiction causes a number of social problems. It produces various side effects such as personal health, family dissolution, departure from work, suicide, and crime. However, policy measures focused on legal gambling do not prevent the spread of illegal gambling. Most illegal gambling serviced online has a very high addiction rate and is difficult to crack down on compared to legal gambling. Efforts such as granting KNGCC the right to investigate are required to prevent this, but it is difficult. There is also an expectation that the spread of illegal gambling can be controlled through efforts such as providing legal gambling online. However, such a decision has a difficulty that social consensus should take precedence. Conclusion: For modern people living in the Meta-bus era, the temptation of illegal online gambling is difficult to avoid. It is very difficult to eradicate illegal gambling, which is being serviced online with high accessibility in the gambling industry, which is divided into legal and illegal. In the case of Korea, it is impossible to crack down on illegal gambling sites in the absence of KNGCC's investigative power. In addition, it is also a reality that it is difficult to crack down on illegal gambling sites due to frequent changes. As a result, it is difficult to cope with the rapidly increasing illegal online gambling with policy measures based simply on deterrence policies. Therefore, this study attempted to emphasize the importance of strengthening online services for legal gambling and preventive education and gambling addiction treatment for illegal gambling.
    Keyword:Illegal Gambling, Gambling, On-Line Gambling, KNGCC(Korean National Gambling Control Commission), Prevention
  • Purpose: This study comprehensively identified which of the sub-Factor s of organizational fairness they perceived had a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. In addition, this study verified how power distance tendency, an individual characteristic variable, affects the relationship between their job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Method: The scope and method of this study are as follows. First, the time range of the study ran from December 1, 2020 until December 30, 2020, and the spatial range of the study was the Daegu Metropolitan Police Agency, 10 police stations affiliated, and 31 patrol divisions within the police station. Second, as for the method of the study, a reference study and an empirical study were concurrently conducted via a questionnaire survey. Results: The results of this study are as follows. First, it was found that the organizational fairness perceived by police officers had a significant positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Second, in the influence of power distance tendency on organizational effectiveness, it was found that the higher the power distance tendency, the more negative effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Conclusion: The implications of this study are as follows. First, the establishment of a fair police organizational culture should precede. Second, in order to ensure that individual police officers have an active and positive attitude in enhancing organizational effectiveness, organizational efforts should be made to resolve complaints based on compensation results. Third, it is necessary to solve operational problems by receiving expert diagnoses on the operation of the performance-based pay system of the police organization and to actively collect and reflect the opinions of police officers who are subject to application.
    Keyword:Organizational Fairness, Power Distance Tendency, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior
  • Purpose: On April 11, 2019 (2017Hun-Ba127 decision), the Constitutional Court ruled that the “self-abortion” and “Abortion by Doctor” in the Criminal Act were nonconforming to the Constitution because they limit women’s right to self-determination. Abortion is one of the provisions of Article 10 of the Constitution, the right to self-determination derived from the dignity and value of human beings. On the other hand, the state also has an obligation to protect the life of the fetus. The purpose of this study is to examine foreign legislative cases related to abortion in order to harmoniously resolve the basic rights of the pregnant woman and the fetus in order to meet the request of the Constitutional Court, and to suggest a legislative direction to remove the unconstitutionality of the criminal abortion crime. In addition, we would like to examine the Maternal and Child Health Act for coherence of the legal system. Method: Whether or not to punish abortion is one of the issues that have been controversial in society so far. If the punishment for the crime of abortion is completely banned, the right to life of the fetus may be neglected. To this end, first, I would like to review the contents of the Constitutional Court's decision on the punishment for the crime of abortion. Second, the current state of punishment for abortion is reviewed by reviewing foreign comparative laws on the crime of abortion. Third, the legal, medical, moral, and religious perspectives on punishment for abortion are reviewed. Fourth, based on the discussion so far, I would like to suggest the direction of legislation for the punishment of abortion crimes. Results: The punishment for abortion should not be viewed as a choice between a woman's right to self-determination and the fetus's right to life. Revision of the law should be made in the direction of recognizing and protecting the two legal interests. Article 15 of the current Enforcement Decree of the Maternal and Child Health Act stipulates that abortion is permitted within 24 weeks. However, it is reasonable to refer to the government's legislation and decide whether to allow it based on the 22 weeks of pregnancy, which is the period when the fetus can survive independently, or based on the 3·3·3 principle or reasons for adaptation. In addition, economic and social factors and the period of deliberation should be considered. Conclusion: Punishment for abortion is structured in a way that women's right to self-determination and the basic right of the fetus to life are in conflict. In order to resolve these conflicts harmoniously and constitutionally, political, economic, social and cultural integration must be achieved by stipulating in detail the permissible scope of abortion, when it is permitted, the procedure and method of permissible abortion.
