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Republic of Korea’s Role in Contributing to Human Security in Korea and Asia

Vol.7 (No.1) 2022
2022-03-30 15:27


Purpose: This research aims to contribute to the sustainable development, sound security and economic development of Asia by analyzing the actual situation of human security challenges in Republic of Korea (ROK) and Asia and establishing a cooperative mechanism between countries in the region. Epidemics, disasters, terrorism, organized crime and drug problems, including Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), are international issues that cannot be solved by the efforts of a specific country alone, and are a threat to domestic human security.

Method: In today's world, the interaction between human behavior and nature, especially the environment and climate, continues. The most notable example of artificial disasters that has changed the way humans see the world is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). This study analyzes ongoing human security threats and the international community's efforts to respond to them. Finally, this research suggests an alternative to the international community.

Results: The current pandemic crisis is unfortunate and unprecedented. The emergence of the deadly virus has not only baffled every country, but has left a grim mark on the world. The post-COVID-19 pandemic, along with the onslaught of the virus, presents a number of challenges: governance breakdowns, massive unemployment, economic crises, immigration predicaments, global supply chain disruptions and, most importantly, security restructuring.

Conclusion: This study proposes a way to establish a regional cooperation mechanism between Republic of Korea and Asia to mitigate human security threats. In particular, it analyzes the current situation of human security issues in the region and introduces ROK's role in promoting and protecting human security in Asia. In addition, this research analyzes non-traditional security factors such as infectious diseases, drugs, organized crime, terrorism, and cyber-terrorism to suggest ways to establish a regional cooperative mechanism between Republic of Korea and Asia to mitigate human security threats.

Keyword:Human Security, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Cooperation Mechanism, Covid-19 Pandemic, Non-Traditional Security
  • Purpose: The importance of electronic warfare in modern warfare is increasing day by day. In particular, North Korea has a relative weakness of conventional weapons systems, and has focused on developing asymmetric weapons systems and electronic warfare as a way to overcome them. North Korea is currently expected to further expand its application to some aircraft and guided weapons operations under satellite navigation systems such as GPS, GLONASS, COMPASS and Beidou. Method: This study studied the prior theory of electronic warfare at home and abroad. Prior re-search examined the military doctrines of the United States and trends in Europe. In particular, I studied the doctrines of the United States Joint Navigation Center (Navigation Warfare Center, JNWC) and the Education Command. Based on these prior research materials and literature reviews, I wanted to specifically review North Korea's electronic warfare cases and present our response in terms of legal and institutional aspects. Results: The South Korean military should recognize the importance of navigation warfare (part of electronic warfare) that protects our troops' location, navigation and square information so that they can be used without interruption, prevent the enemy's use of related information, and ensure the peaceful use of such information outside the light bulb In addition, we need to build an electronic warfare simulator and continue to promote training based on various scenarios. Conclusion: Efforts to train and support professionals are urgently needed. In parallel with these efforts, joint efforts to develop electronic technologies between the civilian and military should be preceded. To win a high-tech war in the 21st century, it is essential, among other things, to have precision weapons and original electronic warfare support capabilities. In addition, it is necessary to foster R&D and defense companies to secure domestic technology.
    Keyword:Electronic Warfare, Navigation, Jammers, Satellite Navigation Systems, PNT
  • Purpose: This article is to explore to understand the realistic background of the territorial conflicts, it has limitations in the understanding and resolution of the territorial conflicts at a more fundamental level regarding the humanities approach. In this respect, it is important to analyze the unresolved territorial conflicts based on the literary view from a humanistic approach based on a political and cultural perspective rather than a confrontation based on the logic of power. Method: The humanities approach is especially literature, contains the conflict generation and resolution process at the human level. The literary works representing each country, especially novels and tales, uniquely demonstrate the origin and development of the conflicts through their own plots. Based on which, it will be possible to understand how the territorial disputes will develop by country at the cultural level. Results: This article has not suggested a fundamental resolution for the territorial conflicts of Northeast Asia, and especially the historical issues of Dokdo between South Korea and Japan. However, it is important to take a humanistic approach focusing on the literary works as ideological, economic, cultural, and nationalist conflicts. This is because the memory of intersecting harms and damages as ideological, economic, cultural, and nationalistic confrontations are repeated with a focus on the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria are the factors that continue the conflict. Conclusion: As the historical contexts are different, the cultural and psychological tendencies are also unique, and the territorial disputes develop through the combination of such factors. In order to analyze the collective psychology and conflict of the South Koreans who experienced the loss of sovereignty and division due to Japan’s forced annexation, and the territorial and historical issues surrounding the Island of Dokdo, which has been an obstacle to the normalization of the South Korea-Japan relations to this day, the culture of the time literature works dealing with modern and contemporary history that reflect the culture and language have been considered.
