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The Effect of Ego Orientation on MILITARY Cadets’ Intention for Sport Activity and Performance

Vol.2 (No.2) 2017
2017-12-30 12:56


The purpose of this study to identify the effect of achievement orientation on the military cadets' intention for adherence to sport activities(IASA) and performance in the sport activities(PSA) in the military professional development education. Total 695 military officers were sampled and were ad-ministered a battery of questionnaires in April 2015 and 367 subjects of them fully responded to the survey questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed in the structural equation modeling and the results of the analyses were like these: first, the military cadets' ego-orientation had significantly positive effect on their intention for adherence to sport activities, and second, the military cadets' ego-orientation had significantly positive effect on their performance in the sport activities of soccer, fitness, and Taekwondo. The results of this study have many suggestions and implications for research and practice of physical education. First, it is interesting that the effect of ego-orientation is stronger than that of task-orientation because many previous researchers reported contrasting results. That is, most of the precedent studies reported that task-orientation demonstrated more significant effect on the IASA and the PSA than that of ego-orientation because the task-orientation leads athletes to focus more on the dexterity of their performance than an outcome of a match. The contrasting results could be understood that most of the military cadets are familiar with norm-referenced evaluation system to reach up to higher rank, so they care more about the relative position than their skillfulness. Jung(2014)’s study supported the interpretation as military cadets’ ego-orientation also had stronger effect on their achievement in academics, military training, and disciplinary evaluation than task-orientation. Second, the results of this study suggest that researchers should concentrate on the context of the evaluation when they conduct a study of comparison of effect between the task and ego-orientation because the magnitude of effect depends on the context of the evaluation rather than the kind of achievement orientation. For example, the task-orientation would have stronger effect than ego-orientation in the context of criterion-referenced evaluation because a student does not need to compete against his or her peers as the score depends on the dexterity of his or her performance. In the context of norm-referenced evaluation, on the contrary, ego-orientation would be acceptable to the learners because they have to defeat other students to have better score. Third, the results of this study indicate that the norm-reference evaluation system in the military academy has profitable effect on the military cadet’s academic accomplishment because the cadets tend to make more effort in the competitive situation than in the cooperative situation. This study, however, also suggests that instructors of the physical education need to use norm or criterion-referenced evaluation system to improve the military cadets’ performance as well as their participation in the sport activities. The precedent studies in the physical education research suggest that moderately competitive atmosphere in the sport activities would stimulate the learners’ concentration and performance, however, too competitive atmosphere would harm their performance.

Keyword:Military Cadets, Goal Orientation, Intention of Exercise Adherence, Performance, Korea Army
  • Purpose: In preparation for the great security threats surrounding the Korean Peninsula, it is urgent to establish defense space capabilities to acquire prior information and secure precise response capabilities. It is also urgently necessary to establish a military utilization plan for the Korean-style independent navigation satellite, which is reflected in the mid-to-long-term national space development plan. Method: This study used the following research method. First, I predicted the importance of space in de-fense and the aspect of space war. In addition, it analyzed the trend of strengthening the defense space of countries around the world and derived implications for strengthening Korea's defense space. Based on this, the revision of the law and the improvement of the system were proposed to strengthen Korea's defense space. Results: Revision of Laws and Regulations for Strengthening National Defense Space. The amendment of the Space Development Promotion Act should be made as soon as possible. It is to establish a legal basis for the military to pursue space development on its own. The first option is to enact a law to strengthen the defense space force(special law). The second plan is to revise the current 'Space Development Promotion Act', add and strengthen security-related clauses. Korea's Defense Space Strategy Development Direction is to strengthen cooperation with advanced countries including the United States for space security, effectively responding to space threats and space risks, and strengthening civil-military space cooperation. Conclusion: While first pushing for the enactment of a special law through the legislation of lawmakers, it will be appropriate to insert and revise provisions related to defense space in the current laws(such as the Space Development Promotion Act, the Defense Business Act, the Armed Forces Organization Act, the Aerospace Industry Promotion Act, etc.). It is necessary to give the defense minister full authority on issues related to defense space, and on the other hand, it is reasonable to carry out legislative activities in a way that does not go against the cause of "peaceful use" of the international community. In addition, efforts should be made to expand systems and organizations to strengthen the defense space and train experts.