    Keyword:Abortion, Right for Self-Determination, Life of the Fetus, Social and Economic Reasons, Nonconforming to the Constitution
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine the current status of citizen participation in the self-governing police system, which has been implemented since July 1, 2021, focusing on metropolitan municipalities in Korea, and to suggest improvement plans for revitalization. Method: The research method was based on the website of local government, government statistics data, and academic papers. Results: The current citizen participation in the self-governing police system is limited to formal participation because there is a lack of system and support to be a citizen participation. Conclusion: As an improvement plan, first, it is necessary to open a unique homepage and strengthen the publicity in order to actively encourage citizens' participation. In other words, it is necessary to actively promote and provide institutional support so that local citizens can actively know and participate in the main policies of the autonomous police committee. Second, active interactive communication plans should be sought to promote citizen participation (regular meetings, holding briefing sessions, etc.). Third, it is necessary to seek cooperation in the level of co-production in the security services. Fourth, it is the enactment of ordinances by local governments that can activate citizen participation. Fifth, the activation of citizen participation through the network construction of police cooperation organizations and civic groups related to security services should be promoted. For the successful settlement of the self-governing police system, citizen participation should be activated so that it can be a police activity that meets the needs of residents and the residents who are the purpose of the self-governing police system.
    Keyword:Autonomous Police System, Citizen Participation, Active Interactive Communication Plans, Network, Cooperation
  • Purpose: The rate of application for ROTC, which accounts for more than 60% of officers commissioned by the Army annually, is decreasing every year. In this reality, this research aims to study what factors make college students decide to serve as officers and why they avoid applying for ROTC, and through this, from the military's point of view, it is intended to provide it as basic data that can obtain excellent cadets based on these factors. Method: Based on the results of previous studies on the influencing factors of college students applying as cadets and the decreasing ROTC application rate, this study analyzed the factors limiting the acquisition of excellent cadets and prepared improvement measures. Results: The reasons for the decrease in the application rate for ROTC cadets are as follows: First, difficulty in recruiting troops due to a decrease in the school-age population due to a low birth rate and aging society; Second, difficulty in obtaining manpower due to the shortening of the military service period; Third, insufficient economic compensation for ROTC cadets; Fourth, difficulty in managing cadets' academic performance while attending the college. These factors have led the military to face an environment in which it has to make much more effort to recruit and select excellent ROTC cadets in the future than in the past. Therefore, it can be said that it is urgent for the military to identify, analyze, and come up with improvement measures for what factors college students decide to apply for ROTC cadets and for what reason they avoid the application. Conclusion: In order to improve the application rate for ROTC cadets in the future, it is necessary to review ways to shorten the service period of ROTC cadets, reduce the burden of academic performance management, introduce a military course credit system, and increase the promotion budget and come up with new ways to attract new generations of applicants. Through these legal and institutional improvements, it is expected that excellent ROTC cadets with the capabilities required by the Korean military will be obtained in the future.
    Keyword:Low Birth Rate and Aging Society, Army Officer Training System, ROTC Cadets, Excellent Manpower, ROTC Officer Selection System