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Differences in Leaders' Followership in the KOREAN SECURTY POLICE Organization According to Gender and Age

Vol.5 (No.2) 2020
2020-12-30 08:57


Purpose: In this study, the perception toward leaders' followership by gender and age was analyzed for police officers working at the security police organization, which are recognized as the most closed police organization among young or female police officers. And through this, we would like to discuss policy measures to create a security police organization with a new followership culture in line with the changing security environment.

Method: In this study, 100 police officers working for the security police organization with experience in handling North Korean defector affairs were surveyed via self-administration method to analyze their perception toward leaders' followership according to gender and age.

Results: According to the analysis, male security police officers are more positive about their leaders' followership than female police officers for most of the questions that have been statistically significant in terms of gender. And in terms of age, most of the questions are considered to be more positive among older people, while among those who are in their 20s, there is a relatively high level of negative perception. When it comes to gender and age connections, men in their 50s and women in their 30s have the most positive attitude toward their leaders.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the culture inside the security police organization should improve so that it can actively accept female security police officers, who account for only 4.6% of the total police force, including external affairs police officers, and thus turn it into a security police organization where female police officers can fully demonstrate their potential and creativity. Second, in order to be reformed as a new security police organization in response to the rapidly changing security environment, a developmental organizational culture of the security police organization should be created, expanding the number of young security police officers, drawing fresh ideas from them and making themselves leaders.

Keyword:Security Police, Police Officers, Gender, Age, Followership
  • Purpose: This study tried to verify the mediating effect of self-esteem in the effects of smartphone dependence among adolescents on academic helplessness. Method: 2,404 first-year middle school students were selected as research subjects using data form the second year of the Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey 2018. For the analysis method, the mediating effect was analyzed using the PROCESS macro 3.5(Model 4) suggested by Hayes(2017). Results: Results of the study First, there was a significant positive relationship and influence between smartphone dependence and academic helplessness of adolescents, Second, a significant negative relationship and influence between smartphone dependence and self-esteem, and Third, there was a significant negative relationship between academic helplessness and self-esteem. It has been found to influence negative relationships. Fourth, smartphone dependence indirectly affects academic helplessness through self-esteem and plays a partial mediating role. Conclusion: These results are meaningful in that they revealed the indirect mediating effect of self-esteem in the path that smartphone dependence leads to academic helplessness. Therefore, through the results of this study, it was suggested that various programs are needed to reduce smartphone dependence and academic helplessness, and to recognize and improve the importance of self-esteem in the educational field for correct study and growth of adolescents.
    Keyword:Adolescents, Smartphone Dependency, Academic Helplessness, Self-Esteem, Mediating Effect
  • Purpose: This study was conducted as a qualitative research method in order to examine the natural healing experiences and acceptance attitudes of the senior citizens participating in Health Qigong. Towards this end, the analysis was performed by applying the grounded theory approach. Method: As for the selection of research participants, the sample was extracted by adopting the purposeful sampling method, which is among the non-probabilities of the study. and finally, 15 people were selected as the research participants after confirming as to whether they were appropriate for the purposes of the study through a meeting of experts. In the data collection process, the participants were first selected through the first interview, theoretical samples were extracted, then the second interview was conducted. The raw data collected through the in-depth interview were described in words and transcribed, after which, the transcribed data and the interview details were checked for consistency. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, a total of 18 categories, 34 subcategories, and 18 concepts were derived. In terms of the type classification, the participant type A turned out to be a ‘social communication type’ while the participant type B turned out to be a ‘instrumental leisure activity type.’ The participant type C turned out to be an 'active healing coping type,' while the participant type D turned out to be a 'selective giving up type.' Conclusion: In this study, the details of the natural healing experiences and acceptance attitude of the senior citizens participating in Health Qigong were verified in depth. Such research results are meaningful in that they provided basic data to ensure that the Health Qigong program can play a mediating role in maintaining and restoring the mental and physical health of the senior citizens in a scientific manner.
