Human Rights DISASTER: China's Human Rights Policy toward North Korean Refugees
Korean refugees. China treats the North Korean escapees as illegal economic migrants even though there are
many reasons to define them as political refugees.
Method: To better appreciate the context of Universalism innate in United Nations and U.S. human rights
policies for North Korea, this article analyzes the characteristics of the U.S. North Korean Human Rights Act
2012(NKHRA) and China's agreement with the UN human rights covenant. China's repatriation of the North
Korean refugees was an unprecedented incident compared with previous cases. China’s human rights policy
towards North Korean refugees is unlikely to change in the Xi Jinping regime.
Result: This article draws three findings in connection with the universalism of human rights as follows. First,
China thinks that human rights universalism is detrimental to their socialism and government attempts to
maintain stability. Second, China puts its political priority on keeping good relations with the North Korean leadership and cooperating with the regime.
Third, China wants to control the North Korean refugees who may bring disorder to the border region by deporting them to the DPRK.
Conclusion: This article emphasizes China’s negligence concerning its human rights agreement with the UN
and concludes that the enhancement of human rights for North Korean refugees in China can be realized by
empowering the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’(UNHCR) activity in China and convincing China to behave as a responsible stakeholder through pressure from the international community
The Current Situation and Countermeasures of Cyber Crime Under the Korean PENDEMIC: Focused on the Northern Gyeonggi Province InvestigationPurpose: In this study, the actual situation of cyber crimes under the pendemic situation of 12 police stations under the Gyeonggi Northern Police Agency, which occurred mainly in the northern Gyeonggi province, was investigated, and the countermeasures were studied by identifying how users' motivations for using them affect their perception of criminal behavior. Method: Based on this, the study is meaningful in that it provides basic data for preventing future cyber crimes and responding to cyber crimes. Although the Korean police only exposed the actual situation of cyber direct transaction fraud, game fraud, shopping mall fraud, and other crimes using messengers under the pendemic state, we will also shed light on cyber crimes such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Toc, and Telegram, which are metaverses. There is a need. Results: As for the monthly occurrence of cyber crimes of the Northern Provincial Police Agency, there were 642 cases of direct transaction fraud in November 2019, during the early phase of the pandemic due to Corona 19, 2 cases of shopping mall scams, 78 cases of game scams, and 34 cases of other messenger scams. In December 2019, 336 cases of direct transaction fraud occurred, 3 cases of shopping mall scams, 29 cases of game scams, and 28 cases of other messenger scams. Conclusion: When the police who leave brilliant cultural achievements think about the status of police officers leading the advanced social and national security administration in the era of national income of 30,000 dollars, they dream of cyber culture safety. The police, dreaming of the advent of the peaceful era of cyber culture, stand for the benefit of the people you'll have to do it.Keyword:Pendemic, Cyber Crime, Corona 19, Gyeonggi Northern Police Agency, Direct Transaction Fraud
Improvement Plan of Framework Act on the Management of DISASTERS and Safety for Effective Evacuation Strategies in South KoreaPurpose: Framework act on the management of disasters and safety is the highest law covering disasters and safety in South Korea. Disaster management infrastructure has been expanded through the enactment and revision of the Framework act on the management of disasters and safety. However, there is still a high awareness that disaster management should be led by the administration. In the modern society, where self-help is emphasized above all else in the event of a disaster, it is difficult to expect effective disaster response through administrative initiative alone. This study intends to review measures to improve Framework act on the management of disasters and safety through evacuation that enables the primary victims, the residents, to respond to disasters most effectively. Method: The items such as 'enhancement of disaster site response capacity' and 'emphasis on the role of local governments in disaster and safety management', which were newly revised in 2015, were reviewed. The problems of the current Disaster Safety Act were reviewed from three perspectives: 'Incomplete disaster prevention administration in case of a disaster', 'Various aspects of local residents for evacuation', and 'Insufficient structure of public-private cooperative system for evacuation'. Results: First, it is necessary to recognize the incompleteness of disaster prevention administration during a disaster. Rather than increasing dependence on the administration, improvement should be made with the direction of how the residents can increase their independence and self-reliance. Second, the evacuation order should be improved to be ‘situational information’ that informs residents that they are in a situation that makes them think