The Effects of National Examination PROTECTION Convergence Education Program on Ego-Resiliency, Social Support, and Job-Seeking Stress of Senior Nursing Students
Method: The National Exam Protection Convergence Education Program comprised of special lectures for eight subjects of the national examination for nurses was carried out by full-time professors of each of the major subjects three times a week for a total of 18 sessions. It is one group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research comparing 66 nursing students with an average GPA of 3.0 or less(out of 4.5) before and after the education program. The participants were interviewed by academic advisers from time to time.
General characteristics were examined by actual numbers and percentages and pre-post analysis of ego-resiliency, social support, and job-seeking stress for the national examination education program was conducted through paired sample t-test using SAS 9.3 program.
Results: As a result of analyzing the changes in ego-resiliency, social support, and job-seeking stress before and after the National Examination Protection Convergence Education Program, it was found that the average for ego-resiliency and social support significantly increased from 3.52 to 3.78(t=5.16, p=<.000) and 3.89 to 4.04(t=2.61, p=<.011), respectively. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in job-seeking stress before and after the program(t=1.15 p=.253).
Conclusion: The study was conducted to understand the effects of a national examination education program by making comparisons of data obtained before and after an 18-session, 40-hour education program for underperforming students, and it revealed significant differences in ego-resiliency and social support before and after the education program; however, there found no change in job-seeking stress.
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The Effect of Beauty Management Behavior of Beauty Shop Customers on Consumer Sentiment Since COVID-19Purpose: Currently, beauty shops are experiencing a crisis of survival due to a decrease in customers due to COVID-19, but research on their survival is lacking. The purpose of this study is to find out how modern people's beauty management behavior due to COVID-19, the social anxiety we are facing affects consumer psychology. Through this, beauty service consumers suffering from COVID-19 seek ways to improve consumer sentiment to use beauty services and reflect this to help prepare countermeasures and establish marketing strategies to cope with the difficulties of industry (mainly face-to-face services) due to COVID-19. hope it can be a resource. Method: The data of this study was an online survey targeting men and women who had experience of using beauty shops nationwide. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 25.0, and first exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the validity of the measurement tool. Reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Frequency analysis and descriptive statistical analysis were performed, and regression analysis was performed. Results: All hypotheses of this study were accepted. Beauty management behavior had a significant impact on consumer sentiment. Beauty management behavior had a significant effect on safety expectations. Beauty management behavior had a significant effect on psychological compensation. Beauty management behavior had a significant impact on service expectations. Conclusion: The results of this study can be said to verify the relationship between beauty management behavior and consumer psychology. Since beauty management behavior has been verified as a factor that enhances consumer emotion, it is important to stimulate individual beauty management behavior. Information on active beauty management behaviors using offline and online to meet consumption patterns and individual needs necessary to activate beauty management behaviors, prepare improvement and measures for intergenerational interest and rapidly changing beauty management behaviors should be provided to consumers.Keyword:Beauty Shop, COVID-19, Beauty Management Behavior, Consumer Sentiment, Face-to-Face Services
The Effect of Hair Beauty Shop Customers' Perception of General Risks and Beauty Shop Risks on Consumer SentimentPurpose: As the COVID-19 pandemic began, the concepts that have been used in Korean society are “With Corona” and “Post Corona.” In Korea, social distancing and mask wearing were mostly lifted, but the sense of crisis did not disappear. As consumer sentiment shrank, productivity decreased, and the entire industry was affected, the beauty industry (mainly face-to-face services) is also subject to many negative effects. Consumer sentiment appears irrational and rationally regulates consumption habits. The general risk perception and beauty shop risk perception of COVID-19 were set as factors that affect consumer sentiment of hair beauty service consumers. This study aims to provide basic data to present a differentiated strategy that is different from other service fields for the development of the beauty industry. Method: The data of this study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 25.0, and first, an exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the validity of the measurement tool. Reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Frequency