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Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Cyberattacks: Effective CYBERCRIME Prevention Strategies around the Globe

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
2018-06-29 14:28


The issue of cyberattacks has become very pervasive and increasingly dangerous in the digital age. Many industrialized nations are highly dependent upon computer systems and other technologically supported infra-structures. An attack on such infrastructures may very likely compromise a nation’s security and economic vitality.
However, to dat e there has not been a multinational cooperation system as an effective cyberattack prevention strategy.
While the policing of high crime areas, known as hotspots, has garnered much attention among scholars and law enforcement officials, the spatial identification of hotspots in cybercrime has been limited. Routine activity theory has often been applied to explain crimes in the physical space, and consistent with this framework, a new theory has been put forth to explain crimes in cyberspace: cyber routine activities theory . This theory contends that an unguarded virtual network must be present in addition to a potential offender and potential target in
order for a cybercrime to occur. Further, unlike the spatial and temporal convergence of the physical world, the virtual world is not bound by the same spatial and temporal orderings. Due to the dynamic nature of cyberspace, a cyberattack may be committed against a target in different real world time zones, while also allowing the attacker to escape.
The current study seeks to address gaps in the literature concerning spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack origins and victimizations. The purpose of this study is to identify spatial and temporal patterns of cyberattack hotspots, which can help law enforcement establish an effective cybercrime prevention strategy for international communities. In terms of methodology, Geospatial Information System(GIS) technique is employed to investigate the patterns of cyberattacks and victimizations . Data was derived from the Norse website from February 15 16, 2017, which feeds a livestream of cyberattacks worldwide. The data includes cyberattack origins, types, targets, times, IP addresses, locations, and ports.
This study focuses on answering the following four research questions: Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack origins? Which nations are the top seven countries by count: cyberattack victimizations? Do the spatial hotspots for cyberattack origins differ from the spatial hotspots for cyberattack victimizations? Does a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the daytime differ from a temporal pattern of cyberattacks in the night time? Thus, the findings of the current study indicate (1)the spatial hotspots of the cyber attackers and victims, and ( 2)the difference between temporal patterns of cyberattacks in the daytime and nighttime. Finally, policy implications and limitations of the current study are discussed

Keyword:Protection Security, Cyberattack Hotspots, Cybercrime Preventions, GIS Technique, Spatial-Temporal Patterns
  • Purpose: Since ancient times, the culture of putting on wounds or paints on the body like a tattoo has been carried on until now. In modern times, the interest, popularity, and market potential of semi-permanent makeup are increasing because it gives confidence and convenience as if wearing makeup. However, continuous research on safety is necessary because the risk factors for semi-permanent makeup are perceived in various aspects such as design, safety of ingredients, belief, worry, pain, and sanitary environment. Method: The researcher used the questionnaire method to construct questionnaire items with reference to previous studies. The questionnaire was constructed using a 5-point Likert scale and checklist. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic variables, the status of semi-permanent makeup, and risk perception factors. The subjects of this study were set as middle and high school girls and female university students from all over the country. The results were derived using frequency analysis. Results: The risk perception factors of semi-permanent makeup were design, eyebrow color, skin trouble, pain, and product and tool safety. However, there was an opinion(48.6%) that semi-permanent makeup should be performed by a beautician who is good at designing rather than a medical person. 46.4% answered that semi-permanent makeup is a type of makeup. However, as to the reasons for thinking that semi-permanent makeup should be regulated by the medical law, the highest responses were 'because it is more hygienic and the risk of infection is lower if it is done in a hospital' and 'the difference in trustworthiness' was the highest, and anesthetic cream was ranked next. Conclusion: According to the results of the study on risk perception and protection for semi-permanent makeup, it is recommended that a beautician with design and technology perform the procedure, but in terms of hygiene, infection, trust, and use of anesthetic cream, it should be regulated by the Medical Act. It is presumed to think that Therefore, as in the case of other countries, beauticians are allowed to perform semi-permanent makeup, but thorough education and management on semi-permanent makeup procedures, hygiene management, and safe use of products and tools are required.
