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  • Purpose: The methods of preventing and controlling pine wilt disease(PWD), currently used in Korea, include fumigation, incineration, and fragmentation of the infected tree, which shows exterior discoloration. However, there are potential infected trees that have a healthy appearance but is already running out of resin, which serves as a breeding ground for Monochamus alternatus, aka Japanese pine sawyer. Method: Therefore, in order to confirm the presence of potential infected trees in the affected area, the damage was divided into five grades, and potential infected trees were investigated through the process. Accordingly, the time sequential examination of the reduced pine resin and the coniferous discoloration in a total of 1,057 pine trees of kinds(Pines, Japanese black pines, Korean pines, Pinus rigida) was conducted to investigate the existence of the potential infected trees in the 2 district of extreme damage in this study and among them 176 trees(16.7%) were selected as the potential infected trees. Results: The results of this study showed that there were usually 4 to 5 percent of potential infected trees right after the removal of infected trees and that the percentage gradually increased over time. In addition, 26 diagnostic kits and 29 microscopic examination of 32 samples confirmed Bursaphelenchus xylophilusas in the target trees. Conclusion: Therefore, it is considered necessary to concentrate on checking the expansion of the pine wilt by preventing the attracted egg laying of the vectors by searching the potential infected trees through the relatively easy-to-perform extraction of pine resin from the healthy trees in external appearance around the damaged withered trees. The cross-checking of the results of the diagnosis kit and microscopic examination confirmed the presence of Monochamus alternatus in the potential infected trees with the 25 samples.
    Keyword:Pine Wilt Disease, Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus, Bursaphelenchus Mucronatus, Potential Infected Tree, Coniferous Discoloration
  • Purpose: The study was conducted on 30 6th grade(13 years old) students from S elementary school in D metropolitan city in Korea to verify the effects of ‘barefoot rhythm training’, which combines barefoot and rhythmic exercises, on the body composition and abdominal circumference of obese male elementary school students who have a body mass index of 26kg/m² or higher by performing rhythm training after equally dividing them into barefoot and shoe-wearing groups. Method: Exercise treatment composed of 5 minutes of warm-up and cool-down exercises and 20 minutes of main exercise was given 4 times a week with targeted RPE of 9-10 for 1-4 weeks, 11-12 for 5-8 weeks, and 13-14 for 9-12 weeks. A corresponding sample t-test was performed to compare the changes before and after 12 weeks of exercise treatment. Results: As a result of the study, it was found that the body mass index, body fat mass, and body fat percentage of the variables of body composition were found to be decreased more in the barefoot group compared to the shoe-wearing group, while the skeletal muscle mass and lean mass were increased more in the barefoot group compared to the shoe-wearing group. Similarly, the abdominal circumference of barefoot group showed a greater reduction compared to the shoe-wearing group. Conclusion: In conclusion, since barefoot rhythm training has a higher exercise efficiency compared to the shoe-wearing rhythm training done in the same intensity and pattern, it has a greater positive effect on the body composition and abdominal circumference, which affect the obesity and metabolic diseases of elementary school students in health crisis.
    Keyword:Obesity, Middle School Students, Barefoot Rrhythm Training, Body Composition, Abdominal Circumference
  • Purpose: Currently, the silver industry is developing very much, and research on elderly aging food is needed for the elderly who are having a hard time digesting and chewing food. In order to develop HMR for the elderly, the results were derived through FGI(Focus Group Interview) to identify the purchase status of HMR for the elderly, to identify satisfaction and importance through IPA analysis, and to present the needs and development directions for the elderly food development. Method: A total of six consumers aged 60 or older were interviewed(December 28-30, 2019), and the content of the interview was that for elderly consumers with experience in purchasing HMR each interview took two to a half hours to record a maximum of two and a half hours. Results: There were six women in gender, and four under 65 age to 70 age. HMR was frequently purchased(once or three times a week) and purchased by four people, due to the convenience of purchase(simple), four large discount stores were purchased by HMR. Preferred food ingredients were found to prefer beef, spinach, cucumber, brown rice, fermented milk, apples and strawberries. The IPA results showed that the importance and satisfaction were high in taste, nutritional value, various menus, and convenience of food acquisition. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop various menus that suit the tastes of the elderly so that they can safely protect the elderly from health and lead their lives. In the next study, it is thought that the size of food that the elderly can chew with their teeth should also be studied to help them eat more comfortably. It is also thought that a detailed study on the level of chewing and swallowing food should be conducted depending on the condition of the teeth of the elderly.