    Keyword:Health Qigong, Grounded Theory, Senior Citizens, Experience, Acceptance Attitude
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present the basic data for scalability for the provisions of the physical service environment for medical skincare by studying what influence the human service causes in between the servicescapes and reliability while analyzing the mediating effect of reliability between the servicescapes of medical skincare and the intention of customer behavior. Method: In this study, the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 25.0 and PROCESS macro for SPSS program as an empirical analysis method for 511 copies for 17 cities and provinces nationwide based on an online survey method targeting men and women in their 20s through 50s, and in order to validate the regulatory effect of human service in the relationship between servicescapes and intention of the customer behavior, multi mediated effect analysis and the PROCESS macro model 7 were used to validate the significance of the mediating effect based the Sobel-test. Results: In terms of the results of this study, first, regarding the existence of the mediating effect of reliability in terms of the relationship between the servicescapes and the intention of customer behavior, stability(β=.294, p<.001), surrounding environment(β=.183, p<. 001) and functionality(β=.179, p<.001) have caused a positive effect, while the reliability has caused a significant effect on the intention of customer behavior. Second, when the effect of servicescapes on the customer behavior via reliability would be enhanced by the human service, servicescapes and human service have caused a significant positive effect on the reliability, while the interactive effect of the servicescapes X human service was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the physical improvement of servicescapes in terms of the medical skincare is a major factor for increasing the customer satisfaction and the intention to revisit, and since the customers' reliability perceived by the customers towards the hospital and the staffs’ human service can also increase the intention to revisit, it is considered that stability, environment, and functionality in terms of servicescapes should not be neglected for the customer attraction and profitability related performance.
    Keyword:Medical Skincare, Servicescapes, Human Service, Reliability, Intention of Customer Behavior
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss the countermeasures against drunk driving regulations in terms of crime prevention because drunk driving is not a simple traffic crime but a potential murder. One methodology would be to raise the punishment for drunk driving and to improve the public's awareness and conduct regular traffic accident prevention education so that fundamental problems can be solved and have high efficiency and normative power. In Korea, the ‘Act on the Aggravated Punishment of Specific Crimes, etc.’ and ‘Road Traffic Act’ were amended in Korea following the case of 'Yoon Chang-ho', who died in a drunk driving accident in 2018. Drunk driving is a very dangerous behavior, as it can endanger your life as well as the lives of others. Even if an accident does not occur, such an act is a violation of the Road Traffic Act and therefore carries criminal responsibility. In terms of general crime prevention, the penalties for drunk driving are becoming stricter than in the past. In the improved system, even if the blood alcohol level is 0.03% or more and less than 0.08, imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than 5 million won is imposed. In the case of two or more violations of the strengthened regulations, imprisonment for not less than 2 years and not more than 5 years, or a fine of not less than 10 million won and not more than 20 million won. What used to be a three-out was changed to a two-out for drunk driving. However on November 25, 2021, the Constitutional Court ruled that the provisions of the Road Traffic Act, which required uniform and aggravated punishments for drunk driving more than twice, were against the Constitution(Constitutional Court 2021.11.25, 2019Hunba 446, etc.). In addition, if you injure a person while driving, you will be punished by imprisonment for not less than 1 year and not more than 15 years in prison, or a fine of not less than 10 million won to not more than 30 million won(Before the amendment, in case of death while driving under the influence of alcohol, he was sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than one year). Drunk driving accidents can lead to criminal punishment, administrative sanctions, and even civil lawsuits. Keep in mind that drunk driving can be a potential killer on the road. Even if you didn't harm anyone, just drinking and driving can be a big hit in society. Method: Injuries and deaths due to drunk driving are on the rise. As a countermeasure against this, the standards and level of punishment for drunk driving are being strengthened. First, let's look at the legal punishment for drunk driving through the laws related to drunk driving. Second, we examine the severity of the damage caused by drunk driving through statistics such as drunk driving accidents, injuries, and deaths in current Korean society. Third, as a comparative legal review, by examining foreign laws on drunk driving accidents, matters to be referred to in Korean laws and regulations are reviewed. Fourth, I would like to make a legislative proposal by reviewing the problems and improvement plans of the drunk driving legal system. Previous studies on drunk driving have mainly focused on strengthening the punishment for drunk driving. This study intends to review the general crime prevention aspect by not only strengthening punishment but also changing the public's perception through education. Results: Drunk driving affects not only drunk drivers, but also others and society. It is necessary to keep in mind that drunk driving is a potential homicide, and the prohibition of drunk driving should be strengthened. In addition, if the general prevention effect can be successfully established and nudged against the offenses of drunk drivers, social costs can be reduced. Conclusion: For drunk driving, both the ‘external motivation’ such as punishment, as well as the ‘intrinsic motivation’ to act in compliance with the norm must be activated. To this end, it is necessary to raise awareness that drunk driving must be caught and punished. The certainty of punishment has a positive effect on crime deterrence. Also, in the case of self-driving cars in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, there are no regulations for drunk drivers, so a review should be carried out.