    Keyword:Territorial Conflicts of Northeast Asia, Humanities Approach, Community of Memory, Inherent Conflicts Between Korea and Japan, Collective Perception of South Korean
  • Purpose: This study is to identify major issues related to the revitalization of the US-led UNC and to suggest an appropriate approach strategy for Republic of Korea(ROK). Method: In this research, the history of the United Nations Command(UNC) was reviewed in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution(UNSCR) enacted in response to the Korean War, which broke out due to North Korea's illegal and surprise invasion of the ROK. A literature review was conducted to identify major issues related to UNC’s revitalization, and the reliability of the study was increased by using the Delphi technique in a qualitative way through a group of experts. Results: Major issues for UNC revitalization were derived as follows. 1. United States' commitment to revitalize UNC, 2. Sustainability of UNC, 3. Establishment of chain of command between UNC and Future Combined Forces Command, 4. Scope of UNC member countries and participation of ROK forces in UNC Staff, 5. Declaration of the end of the Korean War, 6. Future UNC mission and role innovation. Conclusion: Republic of Korea should actively participate in the revitalization of the UNC for the national interests based on strategic clarity even though the ROK is not a founding country of the UNC. The United States is willing to innovate the future mission and role of the UNC as a multinational peacekeeper capable of supporting a peace regime on the Korean Peninsula while maintaining its influence in East Asia. In conclusion, it is important that the UNC continue to support liberal democracy in the Republic of Korea and develop into a multinational peacekeeping force in East Asia.
    Keyword:UNC’s Revitalization, ROK & US Alliance, Wartime Operational Control Transition, Armistice Management, Peace Agreement, Strategic Clarity
  • Purpose: Korean university students have a special interest in security issues, understand the importance of Northeast Asian and foreign situations and national security, and have a sense of responsibility. This is because Korean university students recognized the importance of security through service in the military, and they are aware of security threats and espionage activities even after being discharged. Therefore, by publishing this thesis in English, we intend to contribute to prosperity and peace by sharing information on the security awareness of Korean university students with researchers around the world. Method: Frequency analysis was conducted to identify general characteristics using the SPSS/PC+23.0 program, and Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. In addition, Factor Analysis, Correlation Analysis, and Simple Linear Regression Analysis were conducted on Korean university students’ perception of counterespionage activities, security reporting methods, threats from neighboring countries, and the role of the government. Results: ‘Threat and awareness’ factors were extracted for Korean university students’ perception of counterintelligence activities, and 'public factors' and 'personal factors' were extracted for security reporting methods. As major national threats, 'dictatorship' and 'liberal democracy' were classified and extracted, and the government's role was extracted as requiring 'joint response'. Perception of counterintelligence activities correlated with security reporting methods, threats from neighboring countries, and the role of the government. There was also a significant correlation between security reporting methods, threats from neighboring countries, and the role of the government. As a result of simple linear regression analysis, it was found that counterintelligence activity perception affects the method of reporting security, threats from neighboring countries, and the role of the government. Conclusion: Korean university students are aware of threats from neighboring countries, and Korea’s military service system is important for raising awareness of the importance of national security through mandatory service in the army and training in the reserves. Korean university students have negative perceptions of the dictator-ships of neighboring countries North Korea and China, are aware of China's espionage and cyber psychological warfare, and are aware of the reality by watching TV broadcasts featuring North Korean defectors, and are fully aware of the threat. In response to these threats, Korean university students aspire for stability and prosperity in Northeast Asia through joint responses by government departments.
    Keyword:Security Perspectives of Korean University Students, Perceptions of Counterintelligence Activities, Security Reporting Methods, Threats from Neighboring Countries, Government Role
  • Purpose: Recently, all countries of the world recognize space as an important area for military operations in modern warfare and are accelerating the space development. Especially countries in Northeast Asia including China and Japan are strengthening their space power, and space power is expected to be an important element in future warfare. Korea is also developing space technology and expanding its space activities as a member country of Space Club following the launch of NURI in 2022. Accordingly, it is necessary to prepare the foundation for utilizing the space with the military purpose step-by-step to prepare for the future warfare. Methods: Legal and institutional preparations should precede by using understanding and utilization of space of international community, especially those of advanced countries in space. This is because our space-related laws tends to see the space as a subject for scientific technology and the importance of security for the military use of space does not reflected. Therefore, the necessity for organic and practical cooperations between related agencies for the early establishment of defense space power and legal and institutional maintenance that supports ever-growing space technology are required. Results: Ministry of National Defense will prepare「Master plan for the development of defense space power」and establish the defense space power based on it. However, the progress of 425 project has been delayed due to the different view of existing statue and government departments given that the trend of the urgency of strengthening defense space power, development of nuclear and missile of North Korea, space development of all countries over the world and strengthening of space forces. It is possible to promote to strengthen the defense space power by existing legal system, but there are many restrictive elements. We can consider enacting a special law related to defense space basically to overcome the existing legal system, but there is no agreement among relevant agencies and there is high possibility for criticism on militarization of the space by international community. Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to promote the chairman of National commission on Space to at least Prime Minister and give full authority of the Minister of Defense on security and defense space through the amendment of current laws such as Space Development Promotion Act, Defense Acquisition Program Act, Act on the Organization of National Armed Forces and Aerospace Industry Promotion Act. And it should be noted that it is necessary to develop into activities that are not opposed to international law and the justification of the peace-ful use of the space by international community.
