A Study on the Improvement System of National COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE Activities
activities of intelligence agencies inherently recognize security as the greatest virtue, it was not easy to approach it in the academic field. However, the global information environment is changing rapidly. In the traditional concept of espionage, espionage was carried out mainly in the political and military areas, but in comprehensive security situations, information collection on various forms can take place, requiring a flexible strategy.
Method: However, despite the fact that anti-spy operations can directly be involved in infringement of the
basic rights of the people, the fact that minimal ground rules exist is a problem that requires improvement in
terms of the rule of law of information activities. Furthermore, the problem of this study is that even assuming
the objective consideration that anti-spy work is necessary to guarantee basic rights of the people, and that it is
not appropriate to impose public and judicial control such as investigation procedures, it is unfortunately not. In
response, this study proposed improvements to prevent concerns about infringement of the basic rights of the
people by guaranteeing practical anti-spy work in a changing environment.
Result: The first is the expansion of the concept and scope of the anti-spy. In other words, if the Framework
Act on Anti-Spy is enacted, the concept of anti-spy should be set as an active and active anti-spy concept, not a
passive or passive anti-spy concept, to diversify anti-spy operations and respond to both traditional and nontraditional threats. In addition, the government proposed the expansion of spy agencies to cope with the diversification of security threats due to changes in the information environment.
Second, he pointed out existing problems and made some forward-looking suggestions regarding the smooth
performance of anti-spy operations. The most important confirmation here is the stipulation of the means of
collection and verification of anti-spy information. The method of collecting anti-spy intelligence can be distinguished in legal and realistic ways, and the factual methods such as collecting human information, technical
information, and public source information are problematic.
Conclusion: In particular, legal grounds and reliability, such as undercovering the identity or operating an informant, are problematic in the intelligence officer's performance of specific espionage tasks. In order to dispel
this, it was confirmed that there is a need for evidence that the staff of the spy agency can impersonate their
identity in specific tasks, and a legal basis that the spy agency can operate a cooperative.
Instability of the North Korean Regime and the Residents' Defection: A Plan for Enhancing the Capacity of Security Police for Their Settlement in South Korea -With a Focus on the Rank of the Security Police's Department of Service-Purpose: Given the situation where it is expected that a plan of improvement for the North Korean refugee related support policy will be required in view of the recent incident of the North Korean defector returning to North Korea, which has become a problem in the South Korean society, the job satisfaction of the security police was surveyed based on the work area. This is because, given the situation where the security police perform various settlement related support activities as well as security tasks, which are their original duties, their job satisfaction can help improve the work efficiency and practically improve the settlement of the North Korean defectors. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via self-administration method. Among the collected survey questionnaires, 91 were selected as valid samples, excluding those whose answers were incomplete or missing. Results: First, the job satisfaction turned out to be higher as the number of employees of the police organization with which the police organization was affiliated increased, and second, the relationship between the division of work and authority and responsibility of the police working in large cities was clearer than that of the police working in small and medium cities, and as they are further classified and efficiently assigned, the commanders and superiors demonstrate a higher job satisfaction with the awareness that they are leading the staff by example rather than direct control. Conclusion: As a result of the study of this paper, the status of the North Korean defectors who are experiencing considerable difficulties in adapting and integrating into the South Korean society was identified, and the internal job satisfaction of the security police who are practically responsible for their settlement support was surveyed. Since the end of the Cold War, the status and job satisfaction of the security police have declined due to political reasons where the systemic competition between the South and the North has not surfaced, and the survey of their job satisfaction may yield a plan of improvement.Keyword:North Korean Regime, Security Police, Rank, North Korean Defectors, Settlement
