A Study on the Personality Development of Elementary School Students through HAPKIDO Training
Hankido is a martial art that is good for school children's physical activities. This is viewed as an attractive physical activity that can step up their emotional, social and intellectual development, provide physical education and help them to build up character to grow into good members of society. Accordingly, this study was imple-mented on the assumption that hapkido training would be of use for personality education for elementary school students.
The subjects in this study were 300 male and female elementary school students who were selected by random sampling from among the male and female trainees in 13 hapkido gyms located in the cities of Daejeon and Incheon. After a survey was conducted by this researcher, the answer sheets from 263 respondents were analyzed except for 37 ones that were incomplete or included unfaithful responses. This scale consisted of five areas and 16 items, which were four on etiquette, four on caring, four on emotion, two on personality and two on life habits.
In this study, what influence hapkido training exerted on the personality development of the elementary school students was analyzed. And the following conclusions were reached:
First, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to gender was analyzed. As a result, there were significant differences in caring among the subfactors. The boys were more caring than the girls.
Second, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to grade was analyzed. The third and fourth graders and the fifth and sixth graders were ahead of the first and second graders in terms of etiquette, personality and life habits, and the fifth and sixth graders excelled the first and second graders in emotion.
Third, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to training frequency was analyzed, and the group that trained three times or more a week were ahead of the group that trained three times or less in every variable that was etiquette, caring, emotion, personality and life habits.
Fourth, whether there were any differences among the school children who trained hapkido in personality development according to training experience was analyzed. As a result, the group that trained for one to four years were ahead of the group that trained for one year or less in terms of etiquette, emotion, personality and life habits, and the group that trained for two to four years were more caring than the group that trained for a year or less.
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Purpose: This study delves into the significance of Krav Maga training for enhancing self-defense abilities against indiscriminate violence, a societal issue impacting personal safety, and emphasizes its practicality in combination with the Israeli military combat system as a fundamental approach to applying martial arts for self-defense. The study seeks to reevaluate Krav Maga's pivotal role in bolstering self-defense against indiscriminate violence and to identify prospects for its future development. Method: The research method and data collection method to achieve the purpose of this study used electronic literature platform search. Validity as data was verified through triangulation. Results: Krav Maga is a practical and effective self-defense system that originated in Israel, initially developed for military use but later adapted for civilian self-defense. Martial arts for security, military martial arts, and police martial arts programs are presented as a vitalization plan. Conclusion: The revitalization plan for the Krav Maga program against indiscriminate violence can emphasize the importance of a tailored curriculum, certified instructors, scenario-based training, ethical considerations, periodic assessments and interdisciplinary collaborations, and empowers participants self-defense, bodyguards, soldiers and police. Training can be instilled with the aim of ensuring the ability to manage problems effectively in a variety of situations by equipping them with practical self-defense skills, legal awareness and enhanced situational preparedness.Keyword:Indiscriminate Violence, Krav Maga, Security Martial Arts, Military Martial Arts, Police Martial Arts
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the relationship between body and mind through the process of meditation, which is receiving increasing attention in modern times. This study will contribute to the educational utilization of martial arts in meditation by comparing and analyzing the relationship be-tween body and mind, identifying the body and mind as inseparable, and the training of the body as a technical means to improve the mind and personality. This will contribute to the educational utilization of martial arts in meditation. Method: As one of the data collection methods to study social and cultural phenomena, the method of collecting necessary information through existing literature data was selected. This was approached as a qualitative research method that collects data and interprets the meaning of the phenomenon through the intuitive insight of the researcher. Results: There are two types of meditation: static meditation and dynamic meditation. Static meditation is a seated, stationary practice that involves sitting in a certain posture and focusing your consciousness on a single thought, clearing your mind of distractions, and calming your mind. Dynamic meditation is a form of meditation that involves repetition of certain movements, such as walking or practicing martial arts, in which you imagine an area as a sanctuary and walk a certain distance every day without stopping. As you continue to perform physical exercises, the mind becomes increasingly unresponsive to external stimuli and focuses only on mental images. Repetitive physical exercises like this have the effect of meditation. In this way, practicing Taekwondo or the Chinese martial art of kung fu can have a meditative effect. The Taekwondo curriculum are consisted of 1)The trainees must perform repetitive movements through 360 hours of training 2)1 Dan/Poom holders require 240 hours of training, 2 Dan/Poom holders require 480 hours, 3Dan/Poom holders require 720 hours, 4 Dan/Poom holders require 960 hours, 5 Dan holders require 1200 hours, 6 Dan holders require 1440 hours, 7 Dan holders require 1680 hours, and 8 Dan holders require 2060 hours of training in nine years. These required hours are divided into units for repetitive training such as Poomsae, competition, defeat, character, self-defense, taekwondo physical fitness, taekwondo gymnastics, taekwondo demonstration, and core exercises. Conclusion: The study found that repetitive physical exercises make the mind increasingly unresponsive to external stimuli and focus on mental images. This has the effect of meditation, so martial arts training and meditation are closely related.Keyword:Meditation, Martial Arts, Taekwondo, Buddhism, Kung Fu
