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The Effect of the Isokinetic Muscle Function of the Shoulder Joint of Amateur Club Baseball Pitchers in Their 20s on the Speed of a PITCHED BASEBALL

Vol.5 (No.2) 2020
Author
admin
Date
2020-12-30 08:36
Views
570

Abstract


Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint on the speed of a pitched baseball with 21 amateur club baseball players in their 20s in the D city area as subjects.

Method: The subjects played the sport for between two years and seven years, have no pain or disease in their upper and lower limbs over the past year, and are divided into three groups: S1 for the maximum ball speed of 110 km/h or faster, S2 for 100 km/h or faster to slower than 110km/h, and S3 for slower than 100km/h in their pitched ball speed. The data for this study were processed using SPSS 18.0, calculating mean and standard deviations. One-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the differences between each item between the groups, and the Tukey method was used for follow-up analyses between the groups. In addition, multi linear regression was used to determine the effect of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint on the speed of a pitched baseball by angular velocity. The statistical significance level was set to p<.05.

Results: The faster the pitching speed, the higher the statistical significance of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint (at an angular velocity of 60 degrees, 180 degrees, and 240 degrees). Among the isokinetic muscle function factors, it was shown that the extensor of the shoulder joint had a high explanatory power. Peak torque of right shoulder joint at 180 degrees angular velocity had 44.9%, and work per repetition at 240 degrees had 54.2% had 54.2% explanatory power. To sum up the above results, the better the muscle function the group has, the faster the speed of a pitched baseball, and especially extensor showed higher statistical significance than flexor.

Conclusion: It was also shown that the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint showed a stronger effect on the ball speed in extensor than in flexor of the right shoulder joint.

