Analysis on the CRISIS and Countermeasures of CHINA’s Pension Fund Investment Operation -A Case Study on the Investment Management of Pension Funds in KOREA-
Chinese introduced the pension system under direction of socialist ideology, the reform of the system is mainly carried out by government’s executive order, and distribute to other places. However, with the establishment of China’s market economy system, the pension system has also undergone a structural change, such as the imple-mentation of multi-level pension system, government policy and private account system, and the rural pension insurance system.
South Korea made “National Welfare Pension Law” in 1973, and it was formally implemented in 1988. Prom-inent features of the pension system are as follows: the legal form of the implementation system, expand cover-age on the basis of the number of workers, businesses and individuals share contribution rate of 4.5% of one’s salary. In addition, South Korea has also focused on the financial stability of pension funds, since 1988, invest-ment funds was used, with “profitability, stability, publicity, liquidity, operational independence” as the basic investment principles, pursuit transparent and effective pension fund investment. Also, the country developed annual “Investment Policy White Paper” which clearly defined objectives and long-term asset allocation strategy, investment benchmarks and prevention mechanisms, recruitment agencies and other specially commissioned content, to facilitate investment management and efficiency. From 2007 to 2015, investment income rate has maintained at a high level, reaching an average 5.64 percent.
Even though the People’s Republic of China(hereinafter China) has improved its pension insurance system, the country’s aging population, eroding ability to pay benefits, asymmetric regional financial burdens, and consider-able transition costs present problems in managing pension funds, preserving and increasing their valuations, and improving investment mechanisms. In fund management, in order to improve the effectiveness of fund man-agement, China needs to create investment management suited to China’s Pension Insurance System, seek for diversified investors and investment targets, establish policies and targets for pension fund investments and management and better supervision of investments as South Korea such measures will have a positive impact on the future of reform and design.
This paper based on the basic content of pension fund management and the inherent requirements of the system design. It combines theoretical precedents and case analyses to apply the principles underlying pension fund management in Korea to China. It analyzes the national conditions in China and its pension operations, identifies problems, and proposes solutions.
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A Study on the CRISIS of Nursing College Students' Family Intimacy, Interpersonal Relationship Tendency, and Communication Ability on Self-LeadershipPurpose: This study was attempted to find out the influencing factors of self-leadership in nursing college students. Method: This study is a descriptive research study to identify the correlation between family intimacy, interpersonal relationship tendency, communication ability, self-leadership and the factors influencing self-leadership. Data collection was conducted from June 7 to June 20, 2020, targeting 236 nursing universities located in Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do. Results: The subjects' family intimacy, interpersonal tendency, communication ability, and self-leadership showed statistically significant correlations in the positive direction. As a result of multiple regression analysis, the F value of the regression model fit was statistically significant at 42.29(<.001). Factors influencing self-leadership were family intimacy, interpersonal relationship tendency, and communication ability. Conclusion: In order to help nursing students adapt to college life, it is necessary to develop self-leadership, which is an individual's inner ability, develop a curriculum that strengthens interpersonal skills, and develop curriculum and comparison programs to enhance coping methods.Keyword:Self-Leadership, Family-Intimacy, Interpersonal-Relations, Communication, Nursing-Students
Purpose: Drugs made for medical purposes could have been a mysterious potion if they were used only for their original purpose, but the reason why many people are concerned about the safety of mankind due to the enormous destructive power of drugs. It may be close to instinct for people to avoid pain and discomfort, chase joy, and pleasure, but if they borrow the power of drugs for this pleasure, the price will return to tremendous harm like boomerang. Research policy countermeasures against new drugs crime in Korea. Method: Traditional drugs are usually classified into natural drugs, synthetic drugs, and psychotropic drugs. Through the classification and definition of drugs, the characteristics of new drugs are identified and the current status of distribution of new drugs is analyzed. Policy countermeasures are derived through foreign cases. By analyzing the characteristics of crimes against new drugs, the government will subdivide punishment standards for temporary drugs and study ways to prepare bills to quickly punish the inhalation of unspecified hallucinogenic substances. Results: In order to cope with new drugs at this point, the priority introduction of a unified one-stop system through transnational institutions is required. Through this, it is necessary to establish a system that can focus on responding to crimes related to new drugs by integrating the system of crackdown agencies that are currently sporadically divided, such as the police, prosecutors, the Korea Maritime Police Agency, and the Korea Customs Service. In addition, continuous management is needed through linkage with treatment and rehabilitation facilities. Conclusion: Laws should be prepared to analyze the characteristics of crimes against new drugs to subdivide punishment standards for temporary drugs and to promptly punish the inhalation of unspecified hallucinogenic substances. In addition, crackdown and punishment on drug offenders are important, but it should not be forgotten that continuous management through connection with treatment and rehabilitation facilities is necessary to fundamentally prevent recidivism of drug offenders.Keyword:Drugs, New Drugs, New Drugs Crime, Narcotics, Super Drugs
Development of a Program Model for Improving the SAFETY Problem Solving Thinking Ability of ChildhoodPurpose: This study is to design a program model to improve the ability of young children to solve safety problems. Because safety has a dynamic relationship with life psychologically and physically, it not only affects the quality of life of infants but also can be directly connected to life, so the purpose of this study is to develop a method to improve thinking ability to solve problems in safety situations. Method: For this purpose, seven areas of safety related picture books were selected based on the seven standards of school safety: life safety, traffic safety, violence and personal safety, drug cyber addiction safety, disaster safety, occupational safety and first aid. Results: This study is to construct a model system. The model system can convert safety-related picture books into experiences that can occur in the life of young children and repeat the experience of solving problems through musical drama activities Conclusion: The musical drama activities using safety-related picture books proposed in this paper will improve the safety problem solving thinking ability of young children. This is difficult to expect the effect of early childhood safety education when it is conducted with knowledge. The musical drama program model using safety-related picture books has significance in that it experiences problem solving while experiencing the experience with the child's own understanding and reasoning repeatedly based on the safety situation. In conclusion, safety problems are the ability to improve through the experience of solving the children themselves.Keyword:Safety Related, Picture Book, Musical Drama, Safety Problem, Solving Ability
Purpose: This Study aimed to investigate elementary school teacher’s knowledge, attitude regarding cardio pulmonary resuscitation(CPR) and Explore which factors affect their intention to performance CPR. Method: Data were collected from March 1 to November 30, 2019 from 164 elementary school teacher’s. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS/WIN 23.0 program for descriptive statistics, independent t-test, One way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and logistic regression. Results: There were significant differences in knowledge and attitude and intention to performance CPR ac –cording to education satisfaction. There were positive correlation between attitude and intention to performance CPR. Factors influencing. These factors explained 15.0% of the variance in intention to perform the CPR. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that In CPR education, it is important to develop and apply standardized programs such as education contents, education time, and education methods, and it is necessary to operate effective CPR education programs by conducting education that meets the educational needs of the subjects.Keyword:CPR, Knowledge Attitude, Performance, Intention, CPR Education Program
The Effect of Academic Burnout of Elementary School Students on the Smartphone Game Addiction CRISIS: Mediating Effects of Anxiety and ADHD TendencyPurpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the effect of academic burnout of elementary school students on the