    Keyword:Drunk Driving, Crime Prevention, Road Traffic Act, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Criminal Liability
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss the theoretical basis and location selection method for CCTV, which has recently been spotlighted as an important means of crime prevention. Method: For the purpose of the study, this study attempted to explain the relationship between CCTV and crime prevention. More specifically, this study attempted to explain the theory of criminology related to CCTV. In particular, we tried to explore the possibility of crime prevention effects of CCTVs, focusing on the discussion of classical criminology and neoclassical criminology, not positivist criminology based on the criminality of criminals. In addition, this study attempted to understand existing studies that analyzed the effect of CCTV on crime occurrence and sense of safety. In addition, this study examined the existing domestic research on how to select the location of CCTV installation and introduced an example of a comprehensive study of one of the existing studies. Results: The theory of criminal opportunity, called neoclassical criminology, consists of lifestyle theory, daily behavior theory, CPTED, rational choice theory, and situational control theory. The theory of criminal opportunity is more interested in the situation in which a crime occurs than in the criminality of a criminal. In particular, it emphasizes the monitoring ability to grasp criminal behavior. Typically, CCTV is a means of strengthening surveillance. Accordingly, CCTV has established itself as a key means of preventing crime. Most CPTED programs use CCTVs. In existing effectiveness studies, CCTV was also found to reduce crime and crime fear. Accordingly, some studies emphasize the importance of selecting the location of CCTV installation and provide guidelines for how to select the location of CCTV installation. This study attempted to introduce a new guideline recently proposed. Conclusion: Selection of CCTV installation locations is an important issue for crime prevention and increased satisfaction of local residents. This study attempted to introduce theories, existing studies, and location selection guidelines related to CCTV. There is a need to maximize its effectiveness by installing CCTVs, which are in charge of an important function of strengthening surveillance, in suitable places.
    Keyword:CCTV, Neo-Criminal Theory, CPTED, Place, Crime Prevention
  • Purpose: This study examines the factors of tourism constraints which influence the tourism industry, discover the factors which can increase the tourism related satisfaction by articulating the effects of tourism constraints on the tourism related satisfaction, and utilize them for developing and marketing the tourism resources and tourism products required for the growth of the sustainable tourism industry. Method: In order to achieve the purpose of this study as such, the factors were derived through the factor analysis, and the multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the tourism constraints and the tourism related satisfaction, and the following conclusions were arrived. Results: First, as a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it turned out that health and cleanliness (sanitation) were the variables which have had the largest influence on the tourism constraints, followed by safety, climate and weather. That is, it may be said that securing and guaranteeing health, hygiene, and safety would determine the success of being a tourist destination. Hence, as for the tourism revitalization and the sustainable development in the aftermath of the pandemic, thorough preparations for infectious diseases which may occur again, hygiene and cleanliness of tourist destinations, and the environment for achieving political and economic stability and safety are required alongside the measures for achieving them. Second, based on the analysis of the causal relationship between the tourism constraints and the tourism related satisfaction, tourist destination related environmental constraints, internal constraints, and economic and environmental constraints influence the tourism related satisfaction in a positive direction, and the information and health constraints have a negative effect on the tourism related satisfaction, while the information and health constraints turned out to have a negative effect on the tourism related satisfaction. Conclusion: That is, it means that the satisfaction following tourism increases in the case of overcoming tourism environment, internal and economic and environmental constraints, and the tourism related satisfaction would decrease if there are information and health constraints. Hence, when planning and developing the tourism products after the pandemic, it is necessary to investigate and examine as to whether the tourist destination can respond to and treat infectious diseases, possibility of the occurrence of abnormal climates such as El Niño, and countermeasures, etc.