    Keyword:Risk, Recognition, Semi-Permanent Makeup, Student, Protection
  • Purpose: This study is to analyze the mediating effect of learning immersion in the relationship between NCS-based curriculum and learning satisfaction of the beauty related sector learners. By doing so, it aims to present basic data for revitalizing the beauty education industry and job security and protection by studying the effects of sub-factors of NCS-based curriculum on learning satisfaction of the beauty related sector learners. Method: This study collected 219 copies of answer sheets through an online survey method for learners of beauty related sector at NCS vocational training institutions. An empirical statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0, PROCESS macro for SPSS. Multiple regression analysis and PROCESS macro model 4 were used. The significance of the mediating effect was confirmed through the bootstrap procedure. Results: As a result of conducting multiple regression analysis to verify the effect of the sub-factors of the NCS-based curriculum on learning satisfaction, it was found that educational content, educational method, and educational environment had a statistically significant positive effect on learning satisfaction. It was found that learning satisfaction was affected in the order of educational envi-ronment(β=.370, p<.001), educational method(β=.299, p<.001), and educational content(β=.142, p<.05). In addition, the partial mediating effect of learning immersion was judged to be statistically significant in the relationship between NCS-based curriculum and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: NCS-based curriculum was found to be a major factor in enhancing learning satisfaction in beauty related sector education, and it can be said that it indirectly affects learning satisfaction through learning immersion. Therefore, it is proposed to prepare an educational environment suitable for the characteristics of vocational training in the beauty related sector and develop suitable educational methods. In addition, if learning immersion is strengthened, it is expected to be of great help in achieving the goal.
    Keyword:NCS-Based Curriculum, Learning Satisfaction, Beauty Related Sector, Learning Immersion, Mediating Effect
  • Purpose: The pandemic situation has caused a variety of changes in many areas. In the field of education, real communication of emotion with students has become an issue. The purpose of this study is to examine the causal effect of rapport between professors and students, learning participation and satisfaction in online class under COVID-19 pandemic situation. Method: In order to conduct the research, the online survey was performed for two years university students in Seoul, and three hypotheses were proposed to identify the relationships among three variables such as rapport, participation and learning satisfaction. A total of 207 questionnaires were used for analysis. SPSS 21.0 was used to conduct analysis for hypothesis verification, and the demographic information of the sample was organized by frequency analysis. Also, exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted to confirm the validity and reliability of each concept measurement item. Lastly, regression analysis was used to examine them. Results: The results of analyses are follows. First, rapport influenced positively learning participation. Second, rapport influenced positively learning satisfaction. Third, learning participation influenced positively learning satisfaction. This result was found to be the same as that of previous studies about learning participation and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: ‘Although it is a study only for two-year college students in Seoul, it has been recognized that students' participation in learning is a major leading variable in improving learning satisfaction. In this study, building rapport between professors and students is an important factor to improve the quality of online class. Hence, professors should focus on how to build rapport effectively and universities should provide practical supports and programs to develop their skills to improve rapport level. It can have a positive effect on students' satisfaction with the university and their academic achievement in the long term.
    Keyword:Rapport, Learning Participation, Learning Satisfaction, Online Class, COVID-19
  • Purpose: This study seeks to examine whether the students who experience difficult vocational curricula can form a healthy vocational mindset and career efficacy based on teachers’ support and career path-related counseling. Moreover, it aims to determine whether students undergoing the vocational education consignment course do, in fact, take up a related career. Method: A total of 624 senior students participated at Ahyeon Industrial Information School. The questionnaire survey was conducted twice. A total of four questions regarding career path counseling were asked, to be scored on a 6-point scale; a total of six questions regarding teachers’ support and another four regarding the learning self were asked, both scored on a 5-point scale; and four questions were asked about career efficacy, to be scored on a 4-point scale. Results: According to the results of the statistical model based on the social cognitive theory, career path counseling and teachers’ support, which correspond to environmental factors, seem to influence the formation of the learning self. The teachers’ support and career path-related counseling influenced career efficacy; however, when the learning self question was added, the relevant effect was not directly demonstrated. Conclusion: The career path-related counseling and teachers’ support also had an effect on the formation of the learning self, and the learning self which was formed had a large effect on the development of career efficacy. Furthermore, career efficacy had a significant effect on career path maturity, mastery approach goal, and performance approach goal, suggesting that it is a powerful factor in helping students make their career path decisions. This study is expected to make a meaningful contribution to reminding them of the need for teachers’ support and career path counseling to help improve students’ learning self and career efficacy when designing game-related content vocational education programs.