analysis and descriptive statistical analysis were performed, and chi-square test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results: Social and environmental risk and economic risk, sub-factors of general risk perception, appeared to have a significant positive (+) effect on consumer sentiment, and human risk, a sub-factor of beauty shop risk perception, had a significant negative (-) effect on consumer sentiment. Was found to have an effect on In other words, it can be said that the higher the social and environmental risk and economic risk, sub-factors of general risk perception, the higher consumer sentiment, and the higher the human risk, the sub-factor of beauty shop risk perception, the lower consumer sentiment. Economic risk (β=.290, p<.001), human risk (β=-.231, p<.01), and social and environmental risk (β=.118, p<.05) affects consumer sentiment in the order has been shown to affect. Conclusion: ‘Presence of regular beauty shops’, ‘Beauty shop selection criteria’, and ‘Reason for reduction in beauty expenditure and items after COVID-19’ according to the age and gender of research subjects differ. There-fore, different marketing methods should be sought for each generation or gender. Since the relationship between risk perception and consumer sentiment has been revealed, it can be utilized to help recover and improve hair beauty shop business in the future.Keyword:Hair Beauty Shop, Beauty Industry, Perception of Social and Environmental Risks, Perception of Beauty Shop Risks, Consumer Sentiment
Exploring the Determinants of Preference for Visiting Beauty & Health Multi-Shop Operate by One PersonPurpose: A beauty health multi-shop is a place where two or more beauty and health-related professional services are managed, and it is divided into a multi-person multi-shop where multiple managers manage users and a one-person multi-shop that is operated by a single person. This study was conducted to conduct an objective and in-depth exploration of how the preference determinants of beauty health one-person multi-shop customers are organized. Method: As a research method, the first open-ended survey was conducted, and based on this, preliminary questions were constructed through content analysis, and the second closed-ended survey was conducted. The first survey was conducted on 95 adults with experience in using beauty and health one-person multi-shops, and the second survey was conducted on 212 questionnaires with the same experience, and the final preference determinants were derived through exploratory factor analysis and reliability verification. Results: The results of the study were implied by 17 sub-constructs, 6 constructs and 1 other factor. The first three internal preference determinants were identified as manager expertise, customer care environment, and affordability, and the second three external preference determinants were identified as diversity, convenience, and member retention services. Conclusion: Currently, in Korea, the beauty health industry is based on the health industry and the beauty industry is being mixed and converged, creating new demands that are connected to health, culture, emotions, and aesthetic pursuits. The results of this study provide an objective explanation of the determinants of consumers' preference for visiting beauty and health one-person multi shops, so it is expected to be used as a resource for various operational measures in the future.Keyword:Health Multi-Shop Operate by One Person, Content Analysis, Preference Determinants, Experience, Differentiation
Purpose: In modern society, where professional skills and function are required according to changes in the industrial structure, the personal and technical job capabilities of beauty human resources who pursue beauty targeting the human body are the most important factors affecting the growth of beauty companies along with customer satisfaction. Since it is a resource, it is a time when effective and efficient management of human resources is desperately needed. introduction of the National Competency Standards and Fair Evaluation Qualification System, one of the widely used improvement directions to quickly reflect changes in the industrial field, will help improve the productivity of beauty care by studying whether it is correlated with the technical capabilities of designers. Method: This survey was conducted for 15 days from August 5, 2022, by setting practitioners nationwide who obtained national qualifications related to hairdressing (hair) and working in hair salons as survey subjects, distributed the questionnaires directly, and asked the respondents to fill in the questionnaires directly. An empirical survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire survey method. First, a measurement tool was constructed, the factors of the item on the difference in job ability were analyzed, and the validity and reliability of the four factors extracted based on the eigenvalue 1 were tested, and the data were analyzed. Results: As a result of demographic analysis, there were 239 males (50.9%) and 231 females (49.1%), As a result of the descriptive statistics analysis, the overall job competency averaged 3.45 points. Among technical job skills, ‘correction service ability’ (M=3.63) appeared the highest, ‘Cutting skills’ (M=3.62) followed by ‘professional