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  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the effect of sympathetic understanding of fans on the attractiveness and emotional reaction of sports stars, which not only has a significant national or social impact, but also significantly influences the fans' purchase or intention of purchase of sports related products. Furthermore, it is to help to form a relationship with the fans, and also helps he clubs or teams improve their image using sports stars and establish marketing strategies. Method: In this study, 290 professional sports fans as of 2022 were surveyed, and the convenience sampling was used for the sampling method, and the survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 281 questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the contents of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing was carried out using the SPSS 24.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification performed, the sympathetic understanding consisted of two factors, cognitive factor α=.883 and emotional factor α=.836. The attractiveness was consisted of three factors, and it turned out to be a friendliness factor α=.867, an intimacy factor α=.851, and a similarity factor α=.799. The emotional reaction consisted of two factors, positive factor α=.855 and negative factor α=.830. According to the method and process used in the study, the overall result is that the fans' sympathetic understanding of sports stars affects the attractiveness and emotional reaction. Conclusion: In this study, the fans' sympathetic understanding of sports stars influences attractiveness and emotional reaction, and in sports clubs or teams, players' performances, including signing players, and the players' personal or social activities can win sympathy from their fans, and it requires much effort for a long period of time to win such kind of sympathy, and the most basic thing is a sincere activity. If these sincere activities are continued, naturally, the fans feelings towards the club or players will change positively, and that change will lead to purchase of sports related products or a change in positive attitudes related to it.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports Stars, Sympathetic Understanding, Attractiveness, Emotional Reaction
  • Purpose: It can be said that the human desire to be beautiful has been with the history of mankind along with basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In Korean society, the social image of men's appearance is gradually opening up, and the beauty industry for men's semi-permanent makeup is gradually expanding. Therefore, what kind of image people have about men's semi-permanent makeup procedures was checked. Method: In this study, type analysis was conducted using the Q-methodology. A Q-statement was composed through literature analysis and in-depth interview, and a 9-point scale Q-classification was performed by selecting a Q-sample and a P-sample and using the forced classification method. For factor analysis for type classification, principal component analysis was performed using the PC-QUANL program. Results: As a result of the study, three types were derived. Type I was a ‘genderless type’ and showed an open attitude, thinking that there was no distinction between men and women in appearance care. Type II is a ‘consideration type’, showing a positive reaction to male appearance care and semi-permanent makeup procedures, and respecting personal preferences. Type III was a ‘conservative thinking type’ and had a negative and conservative reaction to male appearance care and semi-permanent makeup procedures. Conclusion: This study explored the meaning of male and female semi-permanent makeup treatment images of various age groups using the Q-methodology. As a result of the study, an overall perspective on the image of men's semi-permanent makeup was confirmed. It is expected that it will be used as an in-depth and efficient data in future research on men's semi-permanent makeup.
    Keyword:Q-Methodology, Male, Semi-Permanent Makeup, Image, Classification
  • Purpose: This study seeks to present ways to realize tourism and unification for North and South Koreas based on the development of tourist destinations which can help link tourism to exchanges including mutual visits for the separated families of North and South Koreas, the North-South dialogue, politics, economy, culture and sports by developing tourist destinations from which politics of the two Koreas are fully excluded towards the realization of multi purposed tourism as well as the realization of mutual tourism for the two Koreans absent South Korean tourists for North Korea. Based on which, it would be possible to review, first, the development of tourist destinations of South Korea through which South Koreans can visit Mt. Geumgang of North Korea and North Koreans can visit tourist destinations of South Korea. Second, it would be possible to review a plan for carrying out exchanges for the mutual visits of separated families by linking the exchanges of separated families of North and South Koreas at Mt. Geumgang of North Korea with tourist destinations of South Korea. Third, by developing tourist destinations for the purposes of tourism only which North Korea might demand, it would be possible to review alternatives for North Korea's South Korean tourist destinations in the future. Fourth, based on the aforesaid, the purpose of tourism and unification may be realized and tourist exchanges may be reviewed under the premise of free travel. Methods: This study seeks to analyze changes in the tourism related conditions according to the expected changes in the North-South Korean relations and changes in tourism due to the expected changes of the NorthSouth Korean relations via the previous data. Furthermore, through the current status of human exchanges of North Korea, the start of the North-South Korean tourism, and the performance achievements of Mt. Geumgang tourism, this study seeks to examine and understand the changes in the North-South Korean relations according to the North-South Korean summit and the tourism related feng shui storytelling intended for the North-South Korean tourism. Results: Achieving a form of tourism through the North-South Korean exchanges is the top priority. Hence, in order to achieve the purpose of feng shui tourism in the future, it would be necessary to develop the tourist destinations from which politics of North and South Koreas are completely excluded. Towards this end, it is necessary to develop a tourist program by utilizing the tomb of Kim Tae-Seo located at Mt. Moak in Jeonbuk in which the North Korean leadership expressed deep interest ever since the North-South Summit of 2000. To this end, it will be necessary to develop a program which utilizes the storytelling of tourist feng shui utilizing the simple Korean culture which goes beyond the politics, while developing tourism. Conclusion: Tourism has clear points of contact for the unification, and it will be necessary to utilize the points of contact for the North-South Korean tourism through the mutual linkage of the North-South Korean relations moving forward to achieve the purpose of tourism and expect the unification on the Korean Peninsula.