Purpose: In this study, it is intended to examine how the athlete's perception of referee's judgment affects game stress from the point of view of Taekwondo breaking athletes. Method: The participants in this study were 421 students who were enrolled in a university that had a Taekwondo demonstration team. As for the data collected in the questionnaire in this study, SPSS 27.0 was used to conduct descriptive statistics and frequency analysis to confirm the demographic characteristics of the research participants, and exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity of the survey tool. Results: The correlation coefficients between multiple factors were found to be statistically significant, but the correlation coefficients for some factors were not statistically significant. As a result of verifying the reliability of the factors, fairness .934, promptness .905, consistency .917, reliability .919, game stress .901, referee stress .870, which exceed .70, the criteria suggested by Nunnally and Bernstein(1994), and hence, the reliability of the extracted factor may be seen as suitable. Conclusion: First, the correlation coefficient turned out to be statistically significant, but not statistically significant in the game stress factor. Second, as a result of regression analysis on the effect of university Taekwondo breaking athletes' referee decision recognition on game stress, it turned out that there was no statistically significant effect on fairness, promptness, consistency, and reliability. Third, as a result of regression analysis on the effect of referee judgment perception of university Taekwondo breaking athletes on referee stress, it turned out that there was no statistically significant effect on all factors of fairness, promptness, consistency, and reliability.Keyword:Taekwondo, Breaking, Judgment, Recognition, Game Stress
Followership, Stress, Empowerment, and Organizational Commitment in Leaders of Korean Martial Arts AthletePurpose: Korean judo and taekwondo are traditional martial arts disciplines with strong track records at the Olympic and World Championships. Korean judo athletes have proven their international competitiveness by winning many medals for their technique and skill, while taekwondo has also won many medals and gained global recognition. South Korea's martial arts disciplines are grounded in tradition and philosophy, and continue to develop and advance through research and investment. Therefore, we wanted to explore the characteristics of martial arts practice through a survey of university student martial arts athlete in South Korea. Method: This study analyzed the general characteristics of the subjects, differences between variables, and cor-relations through frequency analysis, reliability verification, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, Factor Analysis, Correlation Analysis, and Simple Linear Regression Analysis of Korean martial arts athletes' questionnaires. , and the influence were explored and analyzed. Results: As a result of analyzing followership, stress, empowerment, and organizational commitment of Korean martial arts athletes, the Judo team had a statistically significantly higher followership in all items than the Taekwondo team, and the Judo team had statistically higher stress and empowerment in certain items than the Taekwondo team. was found to be significantly higher. Martial arts events and training starting point were not related to the leader's followership, and martial arts events and university grades were found to be correlated. As a result of the factor analysis, 1-2 sub-factors of followership, stress, empowerment, and organizational commitment were derived. As a result of the correlation analysis, leader followership was significantly correlated with organizational commitment and empowerment, and stress was significantly correlated with organizational commitment and empowerment. As a result of the simple linear regression analysis, it was found that the leader's followership affects organizational commitment and empowerment, and stress has a partial effect on organizational commitment. Conclusion: Compared to the Taekwondo team, the Korean Judo team showed higher levels of followership in all categories, and in some items, stress and empowerment were also higher, which can be explained by differences in martial arts training methods or leadership styles. Martial arts training starting point were not related to the leader's followership, but were found to be related to the university grade. From these results, it can be seen that martial arts and university grades should be considered when forming a team. In the martial arts training team, the leader's followership has a significant effect on organizational commitment and empowerment, and it can be said that stress is also related to organizational commitment. Therefore, the leader must properly adjust the followership style and consider stress management and organizational commitment.Keyword:Korean Martial Arts Athlete, Leader's Followership, Stress, Empowerment, Organizational Commitment