of evacuation, rather than ‘action directive type’. Third, the Framework act on the management of disasters and safety should stipulate in detail the establishment and reinforcement of public-private cooperation networks that utilize the capabilities of residents. Conclusion: For effective evacuation in the event of a large-scale disaster, the response capacity between various actors in the local community must be quickly aggregated. In addition, through improvement of the Disaster Safety Act in the future, the evacuation plan should start with reestablishing the relationship between the administration and residents. Residents should be aware of their own role for evacuation, and the administration should have a system that can support it as much as possible.Keyword:Disaster Response, Correspondence of Administrations, Dependent on Government Response, Correspondence of Inhabitants, Evacuation Plan
A Study on Antecedent Variables Affecting University Students' Job Preparation Behavior Under the COVID-19 SituationPurpose: Even before COVID-19, students majoring in airline services had to face high competition every time to get a job as an airline cabin attendant. However, students are having more difficulty preparing for employment due to the external situation of COVID-19. Therefore, when university students strive to achieve long-term goals, it is important to study the preceding factors that can overcome these crises and achieve significant results in job preparation behavior despite the influence of external environments such as COVID-19. Method: The grit measurement tool used eight simple scale questions consisting of four passionate questions and four perseverance questions. Resilience is defined as positivity, sociability and control. The 15 questions from RQT(Resilience Quotient Test) measurement tool were applied. Job preparation behavior consists of preliminary job preparation behavior(6 questions) and full-fledged job preparation behavior(5 questions). Multiple regression analysis was conducted to verify the hypothesis. Results: The grit(passion) of university students majoring in airline service had a significant effect on all job preparation behaviors(preliminary job preparation behavior, full-fledge job preparation behavior). Grit(perseverance) had no significant effect on all job preparation behaviors. Students' resilience(positivity) had a significant effect on both job preparation behaviors. However, resilience(control) had a significant effect only on full-scale job preparation behavior and resilience(sociability) had no significant effect on job preparation behavior. Student's grit(passion) had a significant effect on resilience (positivity, sociability, control). Students' grit(perseverance) only had a significant effect on resilience(control). Students' resilience(positivity) only had a significant effect on grit(passion). Student's resilience(control) had a significant effect on grit(passion, perseverance). Conclusion: The prolonged COVID-19 has hit the aviation industry at almost a disaster level. Therefore, more efforts from departments and university are required for students preparing for cabin crew employment in the long term. This study confirmed that the grit of students is a variable that precedes resilience and job preparation behavior. Therefore, in order for students to prepare well for employment, departments need emotional support in the educational environment and develop programs that can increase their grit while attending school. First of all, it is important for the department to allow students to participate in various major-related programs and maintain their passion, and to experience a sense of accomplishment through the process. This successful experience will be a driving force for students to keep their steady efforts. In this study, grit(perseverance) did not affect job preparation behavior but perseverance affect resilience(control) and control affect full-fledged job preparation behavior. Therefore, universities and departments should strive to develop curriculum and non-curricular programs that can increase student control. Also emotional support in the educational environment is important in order for students to develop the ability to work independently and have the belief that they can do well on their own. When these successful experiences are accumulated, students will have the strength to overcome difficulties by activating their positive psychological resources even when difficulties arise. As a result, these efforts of departments and schools have a positive effect on job preparation behavior.Keyword:Job Preparation Behavior, Grit, Resilience, Student Majoring Airline Service, Covid-19
