All Articles

  • As the number of North Korean defectors entering South Korea has dramatically increased, various efforts have been made to settle them as members of the society. These days, the military is also positively considering military duties for North Korean defectors in line with current social movements. However, prejudice and a sense of distance towards North Korean defectors may act as negative factors in military operations. To solve this problem, the military needs to exert effort to lessen the prejudice and sense of distance towards North Korean defectors, in preparation for the latter and their second generation in joining the army. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prejudice of army soldiers on North Korean defectors by examining the effects of individual psychological traits(authoritarian personality, inclination to perfectionism, empathic ability) on prejudice(stereotypes, emotions, sense of social distance) towards North Korean defectors. A survey was carried out targeting four hundred soldiers from various units ranging from front to rear troops, rep-resenting the entire army. To summarize the results of this study, efforts are needed among the army in reducing their authoritarian personality, enhancing self-oriented perfectionism, and improving empathic ability to lessen the prejudice to-wards North Korean defectors. To do this, public advertisements and social programs(prejudice and stereotype mitigating program) must be created for soldiers to learn other cultures and positively embrace social minority groups. Through this study, the presentation of the policy making plan on recognition improvement towards North Korean defectors may be considered as an achievement.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Authoritarian Personality, Perfectionism, Prejudices, Protection
  • The purpose of this research is to search the precondition and discuss at time of building the crime forecast program through the discussion for the utilization of big data for the active utilization of security information. Nowadays, crime forecast systems utilizing the crime information as it enters into the era of information utilization from the era of information collection are being attempted. The more information is, the higher the crime forecast system becomes precise and the prediction rate becomes high. However, points that the invasion of privacy, information country, the surveillance government and the infringement of the personal information, etc. should be discussed exist. Accordingly, what should be preconditioned for the public order of utilization era of big data has been suggested. As a result of discussion, first, the understanding for the police activity utilizing the big data should be preceded. Secondly, the social agreement for the utilization of big data for the utilization of crime forecast system should be drawn. Thirdly, the collection agency should be procured variously. Lastly, the criteria should be prepared so that the numerical value for the forecast may be verified.
    Keyword:Crime Big Data Utilization, PredPol Program, NGI Program, Compstat, AI-Policing
  • The issue of cyberattacks has become very pervasive and increasingly dangerous in the digital age. Many industrialized nations are highly dependent upon computer systems and other technologically supported infra-structures. An attack on such infrastructures may very likely compromise a nation’s security and economic vitality. However, to dat e there has not been a multinational cooperation system as an effective cyberattack prevention strategy. While the policing of high crime areas, known as hotspots, has garnered much attention among scholars and law enforcement officials, the spatial identification of hotspots in cybercrime has been limited. Routine activity theory has often been applied to explain crimes in the physical space, and consistent with this framework, a new theory has been put forth to explain crimes in cyberspace: cyber routine activities theory . This theory contends that an unguarded virtual network must be present in addition to a potential offender and potential target in order for a cybercrime to occur. Further, unlike the spatial and temporal convergence of the physical world, the virtual world is not bound by the same spatial and temporal orderings. Due to the dynamic nature of cyberspace, a cyberattack may be committed against a target in different real world time zones, while also allowing the attacker to escape. The current study seeks to address gaps in the literature concerning spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack origins and victimizations. The purpose of this study is to identify spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack hotspots, which can help law enforcement establish an effective cybercrime prevention strategy for international communities. In terms of methodology, Geospatial Information System(GIS) technique is employed to investigate the patterns of cyberattacks and victimizations . Data was derived from the Norse website from February 15 16, 2017, which feeds a livestream of cyberattacks worldwide. The data includes cyberattack origins, types, targets, times, IP addresses, locations, and ports. This study focuses on answering the following four research questions: Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack origins? Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack victimizations? Do the spatial hotspots for cyberattack origins differ from the spatial hotspots for cyberattack victimizations? Does a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the daytime differ from a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the night time? Thus, the findings of the current study indicate (1)the spatial hotspots of the cyber attackers and victims, and ( 2)the difference between temporal patterns of cyberattacks in the daytime and nighttime. Finally, policy implications and limitations of the current study are discussed
    Keyword:Protection Security, Cyberattack Hotspots, Cybercrime Preventions, GIS Technique, Spatial-Temporal Patterns
  • The purpose of this article is to evaluate the checks and balances that would provide the ideal setting for the best-practice arrangement and regulations governing the private security industry. This article assesses and high-lights the desired industry governance principle through the best-practice model under the three Cs criteria; that is, complete national criminal history checks, compulsory training, and continuous monitoring. These criteria are discussed together with possible regulatory strategies that have progressed over the past decades in parallel to optimize the overall monitoring and enforcement system. Overall, this article is constructed around three discus-sion areas: 1)rationale for the study; 2)the recurring conduct problems associated with the private security industry; and 3)recommendations for the mandated minimum regulatory standards. The concluding chapter that follows reiterates these insights, emphasizing the need for comprehensive-minimum regulation. The findings revealed that the regulation of private security has evolved through piecemeal changes in response to recurring and emerging scandals that challenged the inadequacies in regulatory coverage and lapses in regulatory arrangements. Further, formulated responses are often characterized by a reactive approach. The findings of this study have suggested that what works in one setting does not necessarily translate into effective regulation in another state, and information about regulatory impacts is incomplete. The comprehensive approach to regulation holds that a strong research-based practice should inform judgments about either under- or over-regulation. A research unit, industry advisory board, regular consultation with stakeholders, and account-ability mechanisms are all important to best utilize and mobilize the growing power and influence of the industry. To achieve this, implementation of measurable performance indicators and promotion of consistent standards are crucial to this process in order to ensure adequate depth of regulation and to avoid cycles of scandal and reactive reform.
    Keyword:Private Security, Regulation, Industry Management, Monitoring, Regulatory Strategies