Keyword:Baseball Players, Shoulder Joint, Isokinetic Muscle Function, Speed of a Pitched, Muscle Function Test
  • Purpose: Parkinson’s disease(PD), the fastest-growing neurodegenerative disease, is a movement disorder that manifests unilaterally. Clinical studies, neuroimaging studies, and longitudinal studies all indicate that the clinical features and progression of PD are asymmetric. The asymmetry of PD is thought to be an important clue in under-standing the disease's pathophysiology. The purpose of this study is to see how the concept of PD asymmetry evolved over time, to identify the different types of asymmetry that can be seen in PD, and to understand the clinical implications of the different types of asymmetry in PD. Method: The following were our review questions. (1)How has PD asymmetry research evolved over time? (2)What types of asymmetry can be seen in PD? (3)What are the clinical implications of the various types of asymmetry seen in PD? To investigate such questions, we used the keywords "Parkinson" and(“symmetry” or “asymmetry”) in PubMed. Articles about idiopathic Parkinson’s disease(iPD) patients with a clear concept of symmetry or asymmetry that were peer-reviewed and written in English were included. The type of article, participants, three main keywords, and the type of symmetry concepts in the study were extracted. We excluded studies that did not include patients with idiopathic PD or that did not have a clear concept of symmetry. Results: Based on a PubMed search, the number of published articles on iPD and symmetry gradually in-creased beginning in the 1980s. Of the 563 articles that were initially searched, 333 articles were related to both iPD and symmetry or asymmetry concepts. There were 171 articles on nervous system asymmetry, 133 on motor symptoms and gait asymmetry, 24 on disease presentation asymmetry, and 5 on anatomical or histological structures asymmetry. The majority(n = 70) of the 171 studies on nervous system asymmetry dealt with lateralization of brain function and the resulting asymmetries in motor symptoms and disease manifestations in iPD patients. Conclusion: Asymmetry in iPD patients has mainly been studied based on nervous system asymmetry, motor symptoms, and overall disease presentation. Other types of asymmetry, such as asymmetry in anatomical and histological structures, have been studied in some studies. Asymmetry in iPD is not only an inherent feature of the disease; it also appears to be related to the disease's various symptoms and signs. As a result, more research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of iPD and to provide iPD patients with a prognosis and advice for disease management.
    Keyword:Parkinson’s Disease, Neurodegenerative Disease, Motor Symptoms, Asymmetry, Scoping Review
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine and suggest development directions to revitalize the process of figure skating with disability in Korea. Method: In this study, literature analysis was conducted by investigating research data on figure skating for the people with disability in order to examine the process in Korea and suggest ways to revitalize it. In addition, data of sports organizations such as the Korea Paralympic committee and Special Olympics Korea were collected to find out the need for sports for the people with disability, the characteristics and value of skating, and to find ways to revitalize figure skating. Results: This study grasped the current status and collected and analyzed data to cope with the changing environment of sports for the people with disability and the changes occurring in the field of figure skating for the people with disability. The conclusions and suggestions are as follows. First, as a representative organization of winter sports for people with disability, figure skating can be included in the national winter competition for people with disability, which can play a role in the increase of the ice skating population with the Special Olympic Korea Committee. Second, various positive effects can be physically and mentally through the continuous participation of disabled people in figure skating, and balanced development should be established by establishing a linkage system from sports people with disability to professional sports for the purpose of improving and developing performance. When planning projects related to professional sports, sports for all, and school sports for people with disabilities, the purpose of establishing pleasant experiences, social skills, and health improvement through physical activities, and fostering professional athletes and developing performance. Third, there should be many stadiums where athletes can officially practice. Dongcheon Ice Rink was established for the first time for the people with disability, but it is regrettable that there are other cases where training for the people with disability on the ice rink is restricted for safety reasons. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, Skating events for the people with disability are divided into short track and figure skating, and are held annually at the National Winter Games for the people with disability and the Special Olympics Winter Games. As a result, it is considered meaningful to find various ways to revitalize figure skating for the people with disability so that they can induce more participation than before COVID-19. In the future, if we create an environment where people with disability can train freely, more figure skaters will be created. Finally, in the follow-up study, it is considered that there is a need for expanded research targeting experts in the special sports field, leaders by event, and participants.
    Keyword:Figure Skating, Special Olympic, People with Disability, Intellectual Disability, Ice Rink
  • Purpose: This study investigated the effect of transformational leadership of baseball leaders on sports confidence. Method: The population was selected from players participating in the tournament hosted by the Korea Base-ball Softball Association for about three months from May to August 2022, and a questionnaire was distributed and a total of 231 copies were used for the final analysis. For data processing methods, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiple, and simple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 21.0, and the following conclusions were drawn based on the results. Results: First, it was found that the charismatic factor of the transformational leadership of baseball leaders had a significant effect on sports confidence(proof of ability). Second, the intellectual stimulation and charisma factors of transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(social support). Third, the intellectual stimulation and charisma factors of transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(leadership). Fourth, the consideration factors of the transformational leadership of baseball leaders were found to have a significant effect on sports confidence(physical/mental factors). Conclusion: It was found that the transformational leadership of baseball coaches had a very significant effect on sports confidence(proof of ability, social support, leadership, physical/mental preparation). According to the results of this study, the leadership of a leader is very necessary in order to activate and expand the base of base-ball, and to maximize the potential of baseball players. Stimulation through transformational leadership will act as a major factor in improving performance for athletes, and it is judged that it will have a very significant effect on the intention to continue exercise.
    Keyword:Baseball, Sports Confidence, Transformational Leadership, Leadership, Sports