Purpose: Due to the nature of police work, most of the work regulates or restricts the activities of the people, so it is not easy to seek cooperation from the people, and it is not easy to increase the reliability of the police despite the legitimate law enforcement activities. Despite this environment of police work, efforts to improve police reliability are needed. Method: ‘It is necessary to seriously consider the "people variables, political variables, and legal variables" that make the police's just activities impossible. We would like to find problems in the three variables and find ways to improve the reliability of the police in the legitimacy of police capacity building, police bureaucracy, and police activities. Results: We analyzed the factors that deteriorated the reliability of the Korean police and looked at ways to improve the reliability of police work. There are many difficult conditions to enhance public trust due to people variables, political variables, and legal variables in police affairs. Despite this environment of police work, efforts to improve police reliability are needed. Conclusion: The ways to restore public confidence in police work are as follows. In the process of police affairs, it shall be strictly followed by principles, and in the process, it is necessary to comply with the prescribed legal procedures. In addition, the top priority is not to lose trust in the people through fair handling of work and a friendly attitude.Keyword:Trust in the Police, Fairness of the Police, Police Activities, Police Duties, Protection of Crime Victims
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to suggest the direction of university coaching education for the development and operation of coaching education for university students. In particular, this study aims to focus on coaching education of Howon University students who aim to cultivate global leaders and also lead the world by producing professional manpower to lead the era of the fourth revolution and disaster. To this end, it aims to analyze the core competencies of ICF coaching and coaching education competencies for Howon University students. Method: This study conducted in-depth consultations with coaching experts, and the aspects of the talent education prizes that Howon University aims for and the core coaching competencies presented by ICF and KCA were analyzed. And then this research proposes coaching education program for Howon University students. Results: According to previous studies on the operation of university coaching programs from 2010 to the present, coaching programs have improved students' practical ability to search for career or prepare for employment. In addition, the coaching leadership program for ICF core competencies and Howon University students was designed considering the psychological tranquility such as self-understanding, possibility discovery, confidence recovery, and other factors that show higher recognition of interpersonal relations. Conclusion: This study designed coaching education program for leadership development based on data on in-depth interview such as consultations and coaching core competencies and Howon University educational philosophy. As a result of analyzing the contents of the consultation of five professional coaches of the Korea Coach Association and the International Coaching Federation, the core competencies of coaching and the educational ideology of Howon University, so the contents of the coaching leadership education program were composed of one semester(32hours) in total with 3 parts. First, coaching ethics and coaching mindset are three for coaching mindset, and second, coaching skill practice is to communicate effectively as a global leader. Third, the program could be organized by becoming a coach-type leader for learning and growth.Keyword:Coaching, Coaching Program, Leadership Development, University Students, Core Competency
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the groundwater volume available in the Gyeongju region and predict changes in the groundwater flow's characteristics based on the IPCC RCP climate scenario. Method: As for the method to carry out this study, the results of forecasting the weather conditions in the Gyeongju region based on the IPCC RCP climate change scenario were used. By using the predicted precipitation data, the groundwater volume available was analyzed by using the SWAT MODEL. To analyze the groundwater flow's characteristics, the future groundwater flow's characteristics were analyzed by using MODFLOW by using the observed water level related data. Results: When examining the content by scenario, and across all scenarios, it was analyzed that the M3 basin was the largest, followed by the M2 basin and the M1 basin, respectively. It was also analyzed to be inversely proportional to the size of the outflow hydrologic curve in the case of the M1 basin as the city area was greater than that of the M2 and M3 basins. It was analyzed that the scenario of RCP 2.6 had the lowest variation for the content by basin, and that RCP 4.5 had the largest variation by basin. In terms of the flow direction of the groundwater, the M3 basin flows from the mountainous terrain to the Deokdongcheon Stream along the Deokdong Lake, and the M2 basin flows from the south towards the direction of the Bomun Lake. The M1 basin was analyzed to be the Bukcheon basin and finally flows towards the west side of the Hyeongsan River, and the overall groundwater flow in the target basin was analyzed to flow along the river towards the west side of the Hyeongsan River. Conclusion: As a result of analyzing the groundwater volume available and flow’s characteristics in the Gyeongju region according to climate changes in this study, the amount of groundwater volume available in the future RCP scenario both increased in 2100 compared to the current precipitation. Yet, in the case of RCP 4.5, the duration of no precipitation decreased by 57.75% compared to 2020, and RCP 8.5 increased by 56.79%, and hence, it was analyzed that, as for the available volume in 2100, the RCP 4.5 scenario was calculated to be 6.93% higher than the present, and the RCP 8.5 scenario increased by 0.10% compared to the present. In 2100, when there was no precipitation for 40 or more days, it was analyzed that the groundwater level decreased for RCP 4.5 by 0.7 m on average, and as for RCP 8.5, it was analyzed to decrease by GL by 1.0 m, and hence, the water level’s decrease turned out to be very large for the RCP 8.5 scenario. As a result of the groundwater flow analysis, it was analyzed that it was advantageous for securing the groundwater because of the high groundwater volume available and the groundwater level in the RCP 4.5 scenario where the greenhouse gas reduction policy was significantly realized.Keyword:Climate Change, Groundwater Flow, Groundwater Recharge, Swat Model, Modflow Model
