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  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional exercise program for 6 weeks(three times a week, 60 minutes / session) on eight elite Taekwondo players. The data were processed using SPSS/PC 18.0 program and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. The effect of functional exercise program was applied to the paired sample t-test. Results, Body composition items were weight(p <.001), BMI(p <.001), In addition, functional exercise program effect was Back strength(P <.01), sit-up(p <.01), repeated jump(p <.01) and side step(p <.01) were found to be effective in basic physical fitness items. In addition, there was statistically significant difference(p <.05) in all the measurement items as a result of Wingate test, an anaerobic exercise ability item before and after applying the functional exercise program. The maximal graded exercise test using treadmill showed a significant improvement(p <.05) in maximum oxygen uptake(VO2max), exercise duration, and blood lactate concentration. Results of this study, the functional exercise program used in this study is proposed as an appropriate program to improve the fitness factors required for Taekwondo training
    Keyword:Functional Exercise Program, Wingate Test, Maximum Oxygen Uptake, Blood Lactate Concentration, Body Mass Index
  • This study was to investigate the effects of Naegong-Chesool exercise on physical fitness and bal-ance abilities in male elderly. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group (n=20) and Control group(n=20). The Naegong-Chesool exercise program for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significantly increased in muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility and agility. Second, there were significantly increased in UP, Down, Left, Right Balance abilities. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the Naegong-Chesool exercise could improve the physical fitness and balance ability of male elderly.
    Keyword:Sport, Naegong-Chesool, Physical Fitness, Balance Abilities, Male Elderly
  • In the present day, the significance of sports has been emphasized as an effective mediator for the international development cooperation such as by being used for economic and social development of developing countries. The United Nations has designated 2005 as a year for sports and athletics and has also adopted a resolution such that sports are an important means of promoting health, education, development and peace, while stress-ing such a positive role for economic development and social development. In this vein, advanced contributors such as Australia and Canada are participating in the international development cooperation utilizing sports, while international sports organizations including the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as well as sports organizations such as organizations for each event are participating in international development and carrying out activities through sports. As such, even as the significance of sports is stressed for the international development, related studies are conducted such as the international development and cooperation through sports and sports ODA, yet the studies conducted with sports as an effective tool of the international development cooperation intended for strategic plan and system development have been minimal. Accordingly, in this study, the concept and significance of international development cooperation through sports are examined, and recent trends and cases of international development cooperation through sports are analyzed to present strategic alternatives for related projects. Strategic implementation plans for international development cooperation through sports include, first, the establishment of global governance among the related organizations, second, the participation of companies to secure stable financial resources, and, third, the utilization of sports stars to help publicize related programs, respectively.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports International Development, Sports ODA, International Development Cooperation through Sports, Development through Sport
  • The ancient Olympic games, which were held every four years as now for a millenium from 776 BC until 395 AD, were a forum of competition for the mankind to mutually compete and enjoy in a variety of ways. Such Olympic games are a unique connection between the ancient and the modern times. The modern Olympic games were held for the first time in Athens, Greece, in 1896 and the 32nd Tokyo Olympic Games will be held in 2020. After Japan experienced the great earthquake in 1923 and lost the second World War, Tokyo was the first to attract the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 in Asia, where 19 games were held, with 94 countries and 6,318 athletes participated, thereby becoming an opportunity to inform the world about the high speed growth and strength of the post war Japan. In particular, Japan, which has grown into an economic powerhouse and which is standing in the center of the international political arena, has endeavored to make the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as the ones attracting greater attention from the world than any other host country in history. Among such endeavors, Japan intended to raise its stature as the host country of the larger and successful games by adding games. Of the games, Karate was a traditional Japanese martial art, which was first introduced from Okinawa to the main islands of Japan in 1917. Thereafter, in 1922, as the Ministry of Education hosted an ancient martial art exhibition in which Karate participated, and as Keio University and Waseda University founded Karate departments, Karate developed into a martial art culture of Japan. Thereafter, Karate has become globalized by the spectacular performance and leadership of Oyama Masters, in which process the Japanese society escaped from the ruins of the war and achieved prosperity and success drawing attention from the world. Furthermore, the spirit of martial art through Karate has brought the Japanese people together, and Karate became the spirit of the Japanese people. For these reasons, Japan has wanted Karate to become an official game for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. While 26 games were held at the 30th London Olympic Games in 2012 and 28 official games were held at the 31st Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games in 2016, including golf and rugby, but Japan has successfully enabled adopting Karate as an official Olympic game, and by including surfing, skateboarding, sports climbing, baseball and soft-ball, the number of official games grew to 33 in total. The modern Olympic games are also used to strengthen national interests, international status, and pride of the nation rather than promoting the understanding of international peace and harmony of mankind. In particular, Karate had faced difficulties in being adopted as a formal game since it was a similar game to Taekwondo of Korea, but since Japan was able to decide on which games to add through the “Olympic Agenda 2020,” the Tokyo Olympic Games Organizing Committee nominated additional candidates of official games for pentathlon to the IOC in September 2013 and acquired approval of the executive committee for the finalization at the general assembly. Accordingly, this study will examine the process of changes for the Olympic games and what process the Japanese Karate underwent to be adopted for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as an official game. In particular, it will be helpful to understand what impact it will have on the martial art sport after the Tokyo Olympic Games and the flow of sports diplomacy as Karate is adopted as an official Olympic game representing the Japanese martial arts.