    Keyword:Pandemic, Growth, Tourism Constraints, Tourism Related Satisfaction, Sustainable
  • Purpose: Given the reality where the North Korean defectors are struggling in the South Korean society matters much to the security police activities of South Korea, which manage them. Among the general characteristics of the security police, it is intended to examine and understand the differences in the perception of the North Korean defectors of the security police according to the number of employees within the police organization and their service location following the urbanization due to the South Korean economic growth. Method: As for the data processing of this study, the frequency analysis was performed to identify the general characteristics of the police officers serving at the security department among the police organizations of South Korea in 2020 by using the SPSS 23.0 program, while the Cronbach’s a coefficient was calculated by selecting 91 questions for 100 people, and the One Way ANOVA and t-Test were performed to examine and learn about the differences in the perceptions of the security police towards the North Korean defectors according to the number of employees of the police organization and their service location. Results: As a result of this study, it turned out that the perception of the North Korean defectors varied according to the number of employees of the security police organization managing the North Korean defectors. Furthermore, it turned out that there is a difference in the perception of the North Korean defectors according to the service location of the security police organization in large cities and small to medium sized cities of the security police. Conclusion: Since the North Korean defectors, who are accustomed to communism, are struggling with their adapting to the South Korean capitalist economy, it would be necessary to prepare a system which will facilitate and enable sustainable economic activities, and also build various crisis management systems in South Korea in preparations for the collapse of the North Korean regime.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Security Police, Perceptions, Number of Employees, Service Locations
  • Purpose: This study examines the wave energy relationship between the chakra system and aromatherapy and explains that aromatherapy has an organic relationship as a holistic therapy of the chakra system. It is also intended to identify the possibility of use as wave medicine through the energy mechanisms of chakra and aroma. Method: For the purposes of this study, we examined the principles of the chakra system and aromatherapy and integrated literature theorem and examination to explore how the two systems interact organically with wave energy. Results: In terms of wave energy, our bodies are energy structures based on chakra and aura as energy systems in addition to physiological and chemical aspects. This energy structure is influencing and influenced by thoughts and emotions and affects the chemical structure and cells of our bodies. Human beings are alive because their vitality flows through the body, which is controlled by an energy center called chakra. Each chakra has a constant motion and resonates with aroma essential oil at a particular frequency. Most healing mechanisms involve the exchange of energy. Chakra acts as an information receiver that draws wave energy directly from the surroundings when the surrounding waves become suitable for each individual's frequency. Aroma is associated with healing applications to the human body depending on the part of extraction off a plant. Plants receive the information energy of the earth and spread it to the world, and humans receive the energy and give the energy of the sky to the earth. Conclusion: These wave energy aspects of chakra systems and aromatherapy can be expected to harmonize with physical, psychological, spiritual balance and are of sufficient value in wave medicine.
    Keyword:Aromatherapy, Chakra, Aroma, Wave Energy, Wave Medicine
  • Purpose: Given the expansion of online and contactless centric corporate activities due to COVID-19, in order to derive a systematic strategy for the Korean ICT companies' contactless manner of overseas market entry, it is intended to present the differences among strategies according to the growth stage of the ICT companies. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted by targeting major ICT companies of Korea. Based on which, attempt has been made to verify the status of overseas market entry and the level of technological development of the major Korean ICT companies, while verifying the strategies required for the overseas market entry by each growth stage. Results: The manner of overseas market entry turned out to vary depending on each company's growth stage. Accordingly, in the survey of the difficulties during the overseas market entry, varying difficulties were experienced depending on the growth stage of the company. The ICT companies of the entry stage noted the issue of finding customers as a difficulty, and the ICT companies of the growth and maturity stages noted the “lack of trade specialists.” It was also analyzed that the awareness of government support was low, demonstrating the limitations of comprehensive government support policies. Lastly, it was analyzed that differences arose in the current status of responding to COVID-19 and the difficulties depending on the growth stage of the company. It was verified that the awareness of the government's support policy for the ICT companies was low, which was not properly utilized, thereby further confirming that a policy alternative is needed. Conclusion: Consequently, it is necessary to change the overseas market entry support policy for the ICT companies focused on the overseas base centers, which have previously been operated primarily by the suppliers, to the consumer centric, whereby the ICT companies could expand by considering the overseas market entry together from the early stage of growth.
    Keyword:ICT Company, Expansion Strategy, COVID-19, Overseas Market, Effectuation Theory
  • Purpose: In order to successfully establish a self-governing police system, police work, which has been greatly expanded compared to the past, must be effectively performed. Therefore, policy measures that can expand not only formal community governance in which local residents participate but also various informal governance should be sought from now on. Method: This study examines the need and current state of a participation system for the secure establishment and expansion of an autonomous police system, and examines policy measures to increase resident participation in Korea in the future. Results: Regarding the study results, as a policy alternative for the successful establishment of an autonomous police system, first, in order to expand the institutional mechanism for an autonomous police system led by local residents, it is considered necessary to expand their participation in the provincial autonomous police committees, and to introduce a resident recommendation system for the heads of local police departments. Second, in order to strengthen a security network based on public-private cooperation centered on local residents, the systematic operation of an autonomous crime prevention squad and the operation of a Police Development Council should be improved through the enactment of related laws. Third, it was observed that a network consultative body should be established, an advisory group for local residents should be formed, and the operation should be expanded. Conclusion: This study, ultimately, pretends to present resident-led administration as the most important value of the autonomous police system. In addition, citizens and local residents are the most important actors not only in the autonomous police system, but in all administrative functions of the state and local governments. In order to create a genuine 'policing cooperation ecosystem' that can discover the demand for public security suitable to the local characteristics through an autonomous police system and guarantee the democracy and resident-oriented nature of police activities, local governments and the police must cooperate and connect with resident-centered governance.