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  • In the past boundary space in the condominium complexes was closed space however, recently it is changing that the space is recognized like physical and social perception of the open public space or partly open space. According to this point of view, the boundary space in condominium complexes have significant meanings for interaction between housing dwellers and local community on the other hand, there is weakness part that it is highly vulnerable to crime. Therefore, this study attempted to identify CPTED planning factors about the boundary space to prevent crime and analyze the importance of them which is reflected openness in the apartment housing complexes. In addition the main purpose of the research is suggesting the right direction of planning open boundary space that it is able to interact with the local people and safe for residents so, this research examined the importance of planning factors thought AHP analysis. To eliciting the urban design factors, it was selected the planning principles of CPTED as a superordinate con-cept. There are some principles such as natural surveillance, access control, territory reinforcement, revitalization of community activities and maintenance management. However, it excluded the maintenance control in fact that it was the principle after the city plan set up and it is an unsuitable planning factor for this research. The fallowing step, it considered literature review, CPTED guideline and it classified a comprehensive list of elements. Finally it deduced them using literature review, brain storming, FGI(Focus Group Interview). The quantitative research method was used to investigating the importance. The questionnaire started during 4th to 14th October 2016 and it targeted over postgraduate students, research institute and the other expert at the related engineering company. The research method carried out an individual interview and online survey and it distributed 100 questionnaire papers and 83 % of them returned. But, only 67 surveys presented that con-sistency index(C.R) was below 0.1 and which means the research standard is over 90. The result of analysis showed that it has to presenting natural surveillance and revitalization of community activities, cooperation and interaction among the residents rather than promoting closeness and creating private spatialization within the boundary space like access control and territoriality reinforcement. Therefore, the boundary area in the condominium complex should be established as an open space for local revitalization and communication between residents and their neighborhood. Moreover, it ought to prevent crime or accident through the interaction and social activities with local people and residents for a safe city. This study bears great significance that it has investigated and developed the importance of CPTED planning factors about boundary space in the apartment housing complex based on openness of the area and it may be use for the basic data for designing crime prevention regarding to boundary space in the condominium complex.
    Keyword:Condominium Complex, Boundary Space, CPTED, Safety, Planning Factors
  • People living this modern world where not only changes in the food culture but also many other factors that have harmful effects on their health find the means to prevent the various habit diseases and adult diseases from the food products they encounter all the time. The junkwa traditional food in Korea, and how it is difficult to manufacture. So very high calorie. In this study, using the rice cooker is to simplify the method of junkwa made with fresh ginseng. The following is the summary of the study. This study examined low calorie sweeteners (xylitol, oligosaccharide, stevioside, erythritol) instead of sugar for fresh ginseng junkwa to satisfy customers' health needs. After adding sugar, xylitol, oligosaccharide, stevio-side and erythritol to fresh ginseng junkwa. The fresh ginseng(Gangwha, 4 yrd old) chosen to make junkwa add-ing xylitol, oligosaccharide, stevioside, erythritol were 2cm in width and 15 cm in length that were fairly straight in shape. Fresh ginseng was cut into pieces of 7 mm thickness and 500 g of the cut ginseng were parboiled in 1L of boiling water in a pot(stainless, diameter : 20 cm, height : 15 cm). The fresh ginseng was then drained off of water on a mesh strainer and the 500 g of water that was boiled with fresh ginseng and 500 g of sugar were put together in an electronic rice cooker and were stirred to melt the sugar. When the sugar was totally dissolved into water, the 500 g of previously boiled fresh ginseng pieces were put into boiled liquid and was boiled down together for 205 minutes, and then was drained off the liquid on the mesh strainer and was examined for the experiment. Fresh ginseng junkwa added with xylitol, oligosaccharide, stevioside, erythritol were also produced through the same procedure. The fresh junkwa produced were put into experimentation under the room temper-ature of 24℃ for 12 days. The moisture level of junkwa made with fresh ginseng at different sweeteners were the lowest in the added with oligosaccharide. The chewiness and L-values were same to the lowest in the added with oligosaccharide. The difference in sweet taste showed that the fresh ginseng junkwa with oligosaccharide met the requirement of all storage periods. Therefore, oligosaccharide was a good ingredient for fresh ginseng junkwa.
