Effect of the KOREAN Adult TAEKWONDO Trainees' Physical Self Efficacy on the Quality of Life
Previous studies for facilitating the adult Taekwondo to date have focused on the development of adult Taekwondo training programs and diverse marketing strategies, yet lack studies on the academic approaches to the trainees’ behavioral characteristics such as the effect and value of the adult Taekwondo training.
Examining the previous studies on the physical self-efficacy of the participants in various sports, there are implications that there is a relationship between the physical efficacy and the quality of life.
Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the physical self-efficacy of adult Taekwondo trainees on the quality of life at the present point in time when the roles of physical recreational activities are diversely expanding, verify the value and effect of Taekwondo training as a recreational activity for adults, and provide the foundational data necessary for facilitating adult Taekwondo along with building a theoretical frame-work for the practical areas for the adults’ participation in Taekwondo training.
To this end, we have collected data of 300 copies on Taekwondo trainees of age 19 or older residing in Daegu and Gyeongbu regions of the Republic of Korea as of 2018, and the final 209 copies of data were used for the actual analysis. As for the data processing method, SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used to perform the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and the multiple regression analysis, respectively, to arrive at the following results.
First, physical attractiveness among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the family’s cohesion and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life.
Second, physical confidence among the physical self efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self, family’s cohesion, and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life.
Third, physical strength among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self among the subfactors of the quality of life.
That is, a continuous Taekwondo training induces positive changes in the physical self-efficacy for adults, whereby more positive results for their bodies can be expected. Accordingly, it helps to produce a healthy body and realize self in a balanced manner based on the effects of the health maintenance and fitness improvement, thereby implying that the desire for the quality of a happy life within daily life can be raised.
Purpose: This study revealed the effect of taekwondo leaders' sympathy on athletic performance perceived as immersive. Corona 19 has increased anxiety due to abandonment of the university(exercise) due to the cancellation of the tournament. Attempts to provide materials. Method: Players(Kyoruki, Poomsae, demo) who participated in the tournament sponsored by the Korea Taekwondo Association(19th Korea Taekwondo Association President's Cup, 2022 National Taekwondo Champi-onship) for about one month from February to March 2022. A recruitment team was selected in, and a questionnaire was distributed, and a total of 278 copies were used for the final analysis. After explaining the purpose and purpose of this study to the players, questionnaires were distributed. As a data processing method, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiplex, and simple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 21.0, and the following conclusions were drawn based on the results. Results: First, it was found that the sympathy of taekwondo leaders had a significant effect on exercise immersion. Second, the sympathy of taekwondo leaders has been shown to have a significant effect on perceived competitiveness. Third, it was shown that exercise immersion has a significant effect on perceived competitiveness. Conclusion: First, since this study was conducted with players participating in the tournament from February to March 2022, it is somewhat difficult to generalize. Second, since this study was conducted with athletes participating in the official competition hosted by the Korea Taekwondo Association, it is somewhat difficult to generalize to the public confidence of all leaders. Therefore, in follow-up studies, it is judged that more diverse results will be obtained if a long period of time is selected and the study is conducted.Keyword:Mutual Credibility, Exercise Immersion, Recognized Competitiveness, Taekwondo, Leaders
The Effects of Short-Term Weight Loss on Body Composition, Blood Electrolytes, and Immunoglobulin Concentrations among Ordinary Judo Athletes and Excellent Judo AthletesPurpose: While electrolytes and immunity are highlighted as important in terms of the relationship between health and physical activity, immunoglobulin plays such a decisive role in the immune function that defends the human body, and it occurs in multiple tissues, such as the skin, lungs, blood, muscle, etc., affecting an increased risk of infection, including sleep deprivation, mental stress, malnutrition, and weight loss. Hence, this study was conducted to examine the effect of short-term weight loss on body composition and blood electrolyte and immunoglobulin concentrations among non-excellent and excellent Judo athletes. Method: The subjects of this study were 14 male athletes who were currently active as Judo athletes at university and had over 5 years of athlete experience and weight loss experience. For the statistical processing of this study, the mean and standard deviation for each item were calculated using the SPSS 12.0 statistical program, and the Two-way repeated ANOVA was performed according to group(non-excellent athlete and excellent athlete) and time (before the weight loss, 6 days after the weight loss, immediately after the competition, 30 minutes recovery period), and in the case of an interaction effect, the post-test was conducted by contrast test for each period and paired t-test for each period. Results: The changes in body