    Keyword:North-South Korean Tourism, Agreement, Inter-Korean Relations, Feng Shui, Storytelling
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the research trends of the Christian bibliotherapy related papers published in Korea over the past two decades. Method: This study was conducted with the papers extracted with the topic of 'Christian bibliotherapy' from among the papers published in Korea from 2003 to 2022 and the papers published in specialized academic journals. The papers to be analyzed were searched and collected with the topic of ’Christian bibliotherapy‘ for the papers published in academic journals as well as the dissertatio ns for master’s and doctoral degrees, which were published from 2003 until 2022 via the database within the search site of the Korea Education and Research Information Service ( They were also included in the cases where bibliotherapy was performed with the Bible in addition to the Christian bibliotherapy. Results: As a result of this study, future research on Christian bibliotherapy needs to increase the studies on clinical bibliotherapy targeting various age groups, clarify the specific process of bibliotherapy, and needs to be supplemented with the studies on the process of training Christian bibliotherapy experts. Conclusion: This study will provide the basic data for the Christian bibliotherapy related studies, and will further present future research directions for the Christian bibliotherapy researchers.
    Keyword:Bibliotherapy, Christian Bibliotherapy, Research Trends, Research Content Analysis, Research Subject Analysis
  • Purpose: The beauty industry in Korea has triggered a global syndrome, and in particular, in the beauty industry, which is a labor intensive one highly dependent on human resources, a tool for more efficient and effective manpower management is undergoing discussion on the qualification rating, and hence, it is necessary to study the difference according to job performance. Method: Those who have obtained a national qualification related to the Korean hair in order to analyze the technical job performance according to the qualification rating of the state hair stylist license acquisition as well as those with over 10 years of field experience were subjected to the questionnaire survey. Results: For the hair stylist related qualification and licensed practitioners, the general job performance for each qualification such as cut, perm, hair styling, blow dry, hair evaluation and prescription, hair styling proficiency, and professional work, etc., were surveyed, and consequently, it turned out that there was a difference in job performance in the order of master craftsman, technician, and license, and the difference in job performance of license compared to master craftsman turned out to be larger. Conclusion: Hence, the license issued following the completion of education at universities, etc., has demonstrated a significantly lower job performance compared to the qualification, and in other fields, the qualification system is operated from technician to industrial engineer, and from industrial engineer to master craftsman. However, it is considered that this is so because the qualification system of the beauty area is directly connected to the master craftsman. Accordingly, in order to foster it into a global industry, it would be necessary to improve and supplement specific qualification rating which is realistic, independent, and reflective of the times, moving away from the focus placed on regulations and policies, and as an improvement point and future tasks to be pursued, studies on customer reliability, work habits, interpersonal relationship skills, and quality improvement, which are individual job skills of the state hair stylist license holder, ought to be conducted as well.