The Increased Defection of North Koreans Following the Collapse of the Market Economy Due to the Kim Jong-Un Regime’s Military ReinforcementPurpose: In this study, North Korea's recent military advancements including supersonic missile test launch and long-range missile test, and systematic, widespread and terrible human rights violations in North Korea including 'genocide, murder, enslavement, torture, detention, rape, forced abortion, sexual violence and discrimination based on politics, religion, race and gender, forced mobilization of residents, enforced disappearance, and intentional extension of starvation' have been practiced, while the North Korean defectors have fled to South Korea every year in search of freedom, and the perception and attitude towards job satisfaction by gender and age have been analyzed for the police officers serving in the security police organization, which is recognized as the most closed police organization for police officers by age and gender. Based on which, it is intended to discuss policy measures to create an organization which can increase the job satisfaction of the security police with a new organizational culture which matches the ever evolving military advancements in North Korea and the human rights crisis. Method: In this study, 100 police officers serving in the security department who have work experiences related to the North Korean defectors were surveyed based on the self-administration method by using the South Korean police officers as a group in 2020 in order to analyze the perception and attitude towards the job satisfaction based on gender and age targeting the police officers serving in the security police organization. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, across most of the questions with statistical significance for the gender of the security police managing the North Korean defectors due to the ever evolving military advancements in North Korea and the human rights crisis, the male security police officers turned out to have a relative more positive evaluation of the level of job satisfaction than the female police officers. Furthermore, in terms of age, the positive perception and attitude of the older age group is high across most of the questions, whereas the negative perception is relatively high for the age group in their 20s. Regarding the relationship between gender and age, it turned out that the males in their 50s and above and females in their 30s demonstrated the highest positive perception and attitude for the job satisfaction. Conclusion: In conclusion, first, the culture within the security police organization needs to be improved and will also need to be transformed into a security police organization which can fully demonstrate the potential and creativity of the security police through the fairness of personnel management. Second, it is very urgent to enact laws (rules) to ensure the organizational stability of the security police. Third, it is necessary to secure the equipment and professional manpower to acquire the security resources, and strengthen the specialized education. In order to be renewed as a new security police which responds to the rapidly changing security environment, the number of young security police officers needs to be increased, and the young police officers need to derive new ideas and be involved in collecting, analyzing, and producing information related to the various crimes (including multiple crimes) against the North Korean defectors toward becoming leaders on their own as they respond to police policies and decision-makers with the measures for the safe settlement of the North Korean defectors and crime prevention, whereby the job satisfaction of the security police will be further developed into a more progressive organizational culture.Keyword:Military, Collapse of the North Korean Regime, Security Police, Gender, Job Satisfaction
The Reality of the Barracks Culture of the Korean Armed Forces of Generation MZ and the Search for AlternativesPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of Generation MZ in the reality of the Korean armed forces where most of the enlisted soldiers are Generation MZ, and consider the task of improving the barracks culture for them. Method: Literature study and empirical data were carried out including books, academic journals, and dissertations related to the barracks culture’s improvement and generation MZ in order to analyze the justification and promotion strategy of barracks culture improvement and a barracks culture improvement plan appropriate for the characteristics of the military organization and Generation MZ. Results: In order to improve the barracks culture appropriate for the characteristics of Generation MZ, the Korean armed forces need such measures as the strengthened authority and responsibility of the soldiers and allowed use of mobile phones. Furthermore, as a measure to establish military discipline, punishment for human rights, security, and negligence related issues need to be strengthened. Generation MZ lack personal experiences, and hence, group counseling ought to also be facilitated. Such policies targeting Generation MZ will be meaningful policies for the Generation Alpha who will enlist in the military in the future. Conclusion: Given the nature of the Republic of Korea, which has adopted the conscription system, the military ought to be able to play the role of the last public education institution. The military ought to be able to help the Republic of Korea take a large leap toward becoming a world-class nation by recovering the hopes and dreams which Generation MZ, called the Generation of 7 Losses, lost, and developing on their own. If the military promoted barracks culture improvement can create synergies in tandem with the independent and enterprising characteristics of Generation MZ, the Republic of Korea will not only be able to take a new leap forward comparable to the miracle of the Han River, but will also become a leading nation qualified to spearhead the future of the world.Keyword:Barracks Culture, Military Organization, Generation MZ, Soldiers of New Generation, Soldiers' Human Rights
