All Articles

  • The purpose of this research is to search the precondition and discuss at time of building the crime forecast program through the discussion for the utilization of big data for the active utilization of security information. Nowadays, crime forecast systems utilizing the crime information as it enters into the era of information utilization from the era of information collection are being attempted. The more information is, the higher the crime forecast system becomes precise and the prediction rate becomes high. However, points that the invasion of privacy, information country, the surveillance government and the infringement of the personal information, etc. should be discussed exist. Accordingly, what should be preconditioned for the public order of utilization era of big data has been suggested. As a result of discussion, first, the understanding for the police activity utilizing the big data should be preceded. Secondly, the social agreement for the utilization of big data for the utilization of crime forecast system should be drawn. Thirdly, the collection agency should be procured variously. Lastly, the criteria should be prepared so that the numerical value for the forecast may be verified.
    Keyword:Crime Big Data Utilization, PredPol Program, NGI Program, Compstat, AI-Policing
  • The issue of cyberattacks has become very pervasive and increasingly dangerous in the digital age. Many industrialized nations are highly dependent upon computer systems and other technologically supported infra-structures. An attack on such infrastructures may very likely compromise a nation’s security and economic vitality. However, to dat e there has not been a multinational cooperation system as an effective cyberattack prevention strategy. While the policing of high crime areas, known as hotspots, has garnered much attention among scholars and law enforcement officials, the spatial identification of hotspots in cybercrime has been limited. Routine activity theory has often been applied to explain crimes in the physical space, and consistent with this framework, a new theory has been put forth to explain crimes in cyberspace: cyber routine activities theory . This theory contends that an unguarded virtual network must be present in addition to a potential offender and potential target in order for a cybercrime to occur. Further, unlike the spatial and temporal convergence of the physical world, the virtual world is not bound by the same spatial and temporal orderings. Due to the dynamic nature of cyberspace, a cyberattack may be committed against a target in different real world time zones, while also allowing the attacker to escape. The current study seeks to address gaps in the literature concerning spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack origins and victimizations. The purpose of this study is to identify spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack hotspots, which can help law enforcement establish an effective cybercrime prevention strategy for international communities. In terms of methodology, Geospatial Information System(GIS) technique is employed to investigate the patterns of cyberattacks and victimizations . Data was derived from the Norse website from February 15 16, 2017, which feeds a livestream of cyberattacks worldwide. The data includes cyberattack origins, types, targets, times, IP addresses, locations, and ports. This study focuses on answering the following four research questions: Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack origins? Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack victimizations? Do the spatial hotspots for cyberattack origins differ from the spatial hotspots for cyberattack victimizations? Does a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the daytime differ from a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the night time? Thus, the findings of the current study indicate (1)the spatial hotspots of the cyber attackers and victims, and ( 2)the difference between temporal patterns of cyberattacks in the daytime and nighttime. Finally, policy implications and limitations of the current study are discussed
    Keyword:Protection Security, Cyberattack Hotspots, Cybercrime Preventions, GIS Technique, Spatial-Temporal Patterns
  • The purpose of this article is to evaluate the checks and balances that would provide the ideal setting for the best-practice arrangement and regulations governing the private security industry. This article assesses and high-lights the desired industry governance principle through the best-practice model under the three Cs criteria; that is, complete national criminal history checks, compulsory training, and continuous monitoring. These criteria are discussed together with possible regulatory strategies that have progressed over the past decades in parallel to optimize the overall monitoring and enforcement system. Overall, this article is constructed around three discus-sion areas: 1)rationale for the study; 2)the recurring conduct problems associated with the private security industry; and 3)recommendations for the mandated minimum regulatory standards. The concluding chapter that follows reiterates these insights, emphasizing the need for comprehensive-minimum regulation. The findings revealed that the regulation of private security has evolved through piecemeal changes in response to recurring and emerging scandals that challenged the inadequacies in regulatory coverage and lapses in regulatory arrangements. Further, formulated responses are often characterized by a reactive approach. The findings of this study have suggested that what works in one setting does not necessarily translate into effective regulation in another state, and information about regulatory impacts is incomplete. The comprehensive approach to regulation holds that a strong research-based practice should inform judgments about either under- or over-regulation. A research unit, industry advisory board, regular consultation with stakeholders, and account-ability mechanisms are all important to best utilize and mobilize the growing power and influence of the industry. To achieve this, implementation of measurable performance indicators and promotion of consistent standards are crucial to this process in order to ensure adequate depth of regulation and to avoid cycles of scandal and reactive reform.