    Keyword:Junkwa, Sweetener, Fresh Ginseng, Moisture Level, Sugar Level
  • In the process of the development, establishment and improvement of industrialization, the pension system has played an important role in maintaining social stability and promoting economic development, and it became the safety valve of social and economic operation. Chinese introduced the pension system under direction of socialist ideology, the reform of the system is mainly carried out by government’s executive order, and distribute to other places. However, with the establishment of China’s market economy system, the pension system has also undergone a structural change, such as the imple-mentation of multi-level pension system, government policy and private account system, and the rural pension insurance system. South Korea made “National Welfare Pension Law” in 1973, and it was formally implemented in 1988. Prom-inent features of the pension system are as follows: the legal form of the implementation system, expand cover-age on the basis of the number of workers, businesses and individuals share contribution rate of 4.5% of one’s salary. In addition, South Korea has also focused on the financial stability of pension funds, since 1988, invest-ment funds was used, with “profitability, stability, publicity, liquidity, operational independence” as the basic investment principles, pursuit transparent and effective pension fund investment. Also, the country developed annual “Investment Policy White Paper” which clearly defined objectives and long-term asset allocation strategy, investment benchmarks and prevention mechanisms, recruitment agencies and other specially commissioned content, to facilitate investment management and efficiency. From 2007 to 2015, investment income rate has maintained at a high level, reaching an average 5.64 percent. Even though the People’s Republic of China(hereinafter China) has improved its pension insurance system, the country’s aging population, eroding ability to pay benefits, asymmetric regional financial burdens, and consider-able transition costs present problems in managing pension funds, preserving and increasing their valuations, and improving investment mechanisms. In fund management, in order to improve the effectiveness of fund man-agement, China needs to create investment management suited to China’s Pension Insurance System, seek for diversified investors and investment targets, establish policies and targets for pension fund investments and management and better supervision of investments as South Korea such measures will have a positive impact on the future of reform and design. This paper based on the basic content of pension fund management and the inherent requirements of the system design. It combines theoretical precedents and case analyses to apply the principles underlying pension fund management in Korea to China. It analyzes the national conditions in China and its pension operations, identifies problems, and proposes solutions.
    Keyword:Pension Fund, Pension Fund Investment Crisis, Pension Fund Investment Management in Korea, Countermeasure Analysis, Pension System
  • Economics, which has failed to predict and resolve the 2008 financial crisis, has faced much criticism. Espe-cially, skeptical voices on the core assumptions of economics: economic rationality (Homo economicus) and the autonomous mechanism and stability of the market, have been raised. Also, it has been criticized of focusing only on mathematical models and overlooking the complexity and uncertainty of reality. Secondary school economic education aims to cultivate economic citizenship that can make rational decision based on economic knowledge in reality. Therefore, economics plays a very important role in economic education in terms of being its core content; economics having faced much criticism, economic education also has to set a new direction after the financial crisis. Having recognized these problems, this study aims to discuss what economic education after the financial crisis should be and how it could be taught. First is to introduce pluralism, which insists to depart from mainstream economics monoism and to deal with minor economic issues. Students will be able to develop critical thinking skills while learning a variety of compet-ing economic theories and analyzing and interpreting the real economy based on them. Second is to start a full-fledged discussion on bringing economic ethics into classroom. The necessity of eco-nomic ethics has long been discussed, but it is not being handled in the actual education field due to various problems. Because financial crisis is closely related to ethical issues such as human greed and injustice, it is nec-essary to fully attempt to discuss economic ethics at school. Finally, such changes in the content area of economic education inevitably lead to changes in the teaching method. The existing lecture-based education is not adequate for class based on pluralistic theories and has difficulties on addressing economic ethics related to affective attitude properly. Therefore, it is necessary to break from lecture-based education that focuses on transferring economic knowledge and to introduce various learning methods such as discussion, cooperative learning, and project-based learning. In face of criticism of economics, secondary school economic education centered on economic knowledge also faced new challenges. In order not to suffer repeated economic crises, it is necessary to prepare for the future based on reflection on past failures. The best way is to educate students. In a society where complexity and uncertainties are prevalent, to raise students into economic entities that can make rational decisions based on various information, classroom eco-nomic education should be improved. I hope that more concerns and discussions on the contents and methods of economic education will be actively pursued.