Purpose: This research aims to analyze the current status of the Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Basic trainings at the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA) NCO Academy and to suggest improvement options for immediate field task performance. Method: This study is to identify the capabilities of smart NCOs required in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. It also reviews previous research on 'NCO Comprehensive Development Plan 2.0' and 'NCO Strategy 2030' for the future of the military in connection with 'Defense Reform 2.0'. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, surveys are mainly conducted through online surveys and non-contact interviews with the NCO experts. Results: This research would propose a training course development plan based on the internal efforts of the NCO Academy and a survey of 678 soldiers including junior and senior NCOs and company commanders. It is necessary to realistically adjust the goals of the courses to achieve the basic combat skills and capabilities as a junior NCO. The current NCO basic course period needs to reduce from 18 weeks to 12 weeks and also the junior NCO leader course period needs to extend from 20 weeks to 25 weeks depending on the each refined training goal. Conclusion: The future of the army may depend on the smart NCO’s immediate field performance which is the core of the combat capabilities of tactical units. Therefore, the NCO basic training environments and programs of the ROKA NCO Academy should be substantially improved.Keyword:NCO (Non-Commissioned Officer), Field Leadership, 4th Industrial Revolution, NCO Comprehensive Development Plan 2.0, Immediate Field Task Performance
Purpose: This research aims to contribute to the sustainable development, sound security and economic development of Asia by analyzing the actual situation of human security challenges in Republic of Korea (ROK) and Asia and establishing a cooperative mechanism between countries in the region. Epidemics, disasters, terrorism, organized crime and drug problems, including Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), are international issues that cannot be solved by the efforts of a specific country alone, and are a threat to domestic human security. Method: In today's world, the interaction between human behavior and nature, especially the environment and climate, continues. The most notable example of artificial disasters that has changed the way humans see the world is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). This study analyzes ongoing human security threats and the international community's efforts to respond to them. Finally, this research suggests an alternative to the international community. Results: The current pandemic crisis is unfortunate and unprecedented. The emergence of the deadly virus has not only baffled every country, but has left a grim mark on the world. The post-COVID-19 pandemic, along with the onslaught of the virus, presents a number of challenges: governance breakdowns, massive unemployment, economic crises, immigration predicaments, global supply chain disruptions and, most importantly, security restructuring. Conclusion: This study proposes a way to establish a regional cooperation mechanism between Republic of Korea and Asia to mitigate human security threats. In particular, it analyzes the current situation of human security issues in the region and introduces ROK's role in promoting and protecting human security in Asia. In addition, this research analyzes non-traditional security factors such as infectious diseases, drugs, organized crime, terrorism, and cyber-terrorism to suggest ways to establish a regional cooperative mechanism between Republic of Korea and Asia to mitigate human security threats.Keyword:Human Security, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Cooperation Mechanism, Covid-19 Pandemic, Non-Traditional Security
The Implementation Strategy of A4P(A4P+) and the Implications for Korean Military’s Participation in UN PKOsPurpose: The United Nations recently announced A4P+, a priority for the implementation of A4P following A4P to emphasize the qualitative improvement of peacekeeping operations and the sharing of responsibilities among related actors. In this paper, I will consider the A4P+ priorities to be implemented for UN peacekeeping operations between 2021-2023 and draw implications for the Korean military deployment policy in peacekeeping. Method: To this end, Literature analysis centered on official documents published by the United Nations related to A4P and A4P+, was conducted, and military-related data were referenced among various data on the United Nations web page. Results: A4P and A4P+ presented areas and tasks to be implemented in peacekeeping operations by the UN, member states, regional organizations, and host governments related to the deployment of UN personnel. Upholding A4P and A4P+ are WPS(Women, Peace, and Security) and data-driven and advanced technologies. All stakeholders in Peacekeeping must do their commitments in eight areas of A4P and