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Tasks of Making the Community Safe Based on CPTED in KOREA

Vol.1 (No.2) 2016
Author
admin
Date
2016-12-30 13:43
Views
626

Abstract


The purposes of this study were to activate crime prevention through environmental design and investigate its effects on community safety, thus establishing devices to prevent crimes in advance and contributing to the reduction of crime rates in crime-ridden districts. The study introduced the domestic application cases of Seoul and Busan and proposed legislative and policy improvement tasks as plans to activate crime prevention through security governance-centric environmental design.
The plans to activate CPTED focusing on crime prevention governance are as follows. First, it is to increase the efficiency of preventing crime by expanding and improving a natural monitoring strategy. Second, it is needed to cope with crime efficiently by supplementing access restriction facility. Third, it is secure territoriality so that crime can be prevented beforehand. These guidelines are expected to contribute to improving the safety of local society.
In addition, it suggested that citizens' voluntary participation should be critical to the activation of crime pre-vention through environmental design in the communities at the local government level and make huge contri-butions to the reduction of budgets and safety of community.

Keyword:Crime Prevention, Local Government, Community Safety, Element of Budget Reduction, Reduction of Crime Rate
  • Purpose: The pursuit of beauty, which started from ancient times, is a basic human need, and many studies on the attractiveness of appearance are on the rise, and such research on human beauty is an important public value. Recently, interest and demand for waxing are rising, but the level of professional education on waxing is low and the understanding of skin changes and follow-up care after waxing is low, so the need for research on waxing is emerging. The purpose of this study is to find out the difference in skin condition and hair growth rate after Brazilian treatment according to the type of waxing and to present it as basic data, and to contribute to the public value in beauty culture. Method: The subject of this study was a woman in her early 20s who had no experience with waxing, and waxed the bikini area between June and August 2022 using sugar wax and hard wax respectively. For 4 weeks after Brazilian waxing, the skin condition(including ingrown hair, folliculitis, etc.) and hair growth length were compared and analyzed at weekly intervals. The results were analyzed after the mixed study using clinical trials and interview methods. Results: As a result of comparative analysis of the skin condition and the length of the growing hair at weekly intervals after waxing, the condition of the skin showed that ingrown hair and inflammation occurred in the area where the sugar wax was applied, and the hair growth rate was slow. In the area treated with hard waxing, in-grown hair did not occur compared to sugar waxing, and the number of inflammations was significantly lower. The growth rate of cross-section hair was faster than that of sugar waxing, and it was confirmed that the thick-ness of the hair also grew thicker. Conclusion: Sugar waxing had excellent effects on hair removal and hair thickness reduction, such as lower skin dryness, redness, and irritation of pores compared to hard waxing, but follow-up care is expected to be very important. If follow-up care is not performed properly after Brazilian waxing, it is thought that the risk factors for ingrown hair and folliculitis may be high.
    Keyword:Sugaring, Waxing, Brazilian, Ingrown, Public Value
  • Purpose: In this study, analysis was conducted using the Q-methodology to find out the types of elderly people participating in Health Qigong after COVID-19. The Q-methodology studies human subjectivity by considering an individual's perception, attitude, emotion, and behavior toward an object at the same time. Method: In the research procedure, the Q-population was first constructed and the Q sample statement was prepared. In the Q-population, 85 data were obtained through in-depth interviews, 46 data obtained through a literature review were derived, and 131 were finally derived as the primary statement. Comprehensive data were analyzed through in-depth interviews, related literature research, and expert meetings, and a total of 34 Q-sample statements related to the research topic were extracted. Data analysis was performed using the QUNAL-PC program, and the principal component factor analysis method was used for factor analysis. Results: As a result of the study, the elderly who participated in Health Qigong were found to be the final four types. Type I was classified as an active participation type among the elderly participating in Health Qigong. Type II was classified as a type that recognized that Health Qigong training was connected with healing. Type III was classified as a type recognized that Health Qigong is related to psychological sympathy, that is, emotional state. Type IV was classified as a type that recognizes that it is possible to make new colleagues while socializing with others through Health Qigong. Conclusion: Currently, Korean society is going through an age of super-aging, and there is a view that sees old age as a time of new creation. Therefore, prepare for successful aging, it is necessary to find a positive way to improve the lives of the elderly. The classification contents of the elderly participating in Health Qigong derived as a result of this study reflect the perception and attitude of the elderly participating in physical activity well.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Elderly, Health Qigong, Type Analysis, Q-Methodology