    Keyword:State Hair Stylist License, Technician, Job Performance, Master Craftsman, License
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the satisfaction of customers who want good physiognomy and appearance by creating a system that allows cosmetic plastic surgery professionals to automatically see the faces on screens such as those of mobile devices. Method: First, the name of each part of the face as a point on the coordinate plane. Second, the beauty plastic elements were first defined as math formulas, and criteria for determining beauty plastic images were prepared according to the calculation results of inputting information-protected coordinate values into the math formulas. Third, a method of outputting beauty plastic judgments when the math formulas in which the coordinates of feature points are input satisfies a given condition was presented. Results: Since philtrum is an important part of physiognomy and plastic surgery, a method of determining criteria related to philtrum was suggested. In addition, since the jawline shows a person's ability in terms of physiognomy, the ratio of the jawline was defined to present the criteria for an angled jawline. Conclusion: Experts in the service industry, such as physiognomy and cosmetic surgery, are habitually considering ways to analyze facial shapes and create better images according to customer needs. Since it takes time and effort to learn physiognomy professionally, if you have a tool to analyze physiognomy when you do not have knowledge of physiognomy, you can expect much more efficient results. Based on the effect of this paper, when the face appears on the screen, the customer's personality and image will react immediately, enabling the establishment of a system that suggests the direction of procedures for makeup, plastic surgery, and tattoos.
    Keyword:Physiognomy, Beauty Plastic Surgery, Facial Recognition, Jawline, Philtrum
  • Purpose: Personal hygiene become important due to the Covid-19 outbreak after 2019. An interest in skin health care has received attention to protect facial skin from wearing a protective mask on every day basis. This study has researched on an effect of lifestyle of female adult on searching beauty information through social network service (social media) and motivation to invest on skincare service. Method: Survey method was used to gather information from 20s~50s of female. The survey consists of lifestyle, a usage of beauty information through social media, the motivation to purchase skincare service, and demographic variables. To characterize subjects, percentage, average, and frequency were calculated. Pearson Correlation has been applied to analyze the relationship between lifestyle, the usage of beauty information through social media and the motivation to purchase skincare service. Multiple regression analysis was performed to find cause-and-effect relationship. Results: First, achievement seeking types and trend seeking types were outcomes as lifestyle. Information spread, sharing latest information, a use of information was obtained as a result of use of beauty information through social media. Aims of purchase of skincare were for relaxing, improving skin condition, and external stimulation based on this study. Second, among the lifestyles, achievement seeking types were found to use the latest variety of social media beauty information for purpose of rests, and trend seeking types were found to be active in using various skin care related purchase motivations and social media beauty information. Conclusion: These studies confirmed that depending on types of lifestyles, an influence of use of beauty information on social media is different on skin care related purchase motivation. This study can be a baseline for marketing in the skin care industry by identifying lifestyle characteristics and use of beauty information on social media characteristics.
    Keyword:Skin Health, Protection, Lifestyle, Social Media, Purchase Motivation
  • Purpose: Group art therapy is the introduction of art to group psychotherapy, and the client observes how others in similar situations solve their problems through group activities. In addition, through this, they can give and receive help among themselves and form an organic bond. Group art therapy has the characteristic that art activities help promote emotional expression that has been suppressed in the past, and self-exposure and self-understanding are actively presented in the group. group art therapy helps the subject to have a deep insight into his or her inner self to solve problems and build a positive self-image. As a result of examining the programs related to learned helplessness, efforts on measures to reduce helplessness could be found. By conducting group art therapy on learned helplessness and self-leadership, we tried to change negative perceptions and behaviors and increase positive views through group interactions and successful experiences in the art therapy process to help rational decision-making. As such, the purpose of this study is to provide basic data on a counseling approach that gives a sense of accomplishment and converts negative motivation into positive motivation to reduce learned helplessness and improve self-leadership through group art therapy programs. Method: Based on the results of the basic research, major variables and related programs related to the learned helplessness and self-leadership of college students were analyzed through various literature and previous research data and reflected in the preliminary program. A preliminary program was conducted to secure empirical evidence for the revision and improvement of the group art therapy program organized according to the program procedure to understand the acceptance of participants and the effectiveness of the program. It consists of verifying the effectiveness of the group art therapy program for college students. To verify the effectiveness, 10 experimental groups and control groups were formed for students at D University located in Daegu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and from April to June 2021, it was conducted twice a week for 100 minutes and a total of 10 sessions. Results: In the experimental group, there was a significant difference in learned helplessness and self-leadership. In the case of learned helplessness sub-factors, it was found that there was a significant effect in sub-factors excluding depression and negative perception. In the sub-factors of self-leadership, significant effects were found after the program. Conclusion: As discussed in this study, it was found that the group art therapy program is effective in reducing learned help-lessness and promoting self-leadership of college students.