prepare for the materialization of A4P through A4P+ priorities based on the two. Member states providing military and police are responsible for providing their competent peacekeepers to field missions for their safety and security and mandate implementation. Peacekeeping operations emphasize high-tech and information collection systems for effectiveness and efficiency of peacekeeping, TCC/PCC should read and reflect the changes required from the UN into their deployment policy. Conclusion: Korea should do its commitment pledged to the UN to contribute to successful peacekeeping operations. First, Korea shall contemplate its deployment policy, focusing on how and what it can implement A4P+ within a limited period. Second, Korea needs to re-consider the current participation of military and equipment. Qualitative expansion in Korea’s participation rather than quantitative one should be prioritized first.Keyword:Action for Peacekeeping Plus(A4P+), Peacekeeping Operations(PKO), UN Security Council, Multilateralism, TCC/PCC(Troop Contributing Country/Police Contributing Country)
A Study on the Development Direction for Innovative Transformation of the ROK Army Education and TrainingPurpose: This study was carried out to derive the implementation direction of education and training to foster individuals and units that will surely win when fighting the enemy by further leaping up the level of education and training for the army in an uncertain security environment and various threats. Method: This study was conducted through literature analysis on education and training of the ROK and US military, and through interviews and discussions with education technology experts, human resource development experts, army headquarters, education command practitioners, commanders, and staff of field units, and school unit instructors. Results: For the army's education and training to take off, we need to expand the scope of education and training, and establish a philosophy and foundation for education and training based on the developed educational theory (learning science). Moreover, we need to implement four directions: developing educational human resources, establishing a scientific learning system, creating a learning-based environment, and optimizing unit and individual learning. Conclusion: The four implementation directions for the leap forward in army education and training are the development of educational human resources, the establishment of a scientific learning system, the creation of a learning-based environment, and the optimization of the unit and individual learning. First, educational human resource development includes 'development of all members' competency', 'performance of instructor's role as a learning facilitator', 'expansion of awareness that a leader is an educator', 'management of education experts', and 'professional enhancement through increasing civil-military compatibility'. Second, the establishment of a scientific learning system consists of 'applying learning science', 'designing an optimal education and training course', 'learning based on advanced science and technol, 'inducing learning motivation', and 'establishing a systematic evaluation concept'. Third, the creation of a learning-based environment consists of 'providing a practical education and training environment', 'supporting modern education and training', and 'development of a learning management system'. Fourth, optimizing unit and individual learning is 'education and training for adaptability development', 'Self-development', 'school education', and 'unit training'.Keyword:Learning Science, Core Competencies, Development of Educational Human Resources, Establishment of the Scientific Learning System, Creation of Learning-Based Environment
The Effects of Company Commanders’ Leader Prototypicality and Army Prestige on Platoon Leaders’ Identification with Their Company and ArmyPurpose: In a military context, economic exchange has limitationsto motivating their member, especially first-line military officers because they risk their lives in an extreme situation and the value of one’s life cannot be evaluated easily. Rather than an economic exchange approach, we adopted social identity theory to explore the way to motivate first-line military officers. Based on social identity theory, we tried to find several ways to motivate first-line military officers. Method: We collected data by the survey. Before hypothesis testing, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alpha to see the validity and reliability of the measurement. After verifying there is no problem in terms of validity and reliability of the measurement, we tested the hypothesis with a structural equation model. Results: The effects of company commanders’ leader prototypicality and army prestige on platoon leaders’ identification with their company were proved to be statistically significant. And again platoon leaders’ identification with their company wasshown to have a significant effect on platoon leaders’ identification with the army. Furthermore, army prestige influences not only platoon leaders’ identification with the army via identification with the company indirectly but also directly. Conclusion: Because of the difficulties of evaluating one’s life even in the military context, the economic exchange approach has limitations in motivating first-line military officers. In the academic field, the social exchange approach is adopted as the alternative approach to economic exchange. Rather than the social exchange perspective, we adopted the social identity perspective which emphasizes the identification of self-interest and organizational interest to explore the way to motivate first-line military officers. The result of this study showed that some characteristics of middle-level military officers and the external image of the whole military organization, namely, the Korean Army have significant effects on organizational identification, which means that these two factors can be regarded as possible tools for motivating first-line military officers.Keyword:Identification, Prototypicality, Prestige, Social Identity Theory, Social Identification Theory