  • Purpose: The hair losing population is increasing due to stress, environmental pollution, and various cosmetic procedures, and the market for functional cosmetics for scalp and hair care is further growing due to the lower aging population. Recently, however, many studies have been conducted where many are found to seek cosmetic raw materials from natural substances or apply fermentation techniques to cosmetic manufacturing processes. Hence, after fermenting with Sasa Borealis, which is edible and has been used for various pharmacological functions in the private sector for a long time and has secured clinical safety, the effectiveness(in vitro) has been investigated, and the fermented mixture of natural products is used as a sample for damaged hair, and the recovery effect has been examined and understood. Method: Examined in this study were the antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and dermal papilla cell proliferation rate of Sasa Borealis leaf fermented product, which were mixed with the green coffee bean and Smilax china L. leaf fermented product, and after selecting the fermented mixed sample, the added scalp hair care product was treated with heat perm and dyeing to measure tensile strength and glossiness, where the recovery effect of damaged hair was investigated by imaging with SEM. Results: Sasa Borealis leaf ferment was superior to M. canis, anti-inflammatory activity and dermal papilla cell proliferation. The product to which the fermentation mixture sample was added increased both the tensile strength and glossiness of the hair damaged by heat perm and dyeing, and as a result of confirming such via the SEM, it was found that there is an effect of restoring the damaged hair. Conclusion: Sasa Borealis leaf fermented product has excellent M. canis, anti-inflammatory ability, and dermal papilla cell proliferation rate, and hence, it was confirmed that it may be applied as a raw material for various cosmetics. The cosmetics containing natural fermentation mixtures increased tensile strength and glossiness of damaged hair. Future research is expected to articulate the pharmacological mechanism of the fermentation mixture through the physiological studies related to the fermentation process and the growth rate of dermal papilla cells.
    Keyword:Sasa Borealis, Fermentation Mixture, Hair Loss, Tensile Strength, Glossiness
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand what factors influence the consumers with their practical consumption related tendency to purchase the cosmeceutical products. Method: In this study, the practical consumption related tendency, cosmeceutical perception, and the purchase decision making factors were measured as the dependent variables. Results: As a result of the significant study conducted on the purchase related decision making factors, first, it was confirmed that the consumers’ tendency for the practical consumption only during the discounted sales period or they make purchases by comparing the type, price, and the quality of the brands they are interested in. Second, as for the interest in beauty, the UV rays are more related to the skin aging(83%) than the need to consume the beauty related food(69.2%), and the appearance-oriented consumers responded that they are willing to undergo cosmetic surgeries if they need cosmetic surgeries(8.8%). Third, the perception of cosmeceuticals demonstrated the preference for natural cosmetics(68.1%) and the scientific evidence(65.9%). Lastly, the decision to purchase cosmeceuticals demonstrated the importance in the order of all ingredients(88.7%), effectiveness(87.6%), ecofriendliness(87.2%), stability(86.8%), and mental effects on the fragrance(84%), respectively. The direct, indirect, and the total effects of cosmeceutical perception were significant as the purchase related decision making factors according to the interest in beauty, and the correlation analytical result and the confirmatory analysis of the research model were significant as a positive(+) relationship. Conclusion: As a result of such study conducted, cosmeceutical is a word which divides the quality of functional cosmetics, and the producers need to form a market which could commercialize and provide the customer needs, and according to the consumer preferences, capacity, fragrance, ingredients and efficacy, and correlation with skin, the originality and value of the study may be recognized since it has derived the implications for the development of cosmeceutical products which may be positioned through the studies.
    Keyword:Consumption Related Tendency, Purchase Related Decision Making Factors, Beauty Related Interest, Cosmeceutical, Practical Consumption
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the mediating effect of socio-cultural attitude towards appearance on the appearance interest in the relationship between acne perception and appearance satisfaction, and provide a practical assistance for the programs for the acne skin in the beauty industry and market. Method: In this study, the statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs of 282 online questionnaires for the subjects with acne skin. Results: As for the results of this study, the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance has had a positively significant impact on the appearance interest(β=.453, p<.001), acne perception(β=.149, p<.05), and appearance satisfaction(β=.535, p<. 001), and the direct effect of socio-cultural attitude towards appearance on the appearance satisfaction was negatively significant(β=-.362, p<.001), while having a positively significant effect on the acne perception(β=.149, p<.05). Furthermore, in the relationship between the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance and appearance satisfaction, the interest in appearance demonstrated a positive mediating effect. This is a result demonstrating that if a person's socio-cultural attitude towards appearance is large, he or she can directly cause dissatisfaction with one's appearance, yet if one's interest in the appearance is raised before then, the appearance satisfaction might also be increased as a result. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was confirmed that the larger the socio-cultural attitude towards the appearance, the larger the appearance interest and acne perception scores, and the larger the appearance interest, the larger the appearance satisfaction. Meanwhile, the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance negatively and significantly impacts the appearance satisfaction. Hence, it is apparent that the overall appearance is important as it impacts the appearance interest, not the skin type, and when consulting with the customers with acne skin, it is necessary to present the direction of interest in the appearance and suggest that it is also important to accurately perceive one's own skin condition. Through which, it is intended that the direction of social and cultural attitude towards appearance and interest in the appearance are presented to provide the services desired by consumers to increase their satisfaction with their appearance, and furthermore, provide assistance for the practical on-site management programs and counseling skills for acne skin in the medical skin care beauty industry and market.