weight(A), total weight without fat(B), and body fat percentage(C) are demon-strated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes in the recovery period(A). In terms of the change of body weight over time by group(A), both groups significantly decreased(p<.001) at the weight loss(6 days after) compared to before the weight loss. The changes in Ca(A), Na(B), K(C) and Mg(D) before and after the weight loss(6 days after), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes of recovery are demonstrated. Comparing the change(A) of Ca between groups by group, both groups significantly decreased during the reduction period compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). The changes in IgA (A), changes in IgG(B), changes in IgM(C) and changes in IgD(D) are demonstrated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and after 30 minutes of recovery. Comparing the change in IgA between the periods by group, there was a significant increase in the excessive weight loss(after 6 days) in the excellent athlete group compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). Conclusion: Weight loss is considered to have a negative impact on performance improvement and affect the prematch condition and performance. Based on the results of this study, the scientific weight loss methods and appropriate short- and long-term weight loss will serve as the important basic data for further research to improve the athletic performance among the athletes of weight class.Keyword:Judo Athlete, Weight Loss, Body Composition, Blood Electrolyte, Immunoglobulin
The Relationship Among Social Support, Career Adaptability, Psychological Capital and Career Preparation Behavior of Judo Kata MajorPurpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior of the majored in Judo kata in 2021.To achieve the purpose of this study, the following detailed goals were set. Method: This study collected data from students who completed Judo kata class among students majoring in Judo kata in 2021 to investigate the relationship between Judo kata major's social support, career adaptability, psychological capital and career preparation behavior The data were collected by the researcher in the class of judo kata major after the guidance professor of the university Judo kata explained the purpose and purpose of the study in advance and received permission to collect the data. The data used in the actual analysis was 480 copies in a row, or the contents of the questionnaire were partially omitted. 78 questionnaires were excluded. Results: Therefore, universities need to introduce and implement various career preparation programs to in-crease students' psychological capital and actively implement information collection for their careers to achieve their goals. If they can invest time in consultation rather than interest or support for students, or provide financial support, they will be able to prepare for proper career. Conclusion: In relation to social support and career, environmental factors and educational considerations should be followed up on other departments, and social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior according to martial arts or physical education departments should be conducted more reliable research.Keyword:Judo Kata, Social Support, Career Adaptation, Psychological Capital, Career Preparation Behavior
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the cultural base of the Three Taegeuk in depth in Subak, karate(dangsu), Goryeo, Joseon, and Ryukyuguk, and to present the identity of the historical and cultural aspects of Taekwondo. Method: The method of this study was to examine and analyze the cultural base of Taekwondo of Subak and karate in depth, to present the identity of Taekwondo in the historical and cultural aspects, and to present the traditionality and legitimacy of Taekwondo in the national flag. Results: The re-establishment of Taekwondo is essential due to the theory of origin of Okinawa, but most Taekwondo people lack the recognition of historicality. Okinawa had close interaction with us in the Joseon Dynasty. This means that there are some reliably authentic documents and relics that are related to Subaks and party Subaks, that is, there should be an in-depth analysis on the historical recognition of the origin theory of Taekwondo in Okinawa. This can be a medium to open historical horizons to Taekwondo people. Conclusion: The re-establishment of Taekwondo is essential due to the origin of Taekwondo in Okinawa, but most Taekwondo people are very lacking in historical awareness. Okinawa had close exchanges with us during the Joseon Dynasty, and when we saw it, there were credible ancient documents and artifacts that were related to Subaks and party trees. If Taekwondo academics do not present this, and go to this state, it may bring about a crisis of identity for the national Taekwondo physical education culture. Therefore, there should be a clear argument and a clear argument about Taekwondo history of Taekwondo history. Furthermore, we can present the right historical values and instill the right Taekwondo history education to our descendants.Keyword:Taekwondo, Okinawa, Circular, Body Culture, Karate
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the appropriate qualities of the Taekwondo Demonstration Team leader, identify the effect of the leader's leadership style on the leader's image and trust, and provide the basic data for the research promoting the development of the Taekwondo Demonstration Team. Method: As for the subjects of this study, 7 universities that operate the Taekwondo Demonstration Team were selected, 217 copies were collected by using the convenience sampling method from university students who are participating in the Demonstration Team. In response, 210 copies of data were analyzed except for 7, which had low reliability. Two hundred and ten copies of the collected data were analyzed by using SPSS 23.0. Frequency analysis was performed to examine and understand the general characteristics of the participants, and the ex-ploratory factor analysis and factor-specific reliability(Cronbach's alpha) were calculated to verify the validity and reliability of the measurement tool. Results: A total of 29 questions were used, and the response form of the questionnaire was measured on a Likert 5-point scale. As illustrated inKeyword:Leadership, Taekwondo, Leader’s Image, Trust, Taekwondo Demonstration
