Analysis and Suggestions of KOREAN Junior High School MARTIAL ARTS Curriculum
In terms of the changes in the physical education curriculum, it had not had systematic curriculum until it established the 1st curriculum under the US armed forces. The 1st curriculum was enacted on August 1, 1955, and the 2nd curriculum in 1963, the 3rd curriculum in 1973, the 4th curriculum in 1981, the 5th curriculum in 1987, the 6th curriculum in 1992, and the 7th curriculum was revised in 1997 and operated until 2007. After this, while the 7th curriculum has been maintained in the 2007 revision curriculum, in which junior high schools changed their differentiated curriculum into differentiated instruction, also the divisions such as "step by step type" or "intense and supplementary type" were abolished. Since the intensive classes have been strengthened, classes have become available for each semester. However, the hours of alternative course were reduced by the five-day school week.
The martial arts education of Korean junior high schools started to appear from the 3rd physical education curriculum, operated as physical arts from the first grade to the third grade of junior high school. The contents of physical education curriculum were different for boys and girls, for example, soccer and physical matches were only for boys, dance was for girls only, and gymnastics was clearly distinguished for boys' and girls'.
The junior high school martial arts education is a challenging activity among five contents areas(health activities, challenging activities, competitive activities, expression activities, leisure activities) in the 2007 revised physical education and curriculum, and is an activity to challenge the physical skill of others who are moving, which includes sports like ssireum, taekwondo, and kendo. However, due to the nature of martial arts education, it is difficult to achieve the learning goals because of the lack of instructors and martial arts classes based on the educational curriculum.
The martial arts occupy an important area as not only a mental education for human formation but also fitness training for a physical education. In other words, martial arts are appreciated by training the body to improve physical fitness and health, and as a self-defense to protect oneself. Therefore, it is necessary to con-struct systematically in order to achieve the goal of martial arts education of Korean junior high school as follows.
1) The martial arts education in the school should be systematically organized by the annual plan.
2) It is necessary to expand the professional manpower who are in charge of martial arts education at school.
3) Organize the martial arts education systematically according to the level of the students and conduct them in a step-by-step manner so as to acquire the ability to protect oneself from danger.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the martial arts curriculum of Korean junior high schools and to under-stand the martial arts spirit, which will help the martial arts operate systematically in the physical education curriculum.
This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products.
A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20.
The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products.
On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively.
Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
Purpose: The growing number of youth Taekwondo practitioners gives them the opportunity to live a mentally and physically healthy life by learning not only the techniques of Taekwondo, but also the theory and the mind. The goal of this study is to look into ways to expand and revitalize the youth Taekwondo training population, as well as to provide basic data. Method: The electronic literature platform search was used for the research method and data collection method used to achieve the purpose of this study. After reconfirming the title and summary of each literature, the literature judged to be highly relevant to this study was finally chosen, and its validity as data was verified using triangulation with a peer expert group. Results: To revitalize youth Taekwondo, a year must be set aside to actively and extensively promote "interesting and fun Taekwondo" for youth, educate leaders about current youth popular culture, develop instructional methods, and hold Taekwondo competitions. Various competitions are held in accordance with the sports policy, including group exhibitions for underprivileged youth and women's group competitions, so it should be reviewed on a long-term basis in accordance with the understanding of sociality and the flow of popular culture. ‘Forgery’ is the conduct of fabricating non-existing data or research outcome and recording or reporting them as true and existing. Conclusion: It is critical to continue to focus on the vitalization of youth Taekwondo, and understanding and accepting youth popular culture will aid in revitalizing youth Taekwondo. It is interpreted as a problem of acceptance and convergence, and it is thought that efforts should be made to support it, develop a Taekwondo training program, and nurture professional leaders, according to the flow of popular culture.Keyword:Youth, Taekwondo, Sports, Pop Culture, Activation
Analysis of the Use of Defense Techniques of Korean JUDO Athletes According to their Gender and GradePurpose: This study aims to prepare academic foundations and evidence for judo and explore changes in judo technique use according to middle school, high school, and college judo athletes' winning experience and experience of being selected as representative athletes. Method: In order to achieve the purpose of this study, frequency analysis was conducted to identify the general characteristics of the study subjects, and Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to obtain the reliability value of the survey. In addition, t-test and One Way ANOVA were conducted to find out the difference in defense techniques according to the player's gender and grade. Results: As a result of the study, there was no difference in gender in judo defense techniques, and there was a significant difference in hand technique, hip technique, foot technique, and defense technique according to the player's grade. Conclusion: As a result of this study, considering the difference in judo defense technique according to grade, hand technique and hip technique are evenly distributed in grade, and in the case of foot technique, the higher the grade, the difference in perception of defense technique appeared.Keyword:Judo, Defense Techniques, Age, Grade, Utilization Analysis