Purpose: This study revealed the effect of taekwondo leaders' sympathy on athletic performance perceived as immersive. Corona 19 has increased anxiety due to abandonment of the university(exercise) due to the cancellation of the tournament. Attempts to provide materials. Method: Players(Kyoruki, Poomsae, demo) who participated in the tournament sponsored by the Korea Taekwondo Association(19th Korea Taekwondo Association President's Cup, 2022 National Taekwondo Champi-onship) for about one month from February to March 2022. A recruitment team was selected in, and a questionnaire was distributed, and a total of 278 copies were used for the final analysis. After explaining the purpose and purpose of this study to the players, questionnaires were distributed. As a data processing method, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiplex, and simple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 21.0, and the following conclusions were drawn based on the results. Results: First, it was found that the sympathy of taekwondo leaders had a significant effect on exercise immersion. Second, the sympathy of taekwondo leaders has been shown to have a significant effect on perceived competitiveness. Third, it was shown that exercise immersion has a significant effect on perceived competitiveness. Conclusion: First, since this study was conducted with players participating in the tournament from February to March 2022, it is somewhat difficult to generalize. Second, since this study was conducted with athletes participating in the official competition hosted by the Korea Taekwondo Association, it is somewhat difficult to generalize to the public confidence of all leaders. Therefore, in follow-up studies, it is judged that more diverse results will be obtained if a long period of time is selected and the study is conducted.Keyword:Mutual Credibility, Exercise Immersion, Recognized Competitiveness, Taekwondo, Leaders
The Effects of Short-Term Weight Loss on Body Composition, Blood Electrolytes, and Immunoglobulin Concentrations among Ordinary Judo Athletes and Excellent Judo AthletesPurpose: While electrolytes and immunity are highlighted as important in terms of the relationship between health and physical activity, immunoglobulin plays such a decisive role in the immune function that defends the human body, and it occurs in multiple tissues, such as the skin, lungs, blood, muscle, etc., affecting an increased risk of infection, including sleep deprivation, mental stress, malnutrition, and weight loss. Hence, this study was conducted to examine the effect of short-term weight loss on body composition and blood electrolyte and immunoglobulin concentrations among non-excellent and excellent Judo athletes. Method: The subjects of this study were 14 male athletes who were currently active as Judo athletes at university and had over 5 years of athlete experience and weight loss experience. For the statistical processing of this study, the mean and standard deviation for each item were calculated using the SPSS 12.0 statistical program, and the Two-way repeated ANOVA was performed according to group(non-excellent athlete and excellent athlete) and time (before the weight loss, 6 days after the weight loss, immediately after the competition, 30 minutes recovery period), and in the case of an interaction effect, the post-test was conducted by contrast test for each period and paired t-test for each period. Results: The changes in body weight(A), total weight without fat(B), and body fat percentage(C) are demon-strated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes in the recovery period(A). In terms of the change of body weight over time by group(A), both groups significantly decreased(p<.001) at the weight loss(6 days after) compared to before the weight loss. The changes in Ca(A), Na(B), K(C) and Mg(D) before and after the weight loss(6 days after), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes of recovery are demonstrated. Comparing the change(A) of Ca between groups by group, both groups significantly decreased during the reduction period compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). The changes in IgA (A), changes in IgG(B), changes in IgM(C) and changes in IgD(D) are demonstrated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and after 30 minutes of recovery. Comparing the change in IgA between the periods by group, there was a significant increase in the excessive weight loss(after 6 days) in the excellent athlete group compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). Conclusion: Weight loss is considered to have a negative impact on performance improvement and affect the prematch condition and performance. Based on the results of this study, the scientific weight loss methods and appropriate short- and long-term weight loss will serve as the important basic data for further research to improve the athletic performance among the athletes of weight class.Keyword:Judo Athlete, Weight Loss, Body Composition, Blood Electrolyte, Immunoglobulin
The Relationship Among Social Support, Career Adaptability, Psychological Capital and Career Preparation Behavior of Judo Kata MajorPurpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior of the majored in Judo kata in 2021.To achieve the purpose of this study, the following detailed goals were set. Method: This study collected data from students who completed Judo kata class among students majoring in Judo kata in 2021 to investigate the relationship between Judo kata major's social support, career adaptability, psychological capital and career preparation behavior The data were collected by the researcher in the class of judo kata major after the guidance professor of the university Judo kata explained the purpose and purpose of the study in advance and received permission to collect the data. The data used in the actual analysis was 480 copies in a row, or the contents of the questionnaire were partially omitted. 78 questionnaires were excluded. Results: Therefore, universities need to introduce and implement various career preparation programs to in-crease students' psychological capital and actively implement information collection for their careers to achieve their goals. If they can invest time in consultation rather than interest or support for students, or provide financial support, they will be able to prepare for proper career. Conclusion: In relation to social support and career, environmental factors and educational considerations should be followed up on other departments, and social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior according to martial arts or physical education departments should be conducted more reliable research.Keyword:Judo Kata, Social Support, Career Adaptation, Psychological Capital, Career Preparation Behavior