    Keyword:Private Security, Regulation, Industry Management, Monitoring, Regulatory Strategies
  • With the launch of the Park Jeong-hee government and the enactment of the「Presidential Security Law」, the Korean security system could turn into being a professional security agency, however, the ongoing threats by North Korea are causing the terrorism against the Korean key figures. Especially, recent territorial disputes surrounding neighboring countries of the Korean peninsula are height-ening the tensions of Northeast Asia. Moreover, Northeast Asia's tensions are reaching its peak due to North Korea's hereditary power succession of three generations, nuclear development, and the launch of the Intercon-tinental Ballistic Missile(ICBM). South Korea has successfully hosted large-scale international events such as Asia-Europe Meeting, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, G20(Group of 20) Summit and Nuclear Security Summit in the past, and will soon be hosting the Pyeongchang Winter Olympic Game. However, looking back at the domestic cases, we can reconsider the historical mistake of frequent terrorism against VIP in the political turmoil with neighboring countries, and we should realize that the disruption within North Korea caused by the economic sanctions of the international community can lead to terrorism against South Korea. In this regard, this study brought out the common concept and methodology by analyzing the「Presidential Security Law」and the「Security Business Act」, which are the Relation Laws of Korean VIP Protection Security Law of Korea.
    Keyword:Protection Security, Relation Laws, VIP, Northeast Asia, Republic of Korea
  • Everyone in Korea uses smartphones and fast internet is available everywhere. The settlement of IT(Infor-mation Technology) living zone has led to high reliance on information communication, which poses a possible threat to the infringement of information communication. In Korea, however, cyber attacks by North Korea have been found to be the largest among the infringements, and the amount of damage is said to be more than 1 trillion won. Recently, cyber terror attacks by North Korea have threatened the information networks of private companies as well as major systems of the nation with increasing frequencies. However, the Korean government has limited capabilities to cope with such treats in the cyberspace in terms of manpower, time, and cost. In order to overcome the limitations of the Korean government, an institutional system to guarantee the se-curity of the cyberspace of Koreans is needed through the countermeasures of private security that is expanding the scope of civilian security more broadly in areas where the national influence does not reach. Therefore, this study has begun with the need to discuss countermeasures to the cyber threats not only by the government but also by the private sector, after being confirmed the fact that South Koran bitcoin companies were hit by attacks linked to North Korea hackers recently and which was covered by the major news media around the world.
    Keyword:North Korea, Cyber Attack, Hacking, Bitcoin, South Korea
  • The necessity of private guard became conspicuous as the interest in private security field has been increasing for safeguarding the personal safety of the protectee, because the professional executives and men of wealth cannot rely solely on the public authority or the police for their security. As the need for specialized security guards increases, this study will investigate the work range and the role of guard secretaries in depth in terms of security science through in-depth interview with guard secretaries who are currently working in the position, based on the role of the guard secretary from the previous researches on guard secretary. As a result of the study, generally the work scope of guard secretaries can be divided into three categories. In order of their importance, they were security which protects the body, life and property of the employer, schedule management which is managing the schedule of the employer, and confidentiality which is managing and pro-tecting information. These results suggest that the role of guard is more important than secretarial role. It was revealed that the role of safety manager who is responsible for the safety of the protectee was the most im-portant in the role of the guard secretaries. Secondly, the role as protocol manager for managing formal cere-mony was considered to be important. Thirdly, the role as information manager for managing various infor-mation and date was considered to be important. In addition, the role of work manager, health care manager, business facilitator, and customer manager were considered to be important in the order of their importance. As with the results of work scope, security and safety were found to be the most important factors. The results of questionnaire showed that work capacity, physical ability, self - development and interpersonal relationship were the most important ability of guard secretaries in order of their importance. These results should be the basic data that can provide guard secretaries' concrete work scope and role, and professionalism for better guard secretary services. In addition, since the research on the security secretary is insufficient, further research for the work scope and role of the guard secretary through careful interest and various research methods is needed.