    Keyword:Group Art Therapy, Learned Helplessness, Self-Leadership, Group Counseling, Effect
  • Purpose: The population experiencing hair loss has increased given the stress, environmental pollution, and the various cosmetic procedures, and the functional cosmetics market for the scalp hair care is further expanding due to the aging population. However, side effects such as allergies have occurred, and the interest in environmental pollution is rising. Recently, many studies have been conducted to search cosmetic raw materials from natural substances or applied fermentation techniques to the cosmetic manufacturing process. Accordingly, the green coffee beans which are edible and have been used for various pharmacological functions for and by the private sector for long and have secured clinical safety were fermented, then the active ingredients and effectiveness (in vitro) were investigated. Method: After fermenting the green coffee beans which are known to be effective for the scalp hair health by using EM, and preparing a sample using a double fermentation method of enzyme fermentation with malt, active ingredients (caffeine, polyphenol, flavonoid, and sugar) and effectiveness (in vitro, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and the dermal papilla cell growth rate) were verified. Results: As a result of the experiment, the caffeine and sugar content increased during the EM fermentation and enzyme fermentation, and there was no difference discovered according to the enzyme fermentation temperature. The total polyphenol and the total flavonoid content decreased during the enzyme fermentation, and enzyme fermentation at 60℃ of EM fermentation solution of green coffee bean extracts demonstrated an excellent rate of anti-inflammatory activity and dermal papilla cell growth. Conclusion: It was verified that the fermented product of the green coffee bean double fermented by using EM and malt has an excellent rate of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and dermal papilla cell growth, and hence, it may be applied as a raw material for various cosmetics. In particular, it was verified that it is effective for the scalp and hair health, while the usefulness as a cosmetic material for scalp hair was also verified.
    Keyword:Green Coffee Bean, EM Fermentation, Enzyme Fermentation, Hair Loss, Protection
  • Purpose: Since ancient times, the culture of putting on wounds or paints on the body like a tattoo has been carried on until now. In modern times, the interest, popularity, and market potential of semi-permanent makeup are increasing because it gives confidence and convenience as if wearing makeup. However, continuous research on safety is necessary because the risk factors for semi-permanent makeup are perceived in various aspects such as design, safety of ingredients, belief, worry, pain, and sanitary environment. Method: The researcher used the questionnaire method to construct questionnaire items with reference to previous studies. The questionnaire was constructed using a 5-point Likert scale and checklist. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic variables, the status of semi-permanent makeup, and risk perception factors. The subjects of this study were set as middle and high school girls and female university students from all over the country. The results were derived using frequency analysis. Results: The risk perception factors of semi-permanent makeup were design, eyebrow color, skin trouble, pain, and product and tool safety. However, there was an opinion(48.6%) that semi-permanent makeup should be performed by a beautician who is good at designing rather than a medical person. 46.4% answered that semi-permanent makeup is a type of makeup. However, as to the reasons for thinking that semi-permanent makeup should be regulated by the medical law, the highest responses were 'because it is more hygienic and the risk of infection is lower if it is done in a hospital' and 'the difference in trustworthiness' was the highest, and anesthetic cream was ranked next. Conclusion: According to the results of the study on risk perception and protection for semi-permanent makeup, it is recommended that a beautician with design and technology perform the procedure, but in terms of hygiene, infection, trust, and use of anesthetic cream, it should be regulated by the Medical Act. It is presumed to think that Therefore, as in the case of other countries, beauticians are allowed to perform semi-permanent makeup, but thorough education and management on semi-permanent makeup procedures, hygiene management, and safe use of products and tools are required.
    Keyword:Risk, Recognition, Semi-Permanent Makeup, Student, Protection