  • Purpose: This study analyzed and identified differences in perceived value, happiness, and revisit intention ac-cording to eSports game viewing for the disabled and non-disabled. Accordingly, it is meaningful to provide basic data for effectiveness and expansion of the base of eSports for the disabled as an eSports viewing market. Method: For about six months from January to June 2022, visitors to the competition organized by the Korea eSports Federation for the Disabled and the Korea eSports Association(Presidential Boat Amateur, D-war, Heungtaryeong eSports Competition) were selected, and a total of 384 copies were distributed for the final analysis. As for the data processing method, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, and t-test were per-formed. And the following conclusions were drawn. Results: First, the differences in perceived value, happiness, and revisit intention of eSports visitors according to gender were not statistically significant. Second, there was a statistically significant difference in perceived value and happiness factors according to the presence or absence of disabilities of eSports visitors, but there was no significant difference in revisit intention. Conclusion: Through the results of this study, the effectiveness of e-sports viewing was confirmed. In addition, it was confirmed that there was no difference in perceived beliefs and attitudes between the disabled and the non-disabled. Accordingly, e-sports research for the disabled should be continuously conducted.
    Keyword:eSports, Disabled, Non-Disabled, Happiness, Revisit Intention
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data that can help in the marketing strategy of professional sports clubs by analyzing the relationship between fan satisfaction and loyalty according to the value of services provided by professional sports clubs. Method: In this study, as of 2022, 290 fans of the four major domestic professional sports(professional base-ball, professional soccer, professional volleyball, and professional basketball) were surveyed. Convenience sampling was used as the sampling method. The survey was conducted using the Self-Administration Method. Among the collected questionnaires, 279 questionnaires were used as valid samples, except for data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the contents of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing is the SPSS 23.0 Program, a statistical package program, and frequency analysis, reliability verification, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression were used. Results: In this study, as a result of factor analysis and reliability verification, service value, fan satisfaction, and loyalty were each classified as one factor. The reliability of the service value factor was α=.875, the reliability of the fan satisfaction factor was α=.886, and the loyalty factor. The reliability of α=.910 was found. Overall, it was found that the service value of professional sports clubs affects fan satisfaction and loyalty. Conclusion: In this study, service value affects fan satisfaction and loyalty, and professional sports clubs and teams need to provide high-quality services that can increase their liking in order to increase the purchase behavior intention of spectators or fans. In order to do this, it is necessary to accurately identify the attributes and expectations of service quality that are important to them through a satisfaction survey targeting visitors and fans and satisfy them. In addition, efforts to develop unique service quality in the sports industry will not only resolve the cognitive dissonance of trainees, but also affect the behavioral intentions of repurchase and positive word-of-mouth communication.
    Keyword:Professional Sports, Service Value, Fan, Satisfaction, Loyalty
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to live a healthy life and prevent geriatric diseases in Korean adult males. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in adult disease-related indicators according to age of Korean adult males over 19 years of age. Method: In this study, the raw data of the 7th 1st year of the 2016~2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES 2016~2018) was downloaded and reprocessed for use according to the purpose of study. A total of 8,106 males aged 19 years or older who participated in the 2016-2019 National Health and Nutrition Survey were selected and classified by age group as the study subjects. For statistical processing, the mean and standard deviation of all items were calculated using SPSS 27.0 Package. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare the differences in adult disease-related indicators by age group. The post-hoc test for the main effect was performed using the Tukey method. Statistical significance level was based on p<.05. Results: As a result of analyzing adult-specific indicators for Korean adult males, significant differences were found in TC, HDL-C, TG, and LDL-C in blood lipid-related variables according to age. There were significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertension-related variables according to age. For diabetes-related variables, there were significant(p<.001) differences in fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and glucose intake. In terms of muscle strength, there was a significant difference in both grip strength(left and right). There were significant(p<.001) differences in both health and body type perception according to age. Conclusion: As a result of analyzing each measurement variable according to age, TC, TG, and LDL-C were the highest among blood lipid variables in the 40s, and DBP was high in the hypertension variable. As for diabetes-related variables, FBS and HbA1c appeared higher with increasing age, and sugar intake increased with age. Combining these results, it was found that in each age group, those in their 40s were most at risk for adult dis-ease-related indicators, and it is considered that caution is needed even in those in their 30s.
    Keyword:Adult Disease, Blood Lipids, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the development of the diving industry by examining and understanding the educational satisfaction of students who are diving club members, and by examining the relevance to brand asset and the effect on intention to revisit. Method: A survey was conducted with 355 students through the significance sampling method among the students who received diving education. The final measurement tool with validity and reliability secured consisted of 11 diving educational satisfaction questions, 5 brand asset questions, and 4 intention to revisit questions was used. For the data processing, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results: As a result of this study, first, it turned out that lecture satisfaction and job related satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, affect awareness, which is a sub-factor of brand asset. Second, colleague satisfaction, a sub-factor of educational satisfaction, turned out to affect loyalty, a sub-factor of brand asset. Third, the job related satisfaction and colleague satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, turned out to have an effect on the intention to revisit. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it was confirmed that the educational satisfaction of diving students affects the brand asset and the intention to revisit. The instructors engaged in diving and those involved in the diving industry ought to keep in mind that the educational satisfaction of students during the diving education contributes to the development of the diving organization and further the development of the diving industry over the long term.
    Keyword:Leisure Sports, Diving, Educational Satisfaction, Brand Asset, Intention to Revisit