    Keyword:Crisis, Safety, HMR, Elderly, IPA
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of family crisis such as parental neglect on elementary school students' offline school bullying and to analyze the mediating effects of ADHD symptoms, cyber bullying victimization, and anger on that influence. A total of 634 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grade at four elementary schools in the capital area participated in this study. Their parental neglect, cyber bullying vic-timization, offline school bullying, ADHD symptoms and anger levels were examined by a survey. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the mediating effects were verified by bootstrapping. The major findings were as follows. To begin with, the result showed that parental neglect could increase offline school bullying directly. Next, parental neglect could increase offline school bullying indirectly by mediating cyber bullying victimization, ADHD symptoms, and anger. In details, four paths were statistically significant at 95% con-fidence level. First, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimiza-tion augmented offline school bullying. Second, parental increased anger level, this increased anger augmented offline school bullying. Third, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimization raised anger level, this raised anger augmented offline school bullying. Fourth, parental neglect in-creased ADHD symptoms, and increased ADHD symptoms raised anger level, this raised anger finally augmented offline school bullying. The results of this study suggest that child maltreatment such as parental neglect and emotional problems such as ADHD symptoms and anger should be considered in developing school bullying pre-vention and intervention programs.
    Keyword:Crisis, Parental Neglect, School Bullying, Cyber Bullying, ADHD
  • Today, due to the rapid development of science and technology, the war on more than 1000 large and small terrorist groups around the world has already begun due to fundamental changes in the types and patterns of terrorism. In particular, Northeast Asia is a buffer state of the neighboring powers, and national security crises such as war, terrorism and factor assassination have been continuously occurring. Extensive academic research is required. This study analyzes why terrorism by North Korea occurs and identifies the types of terrorist attacks by Aircraft and Airport terror, Cyber terrorism, Nuclear terrorism was used to analyze the causes of terrorism in North Korea. In addition, the direction of the information agency through anti-terrorism activities was divided into HR man-agement system, Establishment of legal basis, and Establishment of Intelligence Agency Cooperation System.
    Keyword:Terrorism Crisis, Terrorist Attacks, Aircraft and Airport Terror, Cyber Terrorism, Nuclear Terrorism
  • The study reviewed and evaluated the management status and usefulness of more than 30 items through basic statistical annual reports of national parks, state parks, and military parks from 2009 to 2018. The results of this study are as follows. In terms of the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, the evaluation of the effectiveness of management of animal and plant resources, endangered species resources, cultural resources, and landscape resources management shows that national parks with the largest scale, budget support and input in all areas utility was the lowest compared to provincial and county parks. In terms of facility management, the utility of national parks was lowest than that of provincial and military parks. In the area of safety management and use management, it is generally well managed in terms of area and management cost, but more active and practical use management is needed to cope with the change in demand of users due to the change of accessibility and visit type. Judging. In conclusion, this study surveyed the management status of 78 natural parks in 22 national parks, 29 provincial parks and 27 county parks in Korea. There were many places, and because the responsibility and management of administrative districts were not clear, integrated park management was difficult. Therefore, provincial and military parks, which are mandated as local governments, recognize the weakness of local financial conditions and expertise in park management, and in order to overcome their differences with the national park, We believe it is necessary to improve and supplement the management system such as government policy reflection and active financial support.
    Keyword:Hierarchical, Nature Park, National Park, Park Management, Policy Reflection
  • Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. Halliday developed an internationally influential grammar model—the Systemic Functional Grammar. It is the main foundation of CDA is as well as other theories in pragmatics. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among ideology, language and power and to find out how to use the power of speeches to persuade the audience to accept and support his policies. The researcher selected the full transcript from former president Barack Obama’s acceptance speech on Wednesday morning, Nov. 7, 2012. Then the researcher applied Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar, in terms of one of the meta-functions: interpersonal function, to find out the formal features of Obama’s speeches. According to the Halliday’s theory, the researcher summarizes the fea-tures of Obama’s speeches as follow. First, through the analysis of modality, Obama made his audience more easily to understand and accept his political speeches by means of modal verbs, structure and word choice. Next, he used more simple words and short sentences instead of difficult ones. Thus, it shortened the distance between him and the audience easily. Also, by using first person pronouns, especially ‘we’, he successfully shortened the distance between him and the public. So it can help him persuade the audience to accept and support his policies. CDA explores the relationships among ideology, language and power. The results of this study provide a new idea and method to analyze public addresses. Also we looked at different strategies used by speakers on the panel to persuade the listeners about their opinions and judgments. So it is worth for English learners to pay more atten-tion.