Status of the Implementation of Spectator’s Type TAEKWONDO Operation for Enhanced Interest in Taekwondo Competition : With a Focus on the Analysis of Perception of the KTA Power Taekwondo Premium LeaguePurpose: The public's perception of the KTA Power Taekwondo Premium League is examined and understood by using the big data analysis techniques to identify status of spectators type Taekwondo Method: text mining, sentimental analysis, and the semantic network analysis were performed to examine and understand the public's perception of the KTA Power Taekwondo League, which is undergoing promotion and operated to enhance the interest of Taekwondo games by using the big data analysis related techniques. Results: First, the Korea Taekwondo Association, which is the supervising organization of the KTA Power Taekwondo League, demonstrated the largest frequency and was derived as a primary keyword. Second, as a result of the sentimental analysis performed, the positive ratio(63.37%) turned out to be higher than the negative ratio(36.63%). Third, as a result of the semantic network analysis performed, it was verified that the keywords of the Korea Taekwondo Association, game, holding, power, competition, method, and Protector and scoring system were located at the center of the network and formed a discourse. Firth, as a result of the CONCOR analysis performed, ‘KTA Power Taekwondo demonstration,’ ‘competition holding 1,’ ‘competition holding 2,’ and ‘promotion of spectator type competition’ were formed into groups. This suggests that the interest and demand for the promotion and holding of the KTA Power Conclusion: In this study, the public's perception of the KTA Power Taekwondo Premium League is examined by using the big data analysis techniques. That is sought to provide the basic data on how to improve the Taekwondo competition method to increase the interest in Taekwondo.Keyword:Big Data, Text Mining, Sentiment Analysis, CONCOR Analysis, Taekwondo
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of the Poomsae competition among the athletes participating in the Free style Poomsae competition and explore future-oriented improvement measures based on this. Method: Accordingly examine the researchers collected data from the subjects through in-depth interviews, which is a qualitative research method, to achieve the purpose of the research. This led to a comprehensive conclusion. Results: First, the players said that the Free style Poomsae competition was important for the colorful and difficult acrobatic and technical kicks, which are different from the existing Poomsae. Secondly, the poor scoring of kicks required by the current the Free style Poomsae scoring system is causing difficulties for many players, as they are judged by the judge's subjective judgment on the field. Third, unlike authorized Poomsae because the frame is not set, the Free style Poomsae perform various techniques within the time limit. Fourth, he mentioned that the current international sports Poomsae competition has different directions, and that athletes are practicing skills with a lot of emphasis on acrobatic rather than preparing for two things. Fifth, for the revitalization of the freestyle Poomsae, the competition was the biggest. Conclusion: By lowering the barriers of scoring technology, the participation rate should be increased by creating the Free style Poomsae stadium culture where players of all ages can easily participate. If you can produce and participate in the competition by utilizing the spirit and traditional movements of Taekwondo, not by kicking, acrobatic, or gymnastic skills, it will greatly affect the participation rate of Poomsae competition.Keyword:Taekwondo, Free Style Poomsae, Perception, Improvement, Poomsae Players
Purpose: This study sought to analyze the American Taekwondo curriculum and standardize the American Taekwondo curriculum to ensure that it can meet the Taekwondo educational goals pursued by Kukkiwon, the world Taekwondo headquarters. The standardized American Taekwondo curriculum will contribute to the educational use of Taekwondo in the United States. Method: As one of the data collection methods to study social and cultural phenomena, the method of collecting necessary information through existing literature data was selected. This thesis was approached as a qualitative research method that collects data and interprets the meaning of the phenomenon through the intuitive insight of the researcher. Results: The world Taekwondo headquarters, Kukkiwon dispatches the Kukkiwon masters to 53 countries to teach and evaluate Taekwondo according to the standard curriculum. However, the US does not currently have a Kukkiwon master dispatched. Moving forward, the Kukkiwon masters should be dispatched to supply the standard curriculum relative to the Taekwondo training population. The “Taekwondo Standard Curriculum” presented by Kukkiwon and the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2019 divided the subjects to be completed by the non-Poom-and-Dan-holders and Poom and Dan holders into the mandatory and optional courses. 1) Non-Poom-and-Dan-holders must complete the training period(40 hours x 9 levels = 360 hours) for 40 hours of unit time for each level from level 1 through level 9, respectively. 2) As for 1 Poom and Dan holders, the time of completion for each unit is 80 hours, with the time of completion for the training period(80 hours x 3 units = 240 hours), and as for 2 Poom and Dan holders, the time of completion for each unit is 80 hours, with the time of completion for the training period(80 hours x 6 units = 480 hours), as for 3 Poom and Dan holders, the time of completion for each unit is 80 hours, with the time of completion for the training period(80 hours x 9 units = 720 hours), and as for 4 Poom and Dan holders, the time of completion for each unit is 80 hours, with the time of completion for the training period(80 hours x 12 units = 960 hours) are required, respectively. Conclusion: That is, for the Taekwondo curriculum, the trainees should not only comply with the period required after the promotion of Poom and Dan, but also should be required to complete the mandatory training time, thereby making it an even more effective approach toward achieving the educational goal of Taekwondo.Keyword:Taekwondo, Curriculum, History, Grandmaster, Subject