Study on the Mediating Effect of Self Focused Attention and Depression in the Relationship of Effect Between the HUMAN’s Self Esteem and Inter Personal ProblemsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively examine an under self esteem and inter personal problems by predicting the mediating effects of self esteem and negative emotions including depression and self focused attention, and consequently, by exploring the effects on the inter personal problems. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted targeting 127 college students from the departments related to early childhood education located in Gyeongnam. To examine and understand the mediating effects of self focused attention and depression in the relationship of effect between human self esteem and inter personal problems, a hypothetical research model was set, which was sought to be statistically validated. For such research data, the descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, and the serial multiple mediator model regression analysis were performed by using the statistical programs of SPSS 26.0 and PROCESS v35. Results: First, self esteem demonstrated a significantly positive correlation with general self focused attention and a significantly negative correlation with depression and inter personal problems, and the general self focused attention demonstrated a positive correlation with the immersive self focused attention. Furthermore, the immersive self focused attention demonstrated a positive correlation with depression and inter personal problem, and the depression and inter personal problem demonstrated a significantly positive correlation. Second, in terms of the effect of self esteem on the inter personal problems, depression turned out to have a partially mediating effect. Furthermore, as for the path of the relationship of effect between self esteem and inter personal problems, both the ego focus and immersive ego focus turned out to have an effect on the depression. Conclusion: Self esteem and depression are the psychological characteristic variables which tend to remain constant and stable despite the changes amidst the passage of time, and since the self esteem influences the inter personal relationships based on the self focused attention, it is necessary to develop a program which can help strengthen and enhance the positive aspects of one's inside.Keyword:Self Focused Attention, Self Esteem, Relationship, Inter Personal Problem, Depression
Purpose: This study was conducted to articulate and specify as to how the women's beauty care behavior after COVID-19 influences their psychological Happiness. Towards this end, the beauty care behavior was set as an independent variable, and beauty interest, information search, beauty behavior, and appearance satisfaction were derived as the sub-factors, psychological Happiness variables were set as dependent variables, environmental control, personal growth, purpose of life, and positive interpersonal relationships were derived as the sub-factors. Method: As for the research participants, they were collected and analyzed from among 231 online participants including freelancers, self-employed, workers, and students from related departments working in the beauty health industry in City S and Province G in Korea. For the analysis method, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between the participants' beauty care behavior and psychological Happiness, and the enter method was used to make entries. Results: This study was conducted from this point of view to examine and understand how the women's beauty care behavior after COVID-19 will influence their psychological Happiness. Subsequent are the contents of the analytical results verifying the relationship of effect with the beauty care behavior variable, which has beauty interest, information search, beauty behavior, and appearance satisfaction as independent variables, and the psychological Happiness variable as dependent variables. Conclusion: In this study, it was evident that new changes have taken in the beauty care behavior and psychological Happiness of the women participants after COVID-19, and in particular, it was confirmed that many changes have taken in the direct beauty behaviors. Based on the results of this study, a theoretical discussion of the beauty health was provided, and it is meaningful in that the information on the psychological health according to the beauty care behavior was provided.Keyword:COVID-19, Women's, Beauty Care, Behavior, Psychological Happiness