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present the direction for not only hosting sports events but also managing them by examining and understanding the influence of the sense of creation via watching sports events on the social adaptation and the feeling of happiness. Method: In this study, convenience sampling was used for the sampling method for 260 people who experienced watching sports events in 2021, and the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method. Among the collected questionnaires, 249 questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the contents of the survey. The frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and the structural equation model using the statistical package program SPSS 23.0 Program and AMOS 18.0, were performed. Results: In this study, as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis performed across all measurement items, it was confirmed that the model fit criteria were satisfied, and it turned out that there was no problem with concentrated validity. There was no multi-collinearity problem in the correlation between the variables, and it turned out that all fit indices were satisfied in the model fit of the study. The standardized coefficient value for the effect of sense of creation via watching sports events on social adaptation turned out to be .289, which turned out to have a significant effect at a significance level of .001, and the standardized coefficient value for the effect of the sense of creation via watching sports events on the feeling of happiness turned out to be .312 with a significant effect at the significance level of .001. The standardized coefficient value for the effect of social adaptation on the feeling of happiness turned out to be .326, which demonstrated a significant effect at the significance level of .001. Conclusion: The conclusions reached by undergoing the research process demonstrate the fact that the sense of creation via watching sports events influences the social adaptation and feeling of happiness, and expectations about the economic, temporal, and social costs of spectators via watching sports events, and the participation of excellent players, efforts to improve performance, and provision of various convenience facilities are needed to ensure that they can feel satisfaction.
    Keyword:Sports, Sports Events, Sense of Creation, Social Adaptation, Feeling of Happiness
  • Purpose: This study was to identify and to recognize the critical moment of NBA official data using sport analytics techniques. Previous studies have already had the research area on the basketball that the sport science was to be applied into enhancing of performance in the practice. The official data was recently considered in many researchers that the official data has been gathered by scientific methods such as advanced technologies. Current trend of performance analysis of sport intends to extent the data range that the official data could be gathered from the official website and it would be a massive dataset. Method: The sport analytics techniques using big data analysis were utilized that the NBA official data from 2015-2016 to 2020-2021 seasons contained more than 3,040,000 events. The Python scripts to gather the NBA official data were utilized and the gathered data as csv format. All analysis of data was executed within R studio with R programming that the changes of numbers of events between seasons and successful rate of each events were compared in this study. Statistically, the frequency analysis was used for the determination of data. Results: This study was to recognize the critical moment among the NBA official data that there were two findings mainly. First of all, frequencies of events on 2-pt jump shots have been decreasing and frequencies of events on 3-pt jump shots have been increasing between season. Particularly, the short-distance shots such as 2-pt tip-in, 2-pt layup, 2-pt jump shots were more presented in each season than the long-distance shots. Secondly, the successful rate of shots and outcomes between season have not been differently presented. Conclusion: Consequently, this study has found the displacement of critical changes within the official NBA data that it could indicate the originality of basketball match rather than characteristics of playing. It is also important that the playing trend would be differently observed when the skill or players’ style was able to be considered. Further research is also required that the critical point of recording change on the sequencies of time line would need to be concerned.
    Keyword:Basketball, Statistics, Sport Analytics, Frequency Analysis, Playing Trend in Basketball
  • Purpose: Soccer, as the most representative team sport, is an event that shows the best performance by forming organizational and cohesiveness within the team through interactions between leaders and players and players and players. Also, soccer players feel various psychological changes and experience stress, which is a negative emotional or psychological state in various situations such as maladaptation to the environment, defeat, and immaturity in performance. Athlete Stress, exercise flow and exercise exhaustion of college football players are highly correlated with each other, and it is necessary to understand the relationship between various variables to effectively cope with stress for players to improve their performance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the structural relationship between stress, exercise flow, and exercise exhaustion of college football players. Method: In this study, a questionnaire was conducted through convenience sampling among 250 college soccer players belonging to the University Soccer Federation, and among them, 215 copies of the questionnaire were analyzed according to the purpose of the study, excluding 35 copies of the questionnaires that were answered insincerely. To achieve the purpose of this study, frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability verification, and correlation analysis were performed using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 21.0, and the structural equation model was verified. Results: The mean of each variable was 2.524 to 4.516, and the standard deviation was .613 to 1.464. As a result of examining the kurtosis and skewness values for normality verification, the skewness was .903 to .384, and the kurtosis was from .975 to -.026. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, χ²=99.092(df=41, p<.001, Q=2.417), TLI=903, CFI=.928, RMSEA=.081, and the standardization coefficient were .627-939. appear. Exercise stress was found to have a negative effect on exercise commitment. Exercise stress was found to have a positive effect on exercise exhaustion. Exercise commitment was found to have a negative effect on exercise exhaustion. Conclusion: Based on the results, the necessity of developing a stress management program to improve the performance of college football players and applying it to the current situation was suggested. The necessity of developing a stress management program to improve the performance of college football players and Stress has a negative effect on exercise flow, which means that systematic stress management is required for athletes. Second, stress is a variable that directly affects exercise exhaustion. Finally, exercise flow helps to lower exercise exhaustion. As a suggestion based on this research results, it is necessary to efficiently manage the stress of soccer players by exploring the stress factors of elementary, middle, and high school soccer players. Second, it is necessary to develop a program that can efficiently manage stress for college football players and analyze the effect by applying it to the field. Lastly, since the psychological state of the coaches directly affects the players, it is necessary to efficiently manage the stress of the coaches through research on the stress factors of the coaches as well as the players.
    Keyword:Stress, Exercise Flow, Exercise Exhaustion, Performance, Soccer