    Keyword:Olympic Games, Karate, History, Sports Games, Taekwondo
  • Gongjin-Dan is a traditional oriental medicine herbal drug that has been used tonics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the hot water extract of Gongjin-Dan mixed garlic(GGD) against scopolamine-induced memory impairment and its mechanism of action. We used the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests to assess anti-amnesic activities in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mouse model. In this model, GGD(12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. We also explored its mechanism of action by conducting an antioxidant activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free and acetylcholineserase(AChE) activity assay us-ing the mouse whole brain. GGD increased the scavenging activities of free radical DPPH and ABTS, inhibited AChE activity in the brain. Taken together, our findings suggest that GGD exerts an anti-amnesic effect through the free radical scavenging, AChE inhibition, ameliorate of scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The effect of GGD may be useful for treatment of memory impairment in Alzheimer’s and its related diseases.
    Keyword:Sport, Garlic Gongjin-Dan, Scopolamine, Memory Impairment, Alzheimer’s Diseases
  • This research aims to find out the effects of the senior program participation based on the training method of Dahn-taekwondo that is inherited with the tradition of the original Korean qigong. The targets of this research are 20 women seniors of older than 60. By the classification of the body mass index into the normal and over-weight groups, the senior qigong program was carried out for 1 hour a day 3 times a week for 12 weeks. As a result, there was no change in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the neutral fat of a normal person among the blood lipid factors. The total cholesterol decreased significantly for both groups, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly for the overweight group. Therefore, it is proved that the comparably easier senior qigong program participation causes the positive effects on the blood pressure and blood lipid factors, and it can be used as a seniors’ health promotion program.
    Keyword:Dahn-Taekwondo, Qigong Training, Blood Pressure, Blood Lipid Factors, Body Mass Index(BMI)
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of mentoring of college golf major instructors on empowerment factor and sports confidence and provide useful data for them to set up clear target goals and improve their performance. In order to achieve this goal, this study selected golf college students in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Daegu, and Gyeongbuk between March and May, 2018 for three months by using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The researcher visited each university and requested explanation and cooperation in the questionnaire. 265 copies of the collected questionnaires were used as the data of this study. For data analysis, the SPSS 22.0 program was used in this study and the hypothesis was verified by frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. As a result of analyzing the effects of mentoring on an empowerment factor, the value of explaining power was .237. The effect of independence variables was positively influenced by career factors(β=.163), psychosocial factors(β=.344), and role model factors(β=.226) on empowerment. Second, the analysis of the effect of mentoring on the factors of sports confidence showed 𝑅2, the value of coefficient of determination was found to be .198. The effect of independence variables was positively related to the sport confidence(β=.157), psychosocial factor(β=.344) and role model factor(β=.243).
    Keyword:Golf, College Golf Majors, Mentoring, Empowerment, Sport Confidence
  • The aims of this research are: to identify the ethical issues confronting Korean sport organizations, to find factors influencing the decision making to deal with the ethical issues, and, finally, to suggest development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations. In particular, the research addresses the following questions: what kind of ethical issues confronting Korean sport organizations? What are the factors influencing decision making to deal with the ethical issues? What are the development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants working for Korean sport organizations(N=8). Results revealed that Korean sport organizations have been faced with various ethical issues, consist-ing of two main themes: athlete and coach, and organization. While former was related to management and supervision of athlete and coaches, and latter was pertaining to organization’s internal issues. Regarding the factors influencing decision making to deal with the ethical issues, organization’s regulations and obeying boss were identified. In additions, as the tool of ethics management and organizational policy, ethics training pro-grammes and the code of ethics were not applicable and not practical. Finally, improvement of administrative system and eradication of factionalism were suggested for the development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations.
    Keyword:Sport, Sport Organizations, Ethical Issues in Sport, Managerial Ethics, Ethical Tools
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of discontinuation of the participants in the physical education class by using the case study method which is one of the qualitative research methods. As for the participants of the research, 3 people who discontinued among the participants of the physical education class for children with physical challenges at AAA University were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted, and based on the collected data, the following results were obtained through the data analysis. First, the participants participated in the program without an accurate understanding of the program, and after dissatisfaction with various factors of the environment, they were able to find out the process leading to the discontinuation. Second, the participants were found to be restricted in continuous participation due to various factors of the physical education programs other than the program corresponding to this research case. Third, participants recognized the value of participating in physical activity and were found to be desiring a program with limitations to continuous participation complemented. Despite the quantitative expansion of the program, it was still difficult to find a program that meets their conditions and needs. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve not only the development and dissemination of diverse and systematic programs that can accommodate their diverse characteristics, but also the environment influencing program participation. Furthermore, specialist physical education experts should also pay attention not only to the participants but also to the voice of the people who discontinued and try to achieve better programs.
    Keyword:Adapted Physical Education, Disabilities, Parent’s Perception, Drop-Out, Discontinuation
  • This study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing of throwers between excellent athletes and non excellent athletes by investigating the influence on balance ability. Forty voluntary throwers (20 Excellent Athletes, 20 Non Excellent Athletes) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected in 2017 Gim-Cheon athletic championship, and their balance abilities were measured. As for the static balance ability, excel-lent throwers group was higher than non excellent throwers group in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) static balance ability of body balance variables. Especially, there is a significant difference in Up(U) and Left(L) static balance ability of the body balance variables statistically. As for the dynamic balance ability, excellent throwers group was higher than non excellent throwers group in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) dynamic balance ability of exercise balance variables. Especially, there is a significant difference in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) dynamic balance ability of the exercise balance variables statistically. The study results indicate that body balance and exercise balance of thrower effected the athletic ability.
    Keyword:Body Balance Ability, Exercise Balance Ability, Throwers, Excellent Athletes, Non Excellent Athletes