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the cultural base of the Three Taegeuk in depth in Subak, karate(dangsu), Goryeo, Joseon, and Ryukyuguk, and to present the identity of the historical and cultural aspects of Taekwondo. Method: The method of this study was to examine and analyze the cultural base of Taekwondo of Subak and karate in depth, to present the identity of Taekwondo in the historical and cultural aspects, and to present the traditionality and legitimacy of Taekwondo in the national flag. Results: The re-establishment of Taekwondo is essential due to the theory of origin of Okinawa, but most Taekwondo people lack the recognition of historicality. Okinawa had close interaction with us in the Joseon Dynasty. This means that there are some reliably authentic documents and relics that are related to Subaks and party Subaks, that is, there should be an in-depth analysis on the historical recognition of the origin theory of Taekwondo in Okinawa. This can be a medium to open historical horizons to Taekwondo people. Conclusion: The re-establishment of Taekwondo is essential due to the origin of Taekwondo in Okinawa, but most Taekwondo people are very lacking in historical awareness. Okinawa had close exchanges with us during the Joseon Dynasty, and when we saw it, there were credible ancient documents and artifacts that were related to Subaks and party trees. If Taekwondo academics do not present this, and go to this state, it may bring about a crisis of identity for the national Taekwondo physical education culture. Therefore, there should be a clear argument and a clear argument about Taekwondo history of Taekwondo history. Furthermore, we can present the right historical values and instill the right Taekwondo history education to our descendants.Keyword:Taekwondo, Okinawa, Circular, Body Culture, Karate
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the appropriate qualities of the Taekwondo Demonstration Team leader, identify the effect of the leader's leadership style on the leader's image and trust, and provide the basic data for the research promoting the development of the Taekwondo Demonstration Team. Method: As for the subjects of this study, 7 universities that operate the Taekwondo Demonstration Team were selected, 217 copies were collected by using the convenience sampling method from university students who are participating in the Demonstration Team. In response, 210 copies of data were analyzed except for 7, which had low reliability. Two hundred and ten copies of the collected data were analyzed by using SPSS 23.0. Frequency analysis was performed to examine and understand the general characteristics of the participants, and the ex-ploratory factor analysis and factor-specific reliability(Cronbach's alpha) were calculated to verify the validity and reliability of the measurement tool. Results: A total of 29 questions were used, and the response form of the questionnaire was measured on a Likert 5-point scale. As illustrated inKeyword:Leadership, Taekwondo, Leader’s Image, Trust, Taekwondo Demonstration
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for the prevention of sports injuries in Taekwondo Poomsae athletes by investigating and analyzing sports injuries. Method: This study, a survey was conducted to study the condition of sports injuries targeting Taekwondo Poomsae players. A total of 144 subjects were included in the study, including 72 males and 72 females. The experience was classified into 55 people with less than 3 years of experience, 42 people with 4-5 years of experience, and 47 people with more than 6 years of experience. As a research tool, questionnaires were obtained from participating athletes registered with the Korea Taekwondo Association and used to investigate the actual sports injuries of Taekwondo Poomsae athletes. The questionnaire was constructed and used for demographic characteristics and sports injuries. Results: As a result of examining Taekwondo Poomsae athletes' experience with sports injuries within the past year, 121 out of 144 athletes answered that they had experienced, and 23 athletes answered that they had never experienced it. As a result of cross-analysis between the sexes concerning whether the athletes experienced sports injuries, there was a significant(p=.000) difference. As a result of analyzing sports injuries that occurred during competition and training, by gender, 10 male(100%) and 14 female(58.3.4%) athletes experienced injuries during training, respectively, and both during training and competition. The number of experienced players was 48 male(45.3%) and 58 female(54.7%). As a result of cross-analysis, there was a significant difference(p=.001). As a result of analyzing the frequency of sports injuries according to the gender of Taekwondo athletes, it was found that both male and female athletes suffered the most sports injuries in the order of ankle, knee, waist, and foot. As a result of analyzing the frequency of sports injuries according to the gender of Taekwondo athletes, the ham-string and waist were the most damaged in both male and female athletes. Conclusion: Taekwondo Poomsae athletes experienced sports injuries, and it was found that injuries occurred a lot during training. In addition, the injured joints were found in the order of ankle, knee, and waist in both men and women, and the hamstring was the most common muscle in both men and women.Keyword:Taekwondo, Sports Injuries, Poomsae, Joint and Muscle Injuries, Career