Preceding Factors for Life Satisfaction of University Students Majoring in Aviation Service in the COVID-19 DISASTER: Social Environment in the Classroom, GritPurpose: The fourth industrial revolution and prolonged COVID-19, which will bring about technological advances, are calling for changes in our universities. Therefore, it is necessary to look back on the essential meaning of education and the direction of education to examine the current status of university education. So, this study would like to look at how the social environment of the classroom affects the satisfaction of life through the student’s grit. Method: This study conducted on online survey of university students majoring in aviation services in consideration of the COVID-19 situation. 230 people responded, and 216 were used for the final analysis. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 Statistics Program. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to verify the hypothesis, and three-step mediated regression was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the grit between the social environment of the classroom and life satisfaction of students. Results: First, the social environment of the classroom(emotional support between students, facilitating mutual respect and teacher’s emotional support) had a significant effect on student’s grit(passion). On the other hand, the social environment of the classroom had no significant impact on the student’s grit(perseverance). Second, the social environment of the classroom had a significant effect on students’ life satisfaction. Third, the passion among grit had a significant effect on the student's life satisfaction, but the perseverance among grit did not significantly affect students’ life satisfaction. Fourth, only passion among grit showed a mediating effect between the social environment of the classroom and life satisfaction. Conclusion: The higher the ‘emotional support between students’, ‘facilitating mutual respect’, and ‘emotional support of teachers’ among the social environment of the classroom, the higher the students’ grit(passion). The impact of emotional support on students’ passion for achieving long-term goals in the social environment of the classroom is a wake-up call for the role of teachers in the university setting. In addition, fulfilling the original role of university education is a way to increase the life satisfaction of university students majoring in aviation services. Due to the current COVID-19, it is difficult to conduct face-to-face classes in the department of aviation services, which includes a lot of practical subjects in the curriculum. However, it is necessary for universities to provide various non-face-to-face programs related to their majors so that students can continue their perseverance and passion through steady success experiences. If the professor provides steady emotional support in the process, students will be able to maintain high life satisfaction.Keyword:Social Environment in the Classroom, Grit, Life Satisfaction, Major in Aviation Service, COVID-19
Purpose: In this study, a number of industrial accidents occur, and occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. As a result of this occupational accident, many workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Numerous industrial accidents occur every year, and the approval of occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder is increasing. In particular, in the case of industrial accident trauma, workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder that is more severe than other trauma patients in that workers are continuously re-exposed to the accident scene and re-experienced the accident. Method: Therefore, exposure treatment techniques for patients suffering industrial acci-dent trauma using VR(virtual reality) and measurement systems introduction was necessary. Using the disaster and disaster contents developed through this research and development, measure user reaction and secure data on the degree and timing of user reaction according to each accident event, so that it is possible to obtain reference data for appropriate exposure setting according to the level of trauma became. As a methodology, a population composition for setting the exposure level and a hypothesis design for verification and a scenario design for hypothesis testing were established. In addition, the user reaction data for each accident event in the virtual experience was regarded as heart rate data, and a sensor and related system design that can measure data through the experiment were made, and the experiment was analyzed according to the scenario. Results: So, by measuring the heart rate of the experimenter using VR(virtual reality) to experience a traumatic disaster, Measuring heart rate variability(HRV) by disaster and environmental factors and observing stress changes. It is expected that it will be possible to obtain data on the extent to which the user reacts in a specific disaster by securing a measurement value of how and at what point in time the user reacts. Conclusion: This made it possible to analyze the post-traumatic disability later. In particular, through the results of this experiment, it was possible to present the need for an indicator that can objectively evaluate the effectiveness of VR content for education and objective data of the indicator. In addition, a lot of data such as stability, movement, reaction, etc. were secured as basic indicators for the development of the “Crane VR Education Content” evaluation system.Keyword:Virtual Reality, Occupational Accident, Trauma, HRV, Stress