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore essential technical training plans for Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae and present systematic and specialized training plans to instructors. In order to achieve this research purpose, this study was conducted using a qualitative approach. Method: The purpose of this study is to explore essential technical training plans for Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae and present systematic and specialized training plans to instructors. In order to achieve this research purpose, this study was conducted using a qualitative approach of literature review and in-depth interviews. Results : First, 1)jump side kick(Leap training using high speed, obstacle crossing training, and repetitive exercise to raise one's leaping foot to the thigh) 2)jump front kick(Training of kicking the first foot at the same time of the leap, the snap kick training in a sitting position, and the training to hit a target) 3)rotating kick(Stride training, holding the axis of rotation training, two-way rotation training) 4)consecutive sparring kick(Step training using a jump rope, repeating knee raising training, and various tactical training in actual sparring competitions) 5)acrobatic movements(Handstand training and training for using the strength of the upper body with push-ups). Second, as training for injury prevention, leap, and landing, strength exercises(squats, conventional deadlift, leg press) to improve posture balance and irregular physical training that changes heart rate to check the heart rate of actual compe-tition situations are to be conducted. Third, efforts should be made to create a stable training environment for freestyle Poomsae training by providing equipment and tools such as air mats and landing mats for the athletes to stably train essential skills of freestyle Poomsae. Conclusion: For each of the five essential skills of Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae, an efficient training method suitable for the characteristics of the skill is needed. In addition, players and instructors who train freestyle Poomsae need to improve their posture balance through training on high leaps and landing to prevent injuries. In addition, it is important to create a training environment suitable for the characteristics of the event for efficient training of freestyle Poomsae athletes.Keyword:Taekwondo, Freestyle Poomsae, Essential Skills, Training Program, Poomsae Players
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the leaders of Taekwondo to plan effectively their training programs by practically analyzing the training satisfaction and training continuation of the trainees according to the training program for the trainees who are practicing Taekwondo. Method: The subjects are elementary school 4-6 graders, middle school students, and high school students who are training Taekwondo in Jeon-la Province, and the total number of subjects are 305, and the data was processed through frequency analysis, independent t-test, One-Way ANOVA, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis, and the result is as follows. Results: First, regarding the satisfaction of training according to gender, women was higher than men at Taekwondo and body strength(p<.01), (p<.05). Regarding the satisfaction of training according to training period, the trainees who trained for less than 1 year was higher than the trainees who trained for more than 3 years at personality and leadership(p<.05). Regarding the satisfaction of training according to the objective of training, It was higher than the development of character at body strength(p<.05). Second, regarding the continuation of training according to having official grade, the trainees who have the official grade was higher than the trainees who was delayed at the will of conveying the know-how(p<.05). Regarding the continuation of training according to training period, the trainees who trained less than 1 year was higher than the trainees who trained more than 3 years at the will of conveying the know-how(p<.05). Third, regarding to the correlation between satisfaction and continuation of training according to Taekwondo training program, satisfaction of training showed statistically meaningful positive effect to continuation of training(p<.001). Fourth, regarding to satisfaction of training according to Taekwondo training program, Taekwondo, body strength, and leadership showed statistically meaningful positive effect at every lower grade factor of continuation of training, and personality showed statistically meaningful positive effect at the will of recommendation and the will of conveying know-how. Conclusion: Regarding to the correlation between satisfaction and continuation of training according to Taekwondo training program, satisfaction of training showed statistically meaningful positive effect to continuation of training. regarding to satisfaction of training ac-cording to Taekwondo training program, Taekwondo, body strength, and leadership showed statistically meaningful positive effect at every lower grade factor of continuation of training, and personality showed statistically meaningful positive effect at the will of recommendation and the will of conveying know how.Keyword:Training Satisfaction, Training Continuation, Taekwondo, Training Program, Trainee