    Keyword:Financial Crisis, Economic Education, Economic Ethics, Pluralism, Teaching Method
  • This study is focused on festivals that can secure regional identity crisis. Local festivals, in particular, include local identity, which enhances self esteem, friendship, and solidarity. Also, recognizing that local identity is an important heritage that includes the social, cultural, historical, and local as-pects of the area, local festivals that do not include local identities will not be able to perform the important functions of the festival. Therefore, we tried to examine the relationship between Andong International Talmance Festival, which is the representative festival of the region, and local identity. In order to grasp this relationship, the concept of regional identity was identified, and the components of local identity were analyzed, and the relationship between these components and the Andong Dance Festival was analyzed. As a result, Andong residents perceived Andong International Talmanche Festival as a local identity (spatiality, sociality, temporality) of Andong, and the Andong Talmance International Festival festival was found to have a certain relationship with spatiality, sociality, and time which constitute local identity. However, in the festival evaluation survey, there are evaluations of domestic visitors and foreign visitors. However, since the opinions of local residents participating in the festival are not reflected, the festival emphasizes only the economic aspect of revitalizing the local economy. It is not enough to reflect. It is necessary to add Andong International Mask Dance Festival to the residents of Andong area(participants and non-females), which are important mem-bers of the festival, so that they can better reflect local identity in the next festival. This study seems to have some deficiency in securing generality by analyzing festival and local identity by using single festival, secondary data, and documentary data. However, these studies suggest that a new ap-proach to local festivals is needed. In other words, regional festivals function in various aspects such as economic aspect and cultural aspect, but the most essential function is to secure local identity. A local identity is a concept that includes a macroscopic and implicit meaning that includes the local tradition, culture and solidarity over a long period of time. Therefore, the identity of the local community, which has recently been weakened, is a nec-essary concept for the developmental aspect of local autonomy. This study is meaningful in terms of considering the ways to overcome the regional identity crisis.
    Keyword:District Festival, Crisis, Andong International Mask Festival, Spatiality, Temporality, Sociality
  • The purpose of this comparative study is to examine how courts in US and Korea may take on the role of a policy facilitator that encourages policy entrepreneurs to open the policy window for addressing climate change. As the result of analyzing MA v. EPA decided in 2007, a typical example of the judicial activism in US, it was found that the US Court widened the scope of standing to sue and ordered passive administrators and legislators to open the policy window. The US state governments and environmental advocate groups used litigation as a strategic tool to nudge the federal government to take actions in the issue area of climate change. However, climate change policy in Korea was mostly initiated and led by the president and its administration under global governance with little judicial roles. In 2006, the president promulgated the national vision on a low carbon green growth. By launching the Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth in 2010, the government integrated climate change and global warming policy, new renewable energy and sustainable development pol-icy, and others, which were used to be carried out separately under the individual laws of various Ministries. The less active judicial roles are often found in the field of high specialty such as clean air affairs, the closest area to climate change. The judiciary has been deferring to administrative actions by applying the strict criteria of standing to sue and thus by limiting any chance of reviewing them by itself. The Courts, regardless of types, left an ample space for administrative discretion, and it has never been found that petition’s argument is ac-cepted against administrators’ will, whether anti-environmental or not. In particular, the Constitutional Court tends to lean toward judicial deference more than does the Supreme Court. It has rejected all cases related to clear air at the preliminary step of standing to petition even before entering into judgement on the merits. Generally speaking, it is highly difficult for civic groups and others to file a lawsuit due to their strict procedural requirements in Korea. The judiciary tends to apply the very strict criteria of standing to whether a plaintiff is qualified or not, and it seriously limits any judicial chance of reviewing administrative actions by itself. It is im-perative that related lawsuits be allowed more widely in terms of standing to sue. This will promote more active civic participation in the decision-making process of climate change policy as in US cases.
    Keyword:Climate Change Crisis, Climate Change Policy, Judicial Role, Judicial Review, Carbon Emission