    Keyword:Socio-Cultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Acne Perception, Appearance Satisfaction, Appearance Interest, Medical Skin Care
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a system for the cosmetic surgery procedures to help improve the work efficiency for those who specialize in the cosmetic surgery, and increase their satisfaction with procedures and surgical results for their customers. For instance, when a customer's eyes are illuminated on a mobile screen, the physiognomy characteristics can be automatically recognized, which can help determine a procedure for the eye surgery or operation. And since the distance between the eyes can be automatically recognized, it is possible to predict the scope and method of cosmetic surgery focused on the eyes, thereby increasing the satisfaction of the customers who desire a good physiognomy and appearance. Method: First, each part(front of the eye, tail of the eye, upper line, and underline) forming the shape of the eye, the top and bottom of the face, the left and right sides of the pupil, and the points characterizing the end-points of the cheekbones are designated as the points on the coordinate plane as the feature point. Second, after defining the physiognomy related elements and the cosmetic surgery elements with a mathematical formula, the coordinate values for the feature points are automatically obtained by the facial recognition technology, and the cosmetic surgery image according to the physiognomy is calculated according to the calculation result entered in the formula, thereby setting the standards for determination. Third, since the shape of the eye can be distinguished when the condition given by the equation is satisfied with respect to the feature points input as coordinates, the method for outputting physiognomy and cosmetic surgery determinations can be presented. Results: As it was determined that the eye shape and the distance between the eyes have a large effect on physiognomy, the method for determining the procedure and standard for cosmetic surgery as an automatic facial recognition system was proposed. Conclusion: The experts of the service industry for the cosmetic surgery identify the eye shape of the customers who desire to change the shape of the eye, and are thinking about whether the shape according to the needs can harmonize with the image on the entire face, and solve it accordingly, and as a method, make reference to the physiognomy. At which time, the backed-up physiognomy knowledge of the app program based on this system is automatically searched, and efficient results can be expected. Hence, this paper will be used as a basis for establishing a system that suggests the procedures or surgical directions such as makeup, plastic surgery, and tattoos.
    Keyword:Physiognomy, Cosmetic Surgery, Eye, App, Procedure
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is such that, the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance and the effect of medical skin care customer behaviors’ intention were analyzed, and the effect of medical skin care involvement and the appearance related quality of life sequentially was studied, while the basic data was presented for strategic counseling and promotional marketing expansion of medical skin care according to socio-cultural attitude towards appearance and customer behaviors’ intention. Method: In this study, a statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 25.0 and PROCESS macro for SPSS programs as an empirical analytical method for 507 copies through an online questionnaire in the Seoul metropolitan area targeting men and women in their 20s and 60s, and the independent sample t-test was used to confirm the difference among the major variables according to gender, and the model 6 analysis was performed by using the SPSS Process Macro to verify the research model. Results: In terms of the results of this study, first, as a result of confirming the differences among the major variables according to gender, significant differences were found in the socio-cultural attitude towards appearance, appearance related quality of life, and the customer behaviors’ intention. The socio-cultural attitude towards appearance did not directly affect the customer behaviors’ intention, but a high extent of medical skin care involvement increased appearance related quality of life and affected the customer behaviors’ intention where the sequential mediating effect was found, and in terms of the difference between male and female pathways, it was found that the higher the quality of life related to appearance, the higher the customer behaviors’ intention. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, women with high skin care behavior according to the socio-cultural attitude and aesthetic desire and men with a weakened relationship between quality of life and customer behaviors’ intention were appropriate for the intention to purchase according to their appearance, depending on gender, and from a positive point of view, it is necessary to approach the counseling services and marketing that can increase the intention to purchase through the external beauty. The increase in the appearance related quality of life according to the extent of medical skin care involvement affects the customer behaviors’ intention, which provides the service information that can promote a stable life and provides self-care through the various beauty lifestyles through the skin care, and hence, it is considered that it would be necessary to provide the information that not only self-satisfaction but also the overall quality of life is affected.