Comparison of Physical Strength Characteristics According to Performance Level of University TAEKWONDO DEMONSTRATION MajorsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on physical fitness training to improve the performance of Taekwondo demonstration majors by identifying the characteristics of physical fitness factors according to the performance level of university Taekwondo demonstration members. Method: The subjects of this study are Taekwondo demonstration members enrolled in K University located in D city. The differences in body structure, physical fitness factors, isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint, and anaerobic exercise capacity were compared and analyzed for 3 male students in the national demonstration group and 3 male students in the general demonstration group. Results: As a result of measurement of body structure, physical fitness factors, isokinetic muscle function, and anaerobic exercise capacity of the national demonstration team and general students, there was no statistically significant difference between groups. However, through the results of this study, it was confirmed that the ratio of flexor and extensor muscles needs to be improved to an ideal ratio of 55% to 65% as suggested in previous studies to prevent damage to the lower extremities of general students. In addition, the standing long jump and sargent jump, side step, eyes closed and one leg standing, and knee joint isokinetic muscle power showed a higher tendency in the national demonstration group compared to the general students. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the measurement results of anaerobic exercise capacity. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is thought that it will be difficult to present the characteristics of the physical fitness factors according to the performance level of Taekwondo demonstration majors. However, considering the results of many previous studies and this study, it is thought that efforts to improve agility, power, and balance ability are needed to improve the performance of Taekwondo demonstration majors. It is judged that improvement of the flexion muscle/extension muscle ratio of the lower extremities is necessary to prevent additional injuries.Keyword:Taekwondo Demonstration, Performance, Physical Fitness Factors, Isokinetic Muscle Function, Anaerobic Exercise Capacity
A Study on the Verification of Competency Management Factors of College TAEKWONDO Athletes and Strategies for Improving PerformancePurpose: The purpose of this study is, as a previous study to help prepare specific goals and plans for the university students of Taekwondo major, is to identify and analyze the major areas of interest and their extent of interest for the underclassmen university students in Taekwondo major. Method: To examine and understand the area of interest and the extent of interest of the university students of Taekwondo major, this study produced and conducted an open-ended survey questionnaire regarding religion, hobbies, Taekwondo major’s area of interest, and future hopes. As for the data collected based on the questionnaires, the SPSS 26.0 program was used. The frequency analysis was performed to analyze the general characteristics of the study participants and the extent of interest of their area of interest, and the data collected via the open-ended questionnaire were subjected to the inductive content analysis. Results: First, as a result of the inductive content analysis performed of the extent of interest for the hobby activities of the university students of Taekwondo major, the hobby activities were structured into 18 sub-areas, and the 18 sub-areas were further classified into the 5 general areas of physical activity(206), media activity(54), social group activity(37), literary activity(26), and others(6), respectively. In the general area, physical activity(62.61%) turned out to have the largest rate, followed by media activity(16.41%), social group activity(11.25%), and liter-ary activity(7.9%), in terms of the extent of interest hobbies, respectively. Second, the first year and second year university students of Taekwondo major who analyzed the Taekwondo major’s area of interest for the extent of interest of the university students of Taekwondo major turned out to have demonstration being the largest with 42 people(45.3%) among the 3 areas of Taekwondo of Poomsae, Sparring, and Demonstration, with 35 people(36.8%) for Poomsae, and 17 people(17.9%) for Sparring. Conclusion: If the areas of interests of the underclassmen university students identified based on the results of this study were utilized as the basic data, it will be possible for the university students to present specific goals for their future career paths and occupations after graduation through their upperclassmen years.Keyword:University, Taekwondo, Major, Area of Interest, Extent of Interest
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze pparun bal dollyuchagi(fast spin kick) motion of Taekwondo players, divided as outstanding ones and unskilled ones, to provide kinematic information on Taekwondo kicks and pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and analyze differences in kicks between comparative groups. Method: The subjects of this study are Taekwondo players in their 20s who are attending the Taekwondo department at K University, five outstanding ones who have won prizes at domestic competitions and five unskilled ones who have not won competitions. Prior to the experiment, the subjects were asked for consent and explained how to proceed with the experiment. Kinematic data were collected using eight digital cameras. Statistical processing in this study was conducted using SPSS 22.0 software, and statistical analysis values were calculated as mean(M) and standard deviation(SD). An independent sample t-test was conducted to analyze the differences between groups, and the statistical significance probability was set to p<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the total execution time during the comparative analysis between the skilled and unskilled players of Jasebaqeo Pparunbal Dollyuchagi, and significant differences were found in the left and right variables of body center. Also, significant differences were found for each event in the hip, knee, and ankle joints of the lower extremities. Conclusion: According to the experiment, it is necessary to select an efficient hitting distance to improve the completeness of the pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and to hit the target, the width of the center of mass displacement on the left and right sides must be small and balanced without shaking. The knee joint and ankle joint should be quickly extended when striking a target, then vertically moved quickly to perform a perfect motion. This study is considered significant in that it provided fundamental data necessary for the efficient performance of kicks.Keyword:Kinematic, Pparun Ball Dollyuchagi, Center of Mass, Time Required, Angle