    Keyword:Career Path-Related Education, Game-Related Content Vocational Education, Learning Self, Career Efficacy, Korean Secondary Students
  • Purpose: This study prohibits discrimination against the disabled and, in order to correct it, based on the grand principle of guaranteeing the equal rights of the disabled and prohibiting discrimination, Revision of the Constitution for the substantial realization of equal rights in the direction of realizing practical equality, demand for protection and treatment in consideration of the obstacles to mandatory provision of legitimate convenience, It is required to prohibit discrimination against non-compliance, strengthen support for vocational competency development, prohibit direct/indirect discrimination, and protect basic living rights. Therefore, the purpose is to solve this problem Method: Based on the existing prior thesis, it is an attempt to compare and analyze the current law, previous studies, and foreign legislative cases, and to implement a new Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities. Results: The issues and improvement measures of the current Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities in Korea for the realization of equal rights for persons with disabilities were presented in three specific results. First, Amendment of the disabled related policy as the provisions for the basic principles in the constitution. Second, specific regulations on guaranteeing the right to equality of the disabled and prohibiting discrimination against disability Third, it is a right regulation for guaranteeing human life and social equality of the disabled. Conclusion: This study proposed alternatives to protecting the disabled and prohibiting discrimination against the disabled in the lack of legislation related to the prohibition of discrimination against the disabled and revising the Constitution to realize the right to equality for the disabled.
    Keyword:Disabled Discrimination Prohibition Act, Discrimination Against the Disabled, Practical Right to Equality, Basic Rights, Lack of Legislation
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effects of oxidation potential solution treatment which does not cause an environmental pollution and hair damages when hair is damaged by repeated washing, perming, and dyeing of wigs, etc., and this study is meaningful in that it provides the basic data which may properly be use for an environmentally friendly oxidation potential solution in the field of beauty. Method: Soak the damaged and tangled wigs in a reduction potential solution of pH 11 for 30 minutes to remove wastes and shampoo, then apply the treatment and let it sit naturally for 30 minutes, then classified the control group which rinsed clinic with tap water without undergoing the oxidative potential water treatment and the experimental group which rinsed clinic with the oxidation potential solution, thereby comparatively analyzing the extent of entanglement, elasticity, and gloss of the hair. Results: First, the hair was immersed in a reduction potential solution of pH 11 for 30 minutes, then shampooed. Consequently, it was discovered that both the experimental group and the control group did not get their hair entangled any more. Second, the control group at which the treatment was rinsed with tap water had even more entangled hair and even after they were combed, they looked stretched and poor. In the experimental group which rinsed with the oxidation potential solution, the tangled hair became loose, combing was made easier, and the hair's gloss and softness turned out relatively well. Conclusion: Based on the information above, it was demonstrated that the extent of damages for the control group’s wigs without the oxidation potential solution treatment increased during shampooing, while the experimental group’s wigs treated with the oxidation potential solution demonstrated little damages and maintained elastic hair. This is because the product is completed by removing the cuticles from the hair with acid treatment during the wig’s manufacturing process to prevent the entanglement of the hair, and hence, with an alkaline shampoo, almost no cuticles are left behind, making them rough, and the loss of polypeptide in the hair increases the damages. Meanwhile, the oxidation potential solution(pH 2-11) has a lower chlorine concentration compared to the general chlorine based disinfectants, and hence, it is easy to decompose and does not cause environmental pollution, and it was also confirmed that there is no further damage caused to the hair as there is no secondary damage given the residues because it is reduced to its properties.
    Keyword:Wig Damage Related Repair, Protection Clinic, Oxidation Potential Solution, Reduction Potential Solution, Polypeptide
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to address the horizontal fiscal imbalance caused by the financial decentralization of local governments in Korea, and propose a direction for the introduction of the horizontal fiscal equalization system for the protection of financially lagging area. Method: To achieve the purpose of this study, the primary details of the first phase of financial decentralization were confirmed based on the theory of the financially lagging area and the horizontal mediation system. Furthermore, the regional synergistic development fund, which is a similar system currently implemented, and the direction of its introduction, were examined. Results: As a result of the study, first, the fact the regional balanced distribution is very much needed through the protection of financially lagging area and the regional solidarity was confirmed. Second, to introduce the horizontal fiscal equalization system, it is necessary to provide a direction for the introduction of the system which may achieve a basic agreement among the local governments, which are direct stakeholders. Third, the form of the system is introduced as a fund, and an expansionary system’s development plan based on the existing regional synergistic development fund system may be considered. Fourth, it is necessary to use the local consumption tax in terms of adequacy and stability of the financial resources and relaxing the tax revenue imbalance between the local governments in connection with the fiscal decentralization. Fifth, as for the distribution index, it is necessary to use to the farthest extent possible the variables related to population, population characteristics, per capita income, and area, which are among the variables beyond the control of local governments. Sixth, it is necessary for the principal of management to secure a sufficient size for the local government for spending the financial resources. Conclusion: The horizontal fiscal equalization system ought to, first, pursue a comprehensive development of balance for the region, and second, aim to address the gap in financial power between the regions, and third, be introduced in the form of complementing the vertical financial mediation.