work’ (M=3.52). Differences in technical job competency by gender were relatively higher in men than women in terms of cutting skills, customer hair evaluation/prescription, and more, In the case of women, compared to men, permanent wave technology, hair coloring technology, straightening service ability, fashion/ingenuity, and hair styling skill were relatively higher, showing differences. Technical job skills by age were relatively higher in those in their 50s, 60s, and 20s than those in their 30s and 40s. Job competency according to the final level of education was relatively high in those with a 4-year college degree or higher. It was found that those who majored in beauty related departments had higher work ability than those who did not major. As a result of the analysis by experience, the overall technical job ability was relatively high for less than 5 years or more than 10 years, and for professional work. Conclusion: As a result of analyzing the technical job of hair designers working in the industrial field, it can be seen that those in their 20s have the best technical job ability by age, and those with less than 5 years of experience have the best technical job ability by career. It is recognized that the systematic curriculum of NCS is working meaningfully.Keyword:Beauty Job, Ability, Hair Designer, Increased Productivity, National Competency Standards
The Effect of Gender Sensitivity for Self-Esteem and Protection and Convergence on Appearance Recognition Behavior of Women in Their 20sPurpose: Unlike in the past, the modern women have destroyed the frame of stereotypes that women must be feminine and men must be masculine through their own arguments and active actions. This has resulted in changes in the women’s self-esteem as their independent tendencies have strengthened due to changes in stereo-types about their roles and the women's advancement into society. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of self-esteem and gender sensitivity on the appearance recognition behavior of women in their 20s. Method: The questionnaire items for scale development of the study were used for the women in their 20s for empirical research. The composition of the questionnaire consisted of self-esteem, gender sensitivity, appearance recognition behavior, and demographic variables. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between demographic variables, self-esteem, gender sensitivity, and appearance recognition behavior. Results: First, as a result of analyzing the effect of self-esteem on gender sensitivity, it turned out that positive self-esteem had a positively significant effect on gender sensitivity, and negative self-esteem had a negatively significant effect on gender sensitivity. Second, as a result of analyzing the effect of gender sensitivity on the appearance stereotypes, it turned out that gender positive attitude had a positively significant effect on the appearance stereotypes, and gender sensitivity also had a positively significant effect on the appearance stereotypes. Third, it turned out that gender sensitivity has a mediating effect when the positive self-esteem affects appearance evaluation and respect for appearance, and the negative self-esteem affects appearance evaluation and appearance stereotypes. Conclusion: It is considered that the research on the direction of the beauty industry and between the classes that become direct consumers must be conducted in various ways because the gender sensitivity that women have as a human being can bring about changes in appearance recognition behavior, thereby breaking away from stereotypes about gender. It is hoped that this study will help understand the gender sensitivity of women in their 20s and contribute to the development of the beauty industry.Keyword:Women in Their 20s, Self-Esteem, Gender, Gender Sensitivity, Appearance Recognition Behavior
Purpose: The pursuit of beauty, which started from ancient times, is a basic human need, and many studies on the attractiveness of appearance are on the rise, and such research on human beauty is an important public value. Recently, interest and demand for waxing are rising, but the level of professional education on waxing is low and the understanding of skin changes and follow-up care after waxing is low, so the need for research on waxing is emerging. The purpose of this study is to find out the difference in skin condition and hair growth rate after Brazilian treatment according to the type of waxing and to present it as basic data, and to contribute to the public value in beauty culture. Method: The subject of this study was a woman in her early 20s who had no experience with waxing, and waxed the bikini area between June and August 2022 using sugar wax and hard wax respectively. For 4 weeks after Brazilian waxing, the skin condition(including ingrown hair, folliculitis, etc.) and hair growth length were compared and analyzed at weekly intervals. The results were analyzed after the mixed study using clinical trials and interview methods. Results: As a result of comparative analysis of the skin condition and the length of the growing hair at weekly intervals after waxing, the condition of the skin showed that ingrown hair and inflammation occurred in the area where the sugar wax was applied, and the hair growth rate was slow. In the area treated with hard waxing, in-grown hair did not occur compared to sugar waxing, and the number of inflammations was significantly lower. The growth rate of cross-section hair was faster than that of sugar waxing, and it was confirmed that the thick-ness of the hair also grew thicker. Conclusion: Sugar waxing had excellent effects on hair removal and hair thickness reduction, such as lower skin dryness, redness, and irritation of pores compared to hard waxing, but follow-up care is expected to be very important. If follow-up care is not performed properly after Brazilian waxing, it is thought that the risk factors for ingrown hair and folliculitis may be high.Keyword:Sugaring, Waxing, Brazilian, Ingrown, Public Value