    Keyword:Defense Space Power, Space Capabilities, Space Development Promotion Act, Space Law, Defense Space Strategy
  • Purpose: In this study, the possibility of economical design of a protective structure was presented based on explosion test data and computer simulation results on the safety of both a building and human bodies for the combat training building. Method: A training facility was built for soldiers to experience the vibration, pressure, and noise generated inside the building due to the explosion of the TNT. In the explosion proof test, 9lb of TNT, equivalent to the weight of a 4.2-inch mortar shell, was detonated in four places around the building, including the roof of the training building, the door, and the outside of the wall to determine the damage. Vibration, pressure and noise transmitted into the building were measured. After the explosion test, the damage to the building was examined through a rebound hardness test and visual inspection, and the impact on the human body was estimated by measuring the pressure at three spots inside the building. Afterwards, computer modeling and simulation was performed using High Explosion Damage & Injury Assessment Model(HExDAM) and simulation results were compared with explosion test measurements. Results: As a result of inspecting the structural damage of the building, there was no significant displacement of the structure and it was determined that there was no problem in using the building. The compressive strength of concrete was observed through Schmidt hammer, it showed 96% of the strength compared to the design strength(30MPa). The pressure inside the building was measured in the range between 0.063 and 0.488 kPa, which is a very small value that is harmless to the human body. According to computer simulation, the internal pressure increased as the wall thickness decreased. However, even if the wall thickness was reduced, the pressure delivered to the inside did not increase significantly, and it was still found to be harmless to the human body. Conclusion: Through the explosion test, it was confirmed that the structure and personnel inside the training building for combat field experience were safe enough against the explosive power of a 4.2-inch mortar shell. Computer simulations showed that there is room for reducing the thickness of the wall of the building, and the necessity of economical design was suggested by using computer simulation for designing protection facilities and military facilities.
    Keyword:Blast Effects, Explosion Test, Reinforced Concrete Building, HExDAM, Modeling & Simulation
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is, first, to organize the debate on the reductionism of the concept of limiting terrorism to non-state organizations. Second, we analyze the characteristics of culturally motivated terrorism. Third, we study the discourse on the ideological fiction and violence of Islam's Salafism. Method: In the concept of terrorism by institutions or scholars studying terrorism, they point out errors limiting the actors to non-state organizations, explain religious terrorism and political and social contexts, and try literature research on logic and strategies that justify terrorism by interpreting Salafism as aggressive content. Results: The reason why the actors who commit terrorism are limited to non-state organizations is because they are limited to the interests of specific countries or organizations. Historical examples of attempts at terrorism by the state are sufficiently accumulated in other studies. The reason for the occurrence of religious terrorism is not simply to realize a society where religious ideology is realized, but social discrimination and contradictions combine with religious ideology, resulting in terrorism. From this point of view, Salafist terrorism can also be interpreted. Conclusion: Since the late 20th century, numerous terrorism has occurred mainly in Islamic society. Domestic and international disputes and system instability can provide an excuse for attacks on dissatisfied forces at any time, and incidents in which an unspecified number of people are attacked by groups armed with the name of religion will not be cut off. As so far, political oppression and military response alone are difficult to solve, so high-level complex strategies such as social reform and growth of anti-terrorism groups must be sought.
    Keyword:Non-State Organizations, Jihad, Salafism, Terrorism, Religious Obligations
  • Purpose: In the case of a conflict that today destabilizes a country's system such as a complex civil war, it is quite difficult to resolve it on its own. If disputes are not any more internal problems and threaten international security, efforts by the international community cannot help but be made. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the resolution of disputes in a country and the transition of democratic systems can be achieved through multilateral cooperation among various actors in the international community. Method: To this end, the situation of Darfur in Sudan will be selected as a case study. First, the fac-tors that influenced the resolution of conflict faced by Sudan and the transition of the democratic system will be divided into internal and external factors, then I look at how these factors worked and what the correlation between them is. Results: The two internal factors, the demand for democracy by civil society, which used the coup as an opportunity for change, and the resolution of disputes by the transitional government and the transition to a democratic system, had positive impacts on Sudan. The external factor pushed by the U.S. has affected the will of the interim government for the transition to the democratic system. Efforts by the international community, including the United Nations, served as a positive external factor, too. The creation of a peace-building mission in response to the Sudanese government's willingness to resolve the problem has served as a practical external factor of the international community. Conclusion: Intra-state conflict is not easy to be settled by the country’s single will. Therefore the Sudan case has meaningful implications to us on how that state and the international community will have to seek more inclusive efforts.