    Keyword:Financial Decentralization, Horizontal Fiscal Equalization System, Protection of Financially Lagging Area, Regional Synergistic Development Fund, Regional Solidarity
  • Purpose: This study has analyzed the differences between fun, flow, and self-directed learning according to the background variables and the characteristics of senior citizens participating in the Health Qigong program with a view to use them as the basic data for the senior citizens’ health education. Method: Participants in this study were 241 elderly people participating in the Health Qigong program at senior welfare centers, senior centers, and public health centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, Korea. As an analysis method, MANOVA was conducted to examine the differences in fun, flow, and self-directed learning according to background characteristics such as age, education, training experience, number of training sessions, and residence type, which are background variables of the elderly. Results: As a result of study, the fun variable, flow variable, and the self-directed learning variable demonstrated differences each according to the demographic background variable. In particular, it was evident that the demographic characteristics of age, training experience, and number of training sessions demonstrated the statistically significant differences for fun, flow, and self-directed learning. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the possibility that very active physical activities and related experiences for the senior citizens for health intervention would bring about the self-directed learning through the experiences of fun and flow, which in turn might impact the improvement of the quality of life for the old age. It confirmed that in terms of the operation of the Health Qigong program, it is necessary to accommodate the needs by age, experience, and number of training sessions, and also induce the senior citizens participating in the exercises to participate in the program positively through the development of the Health Qigong program towards that end.
    Keyword:Health Qigong, Senior Citizens, Fun, Flow, Self-Directed Learning
  • Purpose: This study, the focus group interview was utilized to explore in depth the perceptions and attitude towards the effects of meridian massage and thermotherapy, which are widely used by and at beauty & health multi shops as the pain relief intervention programs. Method: As for the study participants, 16 participants and managers who have used meridian massage and thermotherapy of the beauty health multi shop for 10 years or longer were selected by a nomadic sampling method through an expert meeting. The focus group interview was conducted by dividing the users and participants of meridian massage and thermotherapy into 2 groups. As for the analysis of contents, attempts were made to categorize the data through open coding and axial coding via systematic methods of the qualitative research Results: As a result of conducting the group interview on the perceptions and attitude of the users and managers of the beauty health multi shop on the pain relief programs, 4 areas, 14 themes, and 92 categories were derived as a result of performing the repeated comparative analysis of data, and the common contents among the groups were confirmed in an integrated manner. Conclusion: In this study, the perceptions and attitude of the users and managers concerning the meridian massage and thermotherapy, which are used as pain relief programs at and by beauty & health multi shop, were confirmed by using the focus group interview. Various and factual opinions were ascertained based on the results of this study, and it is well expected that they will be used as the basic data for the non-medical health care service area moving forward.
    Keyword:Meridian Massage, Hyperthermia, Perception, Attitude, Focus Group Interview
  • Purpose: This study was conducted by using a phenomenological approach among the qualitative research methods, which is an inductive narrative method, with a view to examine in greater depth as to what changes are taking place in the women's perception of beauty care after COVID-19. Method: As for the research participants, 8 women who are serving in the beauty and health related industry in Korea were selected via the purposive sampling method. As for the data analysis of the in-depth interview contents, the 4-step phenomenological analytical method proposed by Giorgi was used, and to secure the validity of the study, the 8 evaluation criteria of the phenomenological research proposed by Cresswell for the validity strategy of the qualitative study were applied mutatis mutandis. Furthermore, to secure the reliability of the study, the truth value, applicability, consistency, and neutrality proposed by Guba and Lincoln were applied. Results: Results of the study, 113 semantic units, 20 sub-components, and 6 elements were eventually derived. The contents of the components were identified to be the changes in the perception of information search, changes in the interest of beauty, positive perception of evaluation according to wearing a mask, negative perception of evaluation according to wearing a mask, observation of other people's appearance management and information exchange, and the changes in the interpersonal perception. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was verified that the Korean women's perception of beauty care has changed, and that it is transforming into the beauty behaviors for the rational consumption according to the situation due to the social disaster of the COVID-19. It is expected that such research results will be used as the behavioral scientific data on the changes in the women's beauty care in the future era of infectious diseases.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Women, Experience, Perception, Beauty Care