    Keyword:Peaceful and Military Use of Space, Space Development, Defense Space Power, National Commission on Space, Suitability of System
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to derive the situational judgment considerations necessary to lead and creatively carry out the battle in close combat, where rational situational judgment of each combatant is very difficult. Methods: In addition to literature studies, Delphi techniques were used for soldiers who participated in KCTC training, which is most similar to close combat, at least 20 times. Since 10 panels participated in the expert survey, the reliability problem of the Delphi survey process was not considered. Results: The main results of this study are as follows. First, enemy, friendly state, dangerous area, concealing and concealing possible point, dominant point, immediate shooting possible state, timing, and engagement time were derived as factors for determining the situation of combatants in attack combat. Next, in defensive combat, the enemy's expected maneuver, the decisive battle area, the friendly situation, the weather and vision, the controllable point, the departure and conversion of positions, and the enemy and timing with great threats were de-rived. Conclusion: This study was conducted to derive the situation judgment factors that each combatant should consider in order to be trained as combatants who think and judge by themselves so that combatants can make the fastest situation judgment in close combat, move before the enemy, and act immediately. To this end, a Delphi survey was conducted on KCTC training experts. As a result of the study, nine factors considering the situation in attack combat and eight factors considering the situation in defense battle were derived. It is desirable to find if the soldiers who are trained with these factors are more competent and positively contribute to the combat.
    Keyword:KCTC(Korea Combat Training Center), Close Combat, Offensive Combat, Defensive Combat, Situational Judgment
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore the plan to foster the experts in reserve forces of the Korean armed forces based on a review of the operation of reserve forces in foreign countries, such as the United States and Germany, in consideration of the rapidly changing international situation and security changes on the Korean Peninsula following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It is intended to examine the relevant development, and at the same time, while there are differences in terms of policy and implementation aspects, it is intended to make suggestions regarding policy development by deriving implications through the comparative analysis of the reserve forces system of Korea and the United States. Method: Considering the characteristics of this study, it was primarily composed of literature studies such as official documents, research papers, and related degree dissertations of the Korean and U.S. governments, Internet materials. As examples of the development of reserve forces in foreign countries, including the United States, case analysis of the reserve forces service system and organization method, reserve forces training, etc., were used. Based on which, various implications were drawn for fostering the reserve forces experts for Korea's elite reserve force. Result: For emphasis purposes, the U.S. and Germany legally maintain the same status as active duty and re-serve forces. This is because budgeting and policy establishment for reserve forces are applied in the same manner as in active duty. In particular, the U.S. develops and applies the AGR and ADOS systems based on the legal basis and budget, and operates the reserve force as a unit from the peacetime. However, Korea is currently conducting a short mobilization call training for three days and two nights. In case of emergency, after the general mobilization order is issued, the unit enters into the relevant unit to increase the mobilization and establish the unit. Moving forward, it is necessary to train the reserve forces experts who can contribute to shortening the gap between peacetime and when the general mobilization order is issued. Conclusion: The lessons learned from the Russo-Ukraine war are the spirit of armed struggle from the leader to the people, the strategy and tactics to operate the weapon system, and above all, the very importance of mobilizing the reserve force that can demonstrate practical combat power in the battlefield in case of emergency. As such, it is very important to prepare a plan for fostering the reserve forces experts in consideration of changes in the international order in the 21st century, declining population, changes in war patterns such as hybrid warfare shown in the Russo-Ukraine war, and Korea's future defense environment, among the key tasks of the Defense Reform 4.0.