    Keyword:Multilateral Cooperation, Sudan Transitional Military Council(TMC), African Union-UN Hybrid Operations in Darfur(UNAMID), UN Integrated Transitional Mission in Sudan(UNITAMS), Peacekeeping Operations(PKO)
  • Purpose: This study is to reveal the limitations of the existing concept and recognition of the reserve force by analyzing the actual situation and policy of the reserve force. In addition, by establishing a new concept of the reserve forces based on the total force, and suggesting the direction for the modernization and force integration of mobilization-oriented units, it is intended to contribute to the expansion of national security in the future. Method: The research method is to conduct a single case study that provides a framework for understanding and interpretation in decision-making and execution of the reserve force reinforcement policy. An interpretive case study will be conducted to analyze the process of forming the total force of the United States(US), focusing on the case itself rather than the theory. Also, for a qualitative study through archival research, reports from the US Department of Defense and Congress, historical data of the National Guard, research papers and publications published by the ROK Ministry of National Defense(MND) and Army, and domestic and foreign papers will be reviewed. Results: According to the total force policy of the 1970s, US viewed the reserve force as a companion force of the standing army and promoted the reinforcement of its forces. And the successful innovations in the structure, organization, and training of reserve forces by the Military National Defense(MND) and the Army of U.S. in the 1960s supported this policy. However, the strength and readiness of the Reserve Forces of ROK have not improved significantly compared to the past in terms of structure and organization, training system, and budget. Conclusion: The concept of a reserve forces should be extended from a combination of mobilized personnel and materials to a unit composed of them. First of all, efforts should be focused on improving the operational capability and effectiveness of the mobilization-oriented units among the reserve forces. So the concept of reserve forces should include all human and material resources mobilized for national security and mobilization-oriented units augmented in wartime.
    Keyword:Reserve Forces, Total Force, Mobilization, Reserve Unit, ROK Army’s Mobilization Force Command
  • Purpose: A rapid demonstration acquisition project has been underway since 2020 to compensate for the shortcomings of the current weapon acquisition system, which usually takes more than 10 years to acquire a single weapon system, and to quickly apply fourth industrial revolution technologies such as AI, drones, and unmanned technology to the defense sector. As it is applied first without institutional completeness, however, various problems are being exposed at the site. In this study, we would like to diagnose the causes of these problems and suggest solutions. Method: Quantitative research on rapid acquisition demonstration projects is limited due to the short history of implemented and policy-based systems, so qualitative research was conducted to improve the efficiency of the current rapid acquisition project. The causes of problems between the implementation of the system were analyzed, and through laws and regulations related to it and the examples from the U.S. military, a solution that could be accepted by the agencies involved in the rapid acquisition demonstration project was presented. Results: To mitigate the responsibility of organizations and personnel implementing the rapid demonstration acquisition project on-site and to boldly implement the project, a solution was presented to ensure necessary conditions. The burden on quality assurance and loss & damage of equipment was reduced and the property registration process of equipment under test operation without property registration was presented. It was also proposed to promote rapid research and development by breaking away from the purchase of current commercial products to ensure the completeness of the rapid acquisition demonstration system. Conclusion: The rapid demonstration acquisition project is to first test-use commercial products applied with new technologies and quickly introduce them to the military through formal decisions if they can be used militarily. As we have taken the first step through a lot of research and discussion, we hope that the system will be supplemented and implemented boldly and challengingly to meet the original purpose and establish it as a viable and sustainable formal weapon system acquisition procedure.
    Keyword:Rapid Demonstration Acquisition Project, Weapon System Acquisition Procedure, Defense R&D, Force Integration, Defense Budget
  • Purpose: This article examines the potential impacts on the security of the Korean Peninsula(KORPEN) due to the slumping defense workforce in the depopulation and aging era and suggests the impact of the Population Dead Cross Phenomenon(PDCP) to be a considerable factor for the future direction of the ROK-U.S. combined defense system. Method: As a research method, the framework of analysis is to examine the impact of the PDCP and the DPRK military threats on the security of the KORPEN then recommend the future direction for improving the alliance relations in the era of Operational Control Transition(OPCON-T). Due to the limitations and characteristics of this research, this study focused on literature research, official documents from the Republic of Korea(ROK) government and the Ministry of National Defense(MND), academic and dissertations, forums, and seminars related to the demographic and national security studies. Results: The Republic of Korea is the most rapidly advancing country globally, with a low-birth rate and hyper-aging society. The PDCP in the ROK society is a serious security concern to its conscription-based system. Onlookers expect the low fertility rate to shake the national defense policy of the conscription system by causing a decrease in the working-age population and a mission-critical decrease in the available national defense workforce. The continued reduction of the ROK defense manpower may raise questions about how to effectively command the future combined defense forces after OPCON-T. Conclusion: In a broader sense, the decline of the ROK population due to the PDCP is a social problem that desperately needs an essential solution. This social problem is also a reflection point for the ROK and the U.S. defense and national authorities, developing the future direction for the ROK-U.S. combined defense system. If the chronic diseases of the PDCP are ignored, it will directly threaten the security of the KORPEN. The ROK and the U.S. should consider multifaceted factors from various angles and prepare for binational decision space to prepare for the realpolitik in shaping the future landscape of the ironclad ROK-U.S. military alliance.