    Keyword:Critical Discourse Analysis, Halliday, Systemic Functional Grammar, Public Speech, Interpersonal Function
  • The human resources that make up the local government organizations in Korea can be broadly divided into local civil servants under the Local Public Officials Act and indefinite-term contract workers and fixed-term workers under the Labor Standards Act. The main purpose of this study is to statistically verify if the education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers in local government organizations have a positive effect on their performance. In addition, this study performs an empirical analysis on the moderating effect of the variable of feedback of education and training on the relationship between education/training and the performance of the indefinite-term contract workers. As a result of analyzing perception survey data among local government organizations' personnel managers, education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers were found to have a statistically significant positive effect on the workers’ performance. Moreover, feedback of education and training, that is, the level at which result from education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers reflected in the personnel management showed an effect as a moderating variable that controls the positive relationship between education/training and performance, although not statistically significant. The analysis results of this study have the following importance and expected effects. First, theoretically expected effects of this study; majority of previous studies on the indefinite-term contract workers of local governments were exploratory studies discussing the concept, status, or related regulations of such workers. In contrast, this study contributes to the theoretical expansion of existing studies on the indefinite-term contract workers by providing empirical evidences through quantitative analysis on the relationship between education/training and performance, which is one of the main areas of personnel management. Second, practically expected effects of this study; the positive relationship between education/training and performance of indefinite-term contract workers and moderating effect of the feedback of education and training on the positive relationship make contribution to presenting concrete grounds for policy and institutional preparation for the design and operation of education/training programs for indefinite-term contract workers in local governments and linkage between results of education/training and personnel management.
    Keyword:Human Capital Management Crisis, Indefinite-term Contract Workers, Education & Training, Per formance, Local Governments
  • The primary purpose of this study was to explore the importance of types of learning sport rules which could influence sport enjoyment and future consumption. This study aimed to find strategies which could prevent crisis from challenges in sports industry with saturated market and declining attendance. Secondly, the researcher could seek to examine the influence of learning sport rules on sport fan behavior. Among many factors, knowledge was considered as a significant element during the initial stage of becoming a sport fan. People that ‘know’ or ‘recognize’ a sport, team, and players by being exposed and learning the rules of play increase aware-ness, which was a fundamental and basic step for becoming a sport fan for enjoyment. However, learning sport rules was considered a minor aspect of knowledge and little attention has been paid to it as a factor of fan development. Based on 260 respondents, the present study explored the relationship among learning sport rules, enjoyment, and future consumption behavior of sport fans. Structural Equational Modeling(SEM) was used to test the model and examine the more meaningful relationships among learning sport rules, enjoyment, and future consumption behavior. The results showed that the proposed structural model has shown a good fit based on the result of Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) and SEM which indicated that learning types of sport rules influence enjoyment of sport and enjoyment has a significant influence on future intention of sport-related consumption. This finding would aid practitioners in sport-related fields by making it possible to build efficient marketing strategies which could prevent several challenges and crisis of sports industry. Also, the findings of the current study would offer implications for academic and practical personnel by providing specific evidence of how knowledge of sport rules and learning paths impact the understanding of sport fan behavior.
    Keyword:Sports Industry Crisis, Sport Rules Learning, Sport Rules Acquisition, Sport Enjoyment, Sport Consumption
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study was to set up the acceptance-commitment therapy(ACT)-based anger crisis management program for patients with schizophrenia and then examine and determine the effects of that pro-gram on the psychological flexibility and anger expression style(i.e., anger control, anger in and anger out) of those patients. Methods: A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was employed. Participants of the study were 45 inpatients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. For this study, the ACT-based anger crisis management program was applied to the experimental group(n=23) over 4 weeks with 2 sessions per week based. Meanwhile, the control group(n=22) received usual care services from their primary health care providers with-out any experiment with the ACT-based program. The study was carried out from May to July, 2019. Data were statistically processed and analyzed using the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the independent t-test in accordance with the IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0. Findings: The experimental group showed a significant improvement in psychological flexibility(t=5.09, p<.001) and anger control(t=5.09, p<.001) and a significant reduction in anger-in(t=2.44, p=.019) and anger-out(t=2.44, p=.019). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the ACT-based anger crisis management program could be useful as a mental health nursing intervention that realizes the improved psychological flexibility and more effective anger expression style of patients with schizophrenia.
    Keyword:Crisis, Schizophrenia, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Anger Management Therapy, Psy-chological Flexibility