    Keyword:Russo-Ukraine War, Changes in the Defense Environment, Elite Reserve Forces, Non-Standing Reserve Forces System, Defense Reform 4.0
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the current military training field risk assessment system and study its development direction. To this end, the reality of the Korean military related to the risk assessment of military training sites was analyzed, and the domestic and foreign civilian risk assessment system and the advanced military(US and British forces) risk assessment system were studied to derive implications. The use of the research results will prevent continuous accidents and casualties at military training field, and will contribute to the people's trust in our military and sending their children to the military. Method: For this study, literature data were studied due to the nature of the study, and data provided by each military headquarters were comprehensively reviewed to reflect the current situation, and statistical data from the Ministry of National Defense and each military headquarters were used to analyze the accident status. In addition, cases of domestic and foreign private risk assessment systems and advanced foreign military risk assessment systems were studied by reflecting various papers and opinions from related parties, and based on the results, the direction for the development of the military training field risk assessment system was suggested. Results: This paper established a standardized military training field risk assessment system by analyzing the current military training field risk assessment system of the Ministry of National Defense and military headquarters, analyzing domestic and foreign civilian risk assessment systems, and deriving implications for our military through advanced military(US and British) training field risk assessment systems. In addition, the computerization of the risk assessment system and the direction of development linked to other defense networks were presented. Conclusion: Through this study, we established a military training field risk assessment system that can be used in the entire military, and it is expected to contribute to the prevention of accidents at training field by using it well in field units. In addition, the computerization of the risk assessment system and the development directions linked to other defense networks will provide a direction for the establishment of the military training field risk assessment system in the long run. However, more on-site evaluation and research are required in order for the military training field risk assessment standard proposed by this study to be well utilized in the field.
    Keyword:Military Training Field, Risk Assessment, Safety Accident, Accident Prevention, Risk Reduction Measures
  • Purpose: The Armed Forces Nursing Academy is a special-purpose university that trains nursing officers and has a unique curriculum. In Particular, regarding the English curriculum, KAFNA has TOEIC-centered general English education and offers practical English education for military nursing. This study aimed to improve the effectiveness of English education at the Armed Forces Nursing Academy. The researcher identified the relationship between cadets' TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades, and this study, based on the relation-ship, proposed a developmental plan for the English curriculum. Method: In this study, to confirm the relationship between general English proficiency and military nursing English skill, this study analyzed 4years of accumulated TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades of 298 cadets, including graduates 60th ~ 63rd year of KAFNA to find a relationship. First, the correlation be-tween TOEIC test scores and military nursing practical English grades was examined, and a T-test was used to de-termine whether there were differences in military nursing English proficiency according to TOEIC test scores. Results: As a result of examining TOEIC scores and military nursing practical English grades of 298 cadets in four years, the 60th year showed a moderate correlation between the TOEIC score and the military nursing English grade, and the 61st~63th year showed a weak correlation. Furthermore, in the case of the 60th~62th year, it was found that there was a difference in the military nursing English score according to the TOEIC score, but there was no difference in the 63rd grade. Conclusion: It seemed that TOEIC scores were only partially related to military nursing practical English grades. Therefore, to communicate in the situation of military nursing practice, which has a specialized purpose, it is necessary to increase the proportion of military nursing practice English learning. In addition, complementary methods like increasing offered credits or motivating cadets should provide so that they can take an interest in learning English for military nursing practice.
    Keyword:TOEIC, KAFNA, ESP, English Curriculum, Military Nursing Practical English
  • Purpose: This article recognizes the dangers of North Korea's continued hostilities, including the sinking of the Cheonan, shelling of Yeonpyeong Island, and missile launches, and raises awareness in order for the forces threatening national security not to be established in our society. The goal is to have a firm military readiness so that we can fully respond to North Korea's provocations at any time and in any form. Method: In order to analyze North Korea's intentions and threats of provocation toward South Korea, books, academic journals, and dissertations about the provocation toward South Korea were reviewed. Various daily newspapers, news, and government data were studied to recognize the importance of security and derive empirical data for establishing military readiness. Results: North Korea has carried out military provocations against South Korea in various forms over the past 70 years despite our efforts to improve relations with the North. Until North Korea gives up its hostile policy to-ward South Korea and takes tangible military measures, it is the main enemy that threatens our security. We must make a clear distinction between the enemy and the ally. In addition, economic aid to North Korea should be continued while strengthening its nuclear deterrence and inducing change in the North. There should be no war, but it should be prepared to respond immediately if there is. Conclusion: National security is directly related to the survival of the people and is not done by the order of someone. It is important to have the same idea about security, from the leaders of the country, including the president, to all the people. We should keep in mind that national development stems from the people's thorough sense of security and have a security perspective that we protect our country. We should realize the importance of national security and have a firm military preparedness.
    Keyword:Security Awareness, National Security, North Korean Nuclear Threat, Provocation Toward South Korea, Military Readiness