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for the prevention of sports injuries in Taekwondo Poomsae athletes by investigating and analyzing sports injuries. Method: This study, a survey was conducted to study the condition of sports injuries targeting Taekwondo Poomsae players. A total of 144 subjects were included in the study, including 72 males and 72 females. The experience was classified into 55 people with less than 3 years of experience, 42 people with 4-5 years of experience, and 47 people with more than 6 years of experience. As a research tool, questionnaires were obtained from participating athletes registered with the Korea Taekwondo Association and used to investigate the actual sports injuries of Taekwondo Poomsae athletes. The questionnaire was constructed and used for demographic characteristics and sports injuries. Results: As a result of examining Taekwondo Poomsae athletes' experience with sports injuries within the past year, 121 out of 144 athletes answered that they had experienced, and 23 athletes answered that they had never experienced it. As a result of cross-analysis between the sexes concerning whether the athletes experienced sports injuries, there was a significant(p=.000) difference. As a result of analyzing sports injuries that occurred during competition and training, by gender, 10 male(100%) and 14 female(58.3.4%) athletes experienced injuries during training, respectively, and both during training and competition. The number of experienced players was 48 male(45.3%) and 58 female(54.7%). As a result of cross-analysis, there was a significant difference(p=.001). As a result of analyzing the frequency of sports injuries according to the gender of Taekwondo athletes, it was found that both male and female athletes suffered the most sports injuries in the order of ankle, knee, waist, and foot. As a result of analyzing the frequency of sports injuries according to the gender of Taekwondo athletes, the ham-string and waist were the most damaged in both male and female athletes. Conclusion: Taekwondo Poomsae athletes experienced sports injuries, and it was found that injuries occurred a lot during training. In addition, the injured joints were found in the order of ankle, knee, and waist in both men and women, and the hamstring was the most common muscle in both men and women.Keyword:Taekwondo, Sports Injuries, Poomsae, Joint and Muscle Injuries, Career
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for technical performance by analyzing and presenting the differences in major kinematic factors in the jumping phase, flight phase, and finally striking phase for national team and non-national team male demonstration members. Method: As for the subjects of this study, 6 members of the national team and 6 members of the non-national team who had more than 3 years of demonstration experience were selected and tested. Before entering the experiment, a consent was secured from each subject, the experimental procedure was explained, and kinematic data were collected by using 14 high-speed digital cameras. For the statistical processing of this study, the mean and standard deviation (M±SD) were calculated by using Excel 2018, and the statistical program (SPSS 22.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to verify the difference in kinematic variables of dwigongjungdorachagi motion. The Shapiro-Wilk verification was conducted to confirm the normality of the collected data, and according to the results, an independent sample test (independent t-test), test (Mann-Whitney U-test), and the correlation analysis were performed. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in P3 (p<.05) of the required time phase. There was a statistically significant difference in E4 (p<.05) of the (Z) movement displacements. There was a statistically significant difference in the right E4 (p<.05) of the right ankle joint angle. The correlation coefficient between the body center’s displacement and flight time showed a high correlation and showed a statistically significant difference (r=.953, P=.001). The correlation coefficient between the angular velocity and the body center’s displacement showed a high correlation and showed a statistically significant difference (r=.809, p=.001). The correlation coefficient between the angular velocity and flight time showed a high correlation and a statistically significant difference (r=.809, p=.001). Conclusion: As a result of the experiment, the swing speed of the arm and the angle of the knee joint before jumping during dwigongjungdorachagi provided a great force to project the human body into the air and also had the effect of increasing vertical ascent. Hence, it is apparent that the coordination of movements is a very important factor.Keyword:Dwigongjungdorachagi, Center of Mass, Time Required, Angle, Velocity