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to think about the benefits and gains which unification will bring about in our reality as divided nations, understand the legitimacy for unification, and devised a strategy for preparing for unification. The purpose is to establish values and a desirable attitude towards the state while preparing for unification and analyzing the stature and future of the Republic of Korea. Method: In order to come up with the legitimacy of unification, strategy, and what we need to do to prepare for unification, references such as books, academic journals, and dissertations related to unification were examined, and in order to derive empirical data for the stature of South Korea and the future, empirical studies were conducted for news and government data, etc. Results: The strategy to prepare for unification is to induce North Korea not to make unreasonable demands by maintaining a strong security arrangement, such as by securing regular and irregular warfare capabilities, strengthening the ROK-U.S. alliance and joint operational capabilities, and adhering to firm principles rather than a principle of less appeasement policy not to mislead the public's perception of North Korea. Unification requires an agreement between the two Koreas, yet what is clear is that unification must be liberal and democratic based on a market economy, and it is also necessary to reach a national consensus. Furthermore, while expanding the breadth of mutual understanding between the two Koreas, close friendly and cooperative relations with neighboring countries must also be maintained. Conclusion: Most of the people have a negative perception towards unification, and the MZ generation even demonstrate a cynical attitude towards North Korea. However, unification must be achieved in order to pursue development and prosperity while continuing the historical legitimacy of our people, and for stability in Northeast Asia and the world peace. In the process of pursuing unification, it should serve as an opportunity to properly establish the ‘view of state’ as well as the ‘view of unification’ or ‘view of security’ which have not been fully established in the consciousness of the people.Keyword:North-South Korean Unification, Legitimacy of Unification, Stature of South Korea, Security Arrangement, View of State
Purpose: In preparation for the great security threats surrounding the Korean Peninsula, it is urgent to establish defense space capabilities to acquire prior information and secure precise response capabilities. It is also urgently necessary to establish a military utilization plan for the Korean-style independent navigation satellite, which is reflected in the mid-to-long-term national space development plan. Method: This study used the following research method. First, I predicted the importance of space in de-fense and the aspect of space war. In addition, it analyzed the trend of strengthening the defense space of countries around the world and derived implications for strengthening Korea's defense space. Based on this, the revision of the law and the improvement of the system were proposed to strengthen Korea's defense space. Results: Revision of Laws and Regulations for Strengthening National Defense Space. The amendment of the Space Development Promotion Act should be made as soon as possible. It is to establish a legal basis for the military to pursue space development on its own. The first option is to enact a law to strengthen the defense space force(special law). The second plan is to revise the current 'Space Development Promotion Act', add and strengthen security-related clauses. Korea's Defense Space Strategy Development Direction is to strengthen cooperation with advanced countries including the United States for space security, effectively responding to space threats and space risks, and strengthening civil-military space cooperation. Conclusion: While first pushing for the enactment of a special law through the legislation of lawmakers, it will be appropriate to insert and revise provisions related to defense space in the current laws(such as the Space Development Promotion Act, the Defense Business Act, the Armed Forces Organization Act, the Aerospace Industry Promotion Act, etc.). It is necessary to give the defense minister full authority on issues related to defense space, and on the other hand, it is reasonable to carry out legislative activities in a way that does not go against the cause of "peaceful use" of the international community. In addition, efforts should be made to expand systems and organizations to strengthen the defense space and train experts.Keyword:Defense Space Power, Space Capabilities, Space Development Promotion Act, Space Law, Defense Space Strategy