Purpose: In this study, analysis was conducted using the Q-methodology to find out the types of elderly people participating in Health Qigong after COVID-19. The Q-methodology studies human subjectivity by considering an individual's perception, attitude, emotion, and behavior toward an object at the same time. Method: In the research procedure, the Q-population was first constructed and the Q sample statement was prepared. In the Q-population, 85 data were obtained through in-depth interviews, 46 data obtained through a literature review were derived, and 131 were finally derived as the primary statement. Comprehensive data were analyzed through in-depth interviews, related literature research, and expert meetings, and a total of 34 Q-sample statements related to the research topic were extracted. Data analysis was performed using the QUNAL-PC program, and the principal component factor analysis method was used for factor analysis. Results: As a result of the study, the elderly who participated in Health Qigong were found to be the final four types. Type I was classified as an active participation type among the elderly participating in Health Qigong. Type II was classified as a type that recognized that Health Qigong training was connected with healing. Type III was classified as a type recognized that Health Qigong is related to psychological sympathy, that is, emotional state. Type IV was classified as a type that recognizes that it is possible to make new colleagues while socializing with others through Health Qigong. Conclusion: Currently, Korean society is going through an age of super-aging, and there is a view that sees old age as a time of new creation. Therefore, prepare for successful aging, it is necessary to find a positive way to improve the lives of the elderly. The classification contents of the elderly participating in Health Qigong derived as a result of this study reflect the perception and attitude of the elderly participating in physical activity well.Keyword:COVID-19, Elderly, Health Qigong, Type Analysis, Q-Methodology
A Study on the Usefulness of the Natural Product Fermentation Mixture as Scalp and Hair Care Cosmetic Material ProtectionPurpose: The hair losing population is increasing due to stress, environmental pollution, and various cosmetic procedures, and the market for functional cosmetics for scalp and hair care is further growing due to the lower aging population. Recently, however, many studies have been conducted where many are found to seek cosmetic raw materials from natural substances or apply fermentation techniques to cosmetic manufacturing processes. Hence, after fermenting with Sasa Borealis, which is edible and has been used for various pharmacological functions in the private sector for a long time and has secured clinical safety, the effectiveness(in vitro) has been investigated, and the fermented mixture of natural products is used as a sample for damaged hair, and the recovery effect has been examined and understood. Method: Examined in this study were the antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and dermal papilla cell proliferation rate of Sasa Borealis leaf fermented product, which were mixed with the green coffee bean and Smilax china L. leaf fermented product, and after selecting the fermented mixed sample, the added scalp hair care product was treated with heat perm and dyeing to measure tensile strength and glossiness, where the recovery effect of damaged hair was investigated by imaging with SEM. Results: Sasa Borealis leaf ferment was superior to M. canis, anti-inflammatory activity and dermal papilla cell proliferation. The product to which the fermentation mixture sample was added increased both the tensile strength and glossiness of the hair damaged by heat perm and dyeing, and as a result of confirming such via the SEM, it was found that there is an effect of restoring the damaged hair. Conclusion: Sasa Borealis leaf fermented product has excellent M. canis, anti-inflammatory ability, and dermal papilla cell proliferation rate, and hence, it was confirmed that it may be applied as a raw material for various cosmetics. The cosmetics containing natural fermentation mixtures increased tensile strength and glossiness of damaged hair. Future research is expected to articulate the pharmacological mechanism of the fermentation mixture through the physiological studies related to the fermentation process and the growth rate of dermal papilla cells.Keyword:Sasa Borealis, Fermentation Mixture, Hair Loss, Tensile Strength, Glossiness