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the essential Poomsae difficulty of Taekwondo 9th level Dan promotion test with the awareness of the problem. This will help standardize the Taekwondo curriculum in order to meet the Taekwondo education goals pursued by the Kukkiwon, the headquarters of the World Taekwondo. Method: The literature research and in-depth interviews with people to be tested were performed to analyze the difficulty of essential Poomsae of Taekwondo 9th Dan promotion test. Results: As a result of questioning and analyzing the level of difficulty of the 9th level Dan promotion winner, it was concluded that the level of difficulty of Illyo Poomsae of the 9th level Dan promotion test is not appropriate.Courses to be completed for Color and Black Belts must comply with the completion time of the essential course and the selection course. Basic courses for Black Belt (Poomsae, breaking, sparring, and KTA personality) must be completed as mandatory courses, and in-depth courses (KTA self-defence techniques, KTA practical hand skills, and KTA core exercises) must be assigned. Conclusion: It is thought that Taekwondo 9th level Dan, the highest stage of the competition held at the Kukkiwon of the World Taekwondo Headquarters, should be educated to learn, guide, and evaluate Taekwondo according to the standard curriculum. However, the standardized Taekwondo curriculum should be distributed in consideration of the current Taekwondo training population, where the standardized Taekwondo curriculum has not been established. Taekwondo leaders will contribute to the educational use of Taekwondo by analyzing the essential Poomsae and curriculum of Taekwondo 9th level Dan promotion test and presenting the evaluation rules based on the Taekwondo standard curriculum.Keyword:Taekwondo, Taekwondo Promotion Test, Poomsae, Kukkiwon, Grand Masters
The Effect of the Leader's View of Education Perceived by Taekwondo Practitioners on the Emotional Reaction and Educational ImpactPurpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and understand the influence of the Taekwondo leaders' view of education on the emotional reaction and educational impact of the practitioners, and provide the basic data for developing an educational program for the practical education of Taekwondo and the efficient management of Taekwondo. Method: In this study, 230 Taekwondo studio practitioners were surveyed in 2021 and the convenience sampling was used for the sampling method, while the survey was conducted by using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 218 questionnaires were used as the valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the details of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing is the SPSS 23.0 Program, a statistical package program, and the frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and the multiple regression were used. Results: In this study, as a result of the factor analysis and reliability verification performed, view of education was classified into liberal factors (α=.947) and conservative factors (.856), and emotional reaction was classified into positive factors (α=.943) and negative factors ( α=.892), while educational impact was classified into physical factors (α=.953) and emotional factors (α=.968). Furthermore, the effect of view of education on the emotional reaction and educational impact is such that view of education (liberal factor and conservative factor) influences the emotional reaction (positive factor and negative factor), and the view of education (liberal factor and conservative factor) influences the educational impact (physical factor and emotional factor), while the emotional reaction (positive factors, negative factors) influences the educational impact (physical factor and emotional factor). Conclusion: The conclusion obtained from undergoing the research process is that the Taekwondo leader's view of education influences the emotional reaction and educational impact of practitioners, and the Taekwondo leaders would need to have the correct view of education and the view of education reflective of the current trend and the needs and desires of practitioners, and based on which, they ought to strive not only to increase the positive emotions and decrease the negative emotions, but also improve the physical and emotional health of the practitioners.Keyword:Taekwondo, Practitioners, Leader’s View of Education, Emotional Reaction, Educational Impact
Purpose: Martial arts can be related to the scientificization of the sporting process in the case of the body and the scientificization of the mind in the case of the mind, considering the two major flows of training the body and mind. Method: Scientificization related to physical training can promote future-oriented sports science with activation of convergence based on existing sports science, and cultivation of the mind can suggest scientificization to pursue new areas of philosophical thinking and the spiritual world. Therefore, based on the holistic training for the training of body and mind, it is made up of an academic approach for comprehensive scientificization. In the course of attempts for academic development and social contribution, various fields of science are promoting field-oriented basic guidelines, systematic review, high-level technology and qualitative evaluation, along with efforts to find evidence-based principles. Results: Martial arts activities are carried out in the form of sports activities, promoting optimization and maximization of physical fitness and technical factors, and are based on related physiology, nutrition, epidemiology, psychology, sociology, motor control and learning. In addition, the academic approach of sports science, including the physical conditioning and training theory of athletes, and industrial and environmental engineering related to efficient facilities, equipment, implement, and environment, will be the main content. Conclusion: The scientific approach for the future-oriented activation of martial arts requires the establishment of an intensive scientific support system for concrete scientificization in terms of the practical value and utilization of martial arts activities based on the establishment of academic identity. In addition, for the science of martial arts, it is necessary to promote advanced convergence science, globalization centered on trends and popularity in Korea, systematic nurturing of research personnel related to martial arts sports, establishment of a cluster of martial arts sports-related infrastructure, and popularization and industrialization of martial arts sports.Keyword:Martial Arts, Scientific Development, Academic Development, Body, Mind