    Keyword:Medical Skin Care, Socio-Cultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Customer Behaviors’ Intention, Medical Skin Care Involvement, Appearance Related Quality of Life
  • Purpose: Today, the population with hair loss is decreasing in age given various factors, and due to such, the market for scalp and hair cosmetics is exploding. Due to the growing interest in side effects such as allergies and environmental pollution, recently, many studies have been conducted to find cosmetic raw materials from natural substances or to apply fermentation techniques to the cosmetic manufacturing process. Hence, after enzymatic fermentation with Smilax china, which has been used for various pharmacological functions in the private sector for a long time and has secured clinical safety, the active ingredients and effectiveness(in vitro) were examined. Method: After preparing a sample by the enzymatic fermentation of Smilax china, which is known to have various pharmacological actions, with malt, the active ingredients and effectiveness(in vitro, HaCaT cell protective effect against oxidative stress, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, dermal papilla cell proliferation rate) was confirmed. Results: As a result of the experiment conducted, the fermented Smilax china enzyme had excellent antibacterial activity, HaCat cell protective effect against oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory activity, and dermal papilla cell proliferation rate, respectively. Conclusion: It was confirmed that the fermented product obtained by fermenting Smilax china malt with malt offers the excellent HaCat cell protection effect against the oxidative stress, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and the dermal papilla cell proliferation rate, and hence, it can be applied as a raw material for various cosmetics. In particular, the usefulness as a cosmetic material for scalp and hair that is effective for the health of the scalp and hair was confirmed. Future research is expected to articulate the pharmacological mechanisms of the Smilax china fermented products through the physiological studies related to the fermentation process and the growth rate of dermal papilla cells.
    Keyword:Smilax China, Malt Enzyme Fermentation, Antimicrobial Activity, Hair Loss, Anti-Inflammatory Activity
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effect of sympathetic understanding of fans on the attractiveness and emotional reaction of sports stars, which not only has a significant national or social impact, but also significantly influences the fans' purchase or intention of purchase of sports related products. Furthermore, it is to help to form a relationship with the fans, and also helps he clubs or teams improve their image using sports stars and establish marketing strategies. Method: In this study, 290 professional sports fans as of 2022 were surveyed, and the convenience sampling was used for the sampling method, and the survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 281 questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the contents of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing was carried out using the SPSS 24.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification performed, the sympathetic understanding consisted of two factors, cognitive factor α=.883 and emotional factor α=.836. The attractiveness was consisted of three factors, and it turned out to be a friendliness factor α=.867, an intimacy factor α=.851, and a similarity factor α=.799. The emotional reaction consisted of two factors, positive factor α=.855 and negative factor α=.830. According to the method and process used in the study, the overall result is that the fans' sympathetic understanding of sports stars affects the attractiveness and emotional reaction. Conclusion: In this study, the fans' sympathetic understanding of sports stars influences attractiveness and emotional reaction, and in sports clubs or teams, players' performances, including signing players, and the players' personal or social activities can win sympathy from their fans, and it requires much effort for a long period of time to win such kind of sympathy, and the most basic thing is a sincere activity. If these sincere activities are continued, naturally, the fans feelings towards the club or players will change positively, and that change will lead to purchase of sports related products or a change in positive attitudes related to it.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports Stars, Sympathetic Understanding, Attractiveness, Emotional Reaction
  • Purpose: It can be said that the human desire to be beautiful has been with the history of mankind along with basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In Korean society, the social image of men's appearance is gradually opening up, and the beauty industry for men's semi-permanent makeup is gradually expanding. Therefore, what kind of image people have about men's semi-permanent makeup procedures was checked. Method: In this study, type analysis was conducted using the Q-methodology. A Q-statement was composed through literature analysis and in-depth interview, and a 9-point scale Q-classification was performed by selecting a Q-sample and a P-sample and using the forced classification method. For factor analysis for type classification, principal component analysis was performed using the PC-QUANL program. Results: As a result of the study, three types were derived. Type I was a ‘genderless type’ and showed an open attitude, thinking that there was no distinction between men and women in appearance care. Type II is a ‘consideration type’, showing a positive reaction to male appearance care and semi-permanent makeup procedures, and respecting personal preferences. Type III was a ‘conservative thinking type’ and had a negative and conservative reaction to male appearance care and semi-permanent makeup procedures. Conclusion: This study explored the meaning of male and female semi-permanent makeup treatment images of various age groups using the Q-methodology. As a result of the study, an overall perspective on the image of men's semi-permanent makeup was confirmed. It is expected that it will be used as an in-depth and efficient data in future research on men's semi-permanent makeup.
    Keyword:Q-Methodology, Male, Semi-Permanent Makeup, Image, Classification