    Keyword:Population Dead Cross Phenomenon, Future ROK-U.S. Combined Defense System, ROK-U.S. Military Alliance, ROK Conscription System, Operational Control-Transition
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore aerospace power development strategies promoted by the Republic of Korea Air Force(ROKAF), and to examine the necessity and tasks of strengthening space power, focusing on the main content of Air Force Quantum 5.0, an innovative task for ROKAF from the perspective of smart national defense innovation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution(4IR) era. The main contents of the 4IR and the concept of space power dealt with in Air Force Quantum 5.0 were set as the scope of research. Method: For better analysis, as part of case studies, the article is to analyze literature with a focus on research analysis materials regarding the concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, policy reports on Air Force Quantum 5.0 promoted by the ROKAF, and academic papers. Results: It is required for the ROKAF to establish an advanced power system for aerospace operations in response to future warfare, such as securing key leading technologies for weapon systems using 4IR technologies, identifying military capabilities and core forces, reflecting them in the future force integration, and promoting civil-military R&D cooperation systems. It also needs to establish a space command and take the lead in the future joint battlefield area in order to establish itself as a space powerhouse like the surrounding powers, including the United States and China. Conclusion: This article concluded that in order for the ROKAF to further respond to uncertain security threats, consider work innovation and combat power enhancement, overcome increasing challenge factors such as the deepening shortages of military service resources, and adapt to the future battle field environment, advanced 4IR technologies should be applied in all branches of the air force to ensure the military remains sophisticated and intelligent, and to speed up the promotion of high-efficient aerospace operation systems and defense operation environment.
    Keyword:Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Defense Innovation, Space Security, Aerospace Power, Air Force Quantum 5.0
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the main presentations, ideas and classifications of the new wars that have occurred during these first years of the 21st century, and what will be the nature, type and / or classification of the warlike conflagrations that they will have to happen in the coming years of this century, these conflicts are a sample of the level of evolution of political, strategic, economic, military, diplomatic and cultural thought in society. Method: This converges three research methods: 1)Qualitative research focusing on the research process 2)Literature research according to the characteristics of the purpose 3)Technical research on the level of knowledge achieved. It is a qualitative study that analyzes the way war progresses and the evolution of political-strategic thinking, and this approach allows us to visualize the future of warfare in the 21st century and how it will be used. Results: Humanity faces a revolution in strategic thinking, characterized by military actions that are displaced from their main and directing role in the course of the war, giving rise to different types of warfare planned with the common denominator of using integrated attacks, aimed at exploiting different sources of vulnerabilities, facilitating the exploitation of more and more non-military measures, including economic reprisals, propaganda, political subversion and the use of the media of social communication and mainly cyberspace, this being a real new form of warfare. Conclusion: The new wars of the 21st century are being presented with new multi-causal characteristics(violent, interactive nature and ideological foundation), another characteristic of these multidimensional conflicts is their way of waging war, the participation of new non-state actors, non-military third parties but with interests and active participation in war actions, facilitating the use of asymmetries, a mixture of all the old characteristics, imply new terms such as hybrid and fifth generation wars.
    Keyword:Map of Violence, War, Asymmetric, Hybrid, Unrestricted
  • Purpose: This study aims to analyze the wins and losses of the war through major battles of the First Chechen War and find implications for understanding the continuously evolving modern warfare (conflict) and establishing readiness for it. From the results of the win-loss analysis of the various battles, we want to learn how the weak against the strong should prepare for the battle. In addition, based on the understanding of how to conduct combat under the division level and the results, we would like to gain implications in establishing the direction of education and training for the Korean military. Method: The main battle of the First Chechen War was analyzed to derive a lesson about the war. To this end, the battle of Gudermes, Bamut, and Yarshymardy, which were the fiercest battles of the Chechen War, was selected to analyze the victory and defeat in terms of combat history. The Battle of Gudermes and the Battle of Bamut were analyzed from the perspective of Russia, while the Battle of Yarshymardy was analyzed from the perspective of Chechen to draw lessons. Results: Russia failed to lead to victory and ended in a cease-fire despite the large deployment of troops and equip-ment in the First Chechen War. They suffered from lack of preparation for the war, soldiers' posture in battle, and lack of tactics, hurting their pride as a powerful nation. On the other hand, Chechen forces fought a decisive battle to build their own independent nation despite the difficulties and tried to overcome the inferiority of their forces. The Chechen military's decisive battle caused a lot of damage against the Russian army and eventually resulted in a ceasefire. Conclusion: The main battles of the First Chechen War shows what the consequences will be if pursued without preparation only based on the logic of politics and power. And it also shows how an underdog can lead an unfavorable situation to its advantage. The security situation on the Korean Peninsula is that South Korea confronts North Korea and is surrounded by major powers. In this situation, we can look back on our reality and get the practical implications necessary to prepare for the changing modern warfare and the future battlefield.
    Keyword:First Chechen War, Winning and Losing Factors, War History, Chechen Military, Russian Military