A Study on the Regulations Concerning the Purchase Related Decision Making Factors of Interest in Beauty according to the Cosmeceutical Perception of the Tendency for Practical ConsumptionPurpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand what factors influence the consumers with their practical consumption related tendency to purchase the cosmeceutical products. Method: In this study, the practical consumption related tendency, cosmeceutical perception, and the purchase decision making factors were measured as the dependent variables. Results: As a result of the significant study conducted on the purchase related decision making factors, first, it was confirmed that the consumers’ tendency for the practical consumption only during the discounted sales period or they make purchases by comparing the type, price, and the quality of the brands they are interested in. Second, as for the interest in beauty, the UV rays are more related to the skin aging(83%) than the need to consume the beauty related food(69.2%), and the appearance-oriented consumers responded that they are willing to undergo cosmetic surgeries if they need cosmetic surgeries(8.8%). Third, the perception of cosmeceuticals demonstrated the preference for natural cosmetics(68.1%) and the scientific evidence(65.9%). Lastly, the decision to purchase cosmeceuticals demonstrated the importance in the order of all ingredients(88.7%), effectiveness(87.6%), ecofriendliness(87.2%), stability(86.8%), and mental effects on the fragrance(84%), respectively. The direct, indirect, and the total effects of cosmeceutical perception were significant as the purchase related decision making factors according to the interest in beauty, and the correlation analytical result and the confirmatory analysis of the research model were significant as a positive(+) relationship. Conclusion: As a result of such study conducted, cosmeceutical is a word which divides the quality of functional cosmetics, and the producers need to form a market which could commercialize and provide the customer needs, and according to the consumer preferences, capacity, fragrance, ingredients and efficacy, and correlation with skin, the originality and value of the study may be recognized since it has derived the implications for the development of cosmeceutical products which may be positioned through the studies.Keyword:Consumption Related Tendency, Purchase Related Decision Making Factors, Beauty Related Interest, Cosmeceutical, Practical Consumption
The Mediating Effect of Socio-Cultural Attitude towards Appearance on the Appearance Interest in the Relationship between Acne Perception and Appearance SatisfactionPurpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the mediating effect of socio-cultural attitude towards appearance on the appearance interest in the relationship between acne perception and appearance satisfaction, and provide a practical assistance for the programs for the acne skin in the beauty industry and market. Method: In this study, the statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs of 282 online questionnaires for the subjects with acne skin. Results: As for the results of this study, the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance has had a positively significant impact on the appearance interest(β=.453, p<.001), acne perception(β=.149, p<.05), and appearance satisfaction(β=.535, p<. 001), and the direct effect of socio-cultural attitude towards appearance on the appearance satisfaction was negatively significant(β=-.362, p<.001), while having a positively significant effect on the acne perception(β=.149, p<.05). Furthermore, in the relationship between the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance and appearance satisfaction, the interest in appearance demonstrated a positive mediating effect. This is a result demonstrating that if a person's socio-cultural attitude towards appearance is large, he or she can directly cause dissatisfaction with one's appearance, yet if one's interest in the appearance is raised before then, the appearance satisfaction might also be increased as a result. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was confirmed that the larger the socio-cultural attitude towards the appearance, the larger the appearance interest and acne perception scores, and the larger the appearance interest, the larger the appearance satisfaction. Meanwhile, the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance negatively and significantly impacts the appearance satisfaction. Hence, it is apparent that the overall appearance is important as it impacts the appearance interest, not the skin type, and when consulting with the customers with acne skin, it is necessary to present the direction of interest in the appearance and suggest that it is also important to accurately perceive one's own skin condition. Through which, it is intended that the direction of social and cultural attitude towards appearance and interest in the appearance are presented to provide the services desired by consumers to increase their satisfaction with their appearance, and furthermore, provide assistance for the practical on-site management programs and counseling skills for acne skin in the medical skin care beauty industry and market.Keyword:Socio-Cultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Acne Perception, Appearance Satisfaction, Appearance Interest, Medical Skin Care