    Keyword:Security, Private Security, Guard Secretary, Scope and Role, Republic of Korea
  • Today, organizations that cause aviation terrorism make use of large funds earned from support of terrorism-sponsoring countries, smuggling, and drugs, and carry out terrorism with sufficient training and advanced tech-nologies. Therefore, it is harder to find effective countermeasures. The key to the security of airports and airplanes is security search which is considered to be the most effective response to prevent aviation terrorism. Given the point that strong aviation security and security search are re-quired, special guards performing security search are the main body for the security of airplanes and passengers and play a very important role in the aviation security field. Therefore, this researcher tries to conduct exploratory research on airport special guards' perception of avia-tion security by having in-depth interviews with them. To conduct this study, qualitative research method fitting exploratory research subject was applied. From Aug. to Oct., 2017, in-depth interviews had been conducted with 20 special guards working at Incheon International Airport and Gimpo International Airport each, or a total of 40 special guards. According to the research, airport special guards had the perception of aviation security as follows: First, special guards were non-regular workers so that they felt insecure and had the issue of treatment. As a result, their perception of aviation security lowered. Secondly, their professionalism and their perception of aviation security were low because of insufficient ed-ucation and training. Thirdly, poor work conditions and strong labor intensity impeded their concentration on security search, and frequent personnel transfers led to the absence of members. In order to manage an international airport as the gate of a country efficiently, it is necessary to guarantee security from technical and human errors, and to make protection against terrorism and crimes. Therefore, the results of this study help to manage human resources well in the unexpected situation of an organization.
    Keyword:Airport, Special Security Guard’s, Aviation Security, Security Search, Private Security
  • In particular, terrorists are recently instilling fear in people with their indiscriminate attacks on unspecified number of targets who are soft targets, as well as hard targets, which suggests that we are living in an era of new terrorism. Furthermore, crimes are becoming more and more violent, intelligent, broadening, and interna-tionalized. Korea has also witnessed a rise in crimes each year. In Korea, public law enforcement organizations and private security industry operate in harmony with each other to maintain crime prevention and security. The purpose of this study was to compressively analyze and introduce the characteristics of legal system related to public law enforcement and private security, the twin pillars of security services in Korea who were responsible for security of the society and safety of citizens. In a word, Korea’s security-related legal system is characterized by dualized operation system. The legal system of public law enforcement in Korea and its characteristics are as follows. First, public law enforcement organizations in Korea operate the National Police Agency under the supervision of the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs to take charge of security-related works pursu-ant to the 「Government Organization Act」. In addition, Presidential Security Service was organized which undertake security duties for President, etc. Second, major laws related to the police include 「Act on the Performance of Duties by Police Officers」, 「Police Officers Act」, 「Police Act」, etc. Third, public security organizations in Korea are operated under the dualized system in which Presidential Security Service is responsible for Presidential security and police security organization taking charge of security for important personnel of the nation such as Prime Minister, etc. The legal system related to private security in Korea and its characteristics are as follows. First, legal system related to private security is dualized. Private security in Korea is operated by dualized system where registered security guards and security guards carry out security duties as prescribed in 「Registered Security Guard Act」(enacted in 1962) and 「Security Services Industry Act」(enacted in 1976), respectively. Second, security for important national facilities is dualized. Third, efforts have been made to expand 5 types of security services provided as prescribed in the 「Security Services Industry Act」 and to broaden the scope of such security services. Recently, there has been discussions on expanding the scope of security service to include private investigation service, traffic direction security service, civilian military service, etc. Fourth, security guards, stipulated in the 「Security Services Industry Act」 are operated under the dualized system where ordinary security guards are performing the duties of facility security, escort security, personal security, and machinery security and special security guards are carrying out the duties of special security services.
    Keyword:Security, Public Law Enforcement, Private Security, Security Service Industry Act, Legal System
  • Taekwondo, a martial arts native to Korea was debuted as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Seoul Olympics and 1992 Barcelona Olympics, and then adopted as an official sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Taekwondo is known to contribute to harmonious development of the body through a skill system which is organized to allow a balanced use of parts of it, and promote growth of children, fitness of the middle aged and the old aged and health and beauty of women. In addition, if children acquire black belts, Taekwondo can provide various special activities for them, in place of busy parents over the weekend and the school vacation. The number of Teakwondo population has increased, due to such strength. According to the current statistics of Kukkiwon. the number of Taekwondo schools in Korea is 9530, that of black belt holders is about 4.3 million and that of Dan holders is about 4.2 million. At the core of such populari-zation and domestic and foreign developments of Taekwondo, its characteristics of marital arts and educational value play key roles, and perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that the 'Taekwondo school', a matrix of Taekwondo education is the foundation for such an advancement. However, problems of safety managements in the private education market continue to appear. In particular, frequency of injury and level of exposure to danger in private education of physical sector must be relatively higher than those in that of general art or language sector, because the education is implemented by using the body in the former. Above all, Taekwondo is a sport that helps train body and mind through marital arts including Gyeorugi(bouts) and Gyeokpa(breaking), so need to accompany with safety managements against safety acci-dents is stronger than that of other private educations. The results of study on safety managements of Taekwondo schools show various problems. The first problem is lack of recognition on the safety management. Although Taekwondo coaches at front line agree that the safety of schools is important, but the safety managements they actually have conducted tend to be passive. In addition, they should recognize wider scope of safety managements in the schools and change their perceptions about them as places where even educations of safety managements can be implemented. The second problem is the poor safety education. Although government agencies have conducted various safety educations, direct and ef-fective educations of safety managements in Taekwondo schools are almost not practiced. For further develop-ment and improvement of Taekwondo which has been quantitatively grown, the safety managements should be educated by considering contents, subjects and methods of them. The third problem is lask of the manual of safety managements. The manual serving as traffic signs on congested roads can help prevent safety accidents and efficiently cope with them if any. However, there is no manual that can be applied to all Taekwondo schools, so the safety management manual which can be accepted by all schools should be developed based on previous experience and knowledge. schools should recognize themselves as safety management professionals and also practically make the schools safer by improving safety environment. In addition, they should change their perceptions about the safety management through educational approach rather than managemental one and make and use the standard manual which all schools can actually use.
    Keyword:Security, Safety, Taekwondo, Taekwondo School, Republic of Korea
  • The national police service in Korea became incapable to satisfy demand for crime prevention and security as the Korean society has become urbanized. Despite the expansion of role and function of police, the shortage in absolute number of policeman and budget, outdated police equipments, excessive over-working time and work load, as a limiting factors, prevent police service from effective crime prevention. These inability of police service, a parent body of national security, to satisfy the expectation of citizens in qualitative and quantitative aspects, led to the increase in importance of private security industry. Especially, the realization that the public agency is no more a mechanism to protect private possessions and social activities due to problems such as absence of institutional safety device and accordingly, the increase of perception that 'My Safety by Myself' are contributing the creation of demands for private security. Most of private security companies, however, are struggling only for survival and profit instead of attempts to develop professional competence. In addition, the qualitative im-balance in security service due to the over-competition (lowest bid agreement, dumping agreement), absence of overall review for staff-related problems from supervision and coach to recruitment identity guarantee, and ben-efits due to lack of legal support, image depletion for private security companies because of various illegal acts, are all contributing to barrier to development of private safety industry and these factors may explain the quali-tative stationary state despite the quantitative expansion of this field. The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental data to develop directions to address bid-related prob-lems of private security fields such as bidding corruption, acquire fairness, transparency, and equality in order to propose an improvement measures ensuring qualitative efficiency by analyzing the current status of bidding sys-tem of domestic private security industry. The institutions that benefit whole stakeholders including users, companies, and security staffs, based on ad-ministrative transparency and fairness, need to be in place through improvement in bidding system in order to use effective private security service. The monogamous dominance of big private security company, in accord-ance with Security Industry Act may force small-medium companies that inferior in funds and man-power to be in poor performance, therefore, a measure should be sought to ensure both each specialization and whole growth of private security industry. For the qualitative development underpinning the quantitative growth of domestic private security industry, the bidding systems, based on improvement measures to mandate users to apply right-ful bidding system and ensure administrative transparency and equitable opportunity, need to be in place. In other words, the bidding system in private sector may have advantages of simplicity in administration and saving of expense in short-term, however may cause qualitative problems such as over-competition, lowest price bidding, lowest wage in long-term in private security industry, therefore the improvement of bidding system is essential to promise development of domestic private security industry.
    Keyword:Security, Private Security, Bidding System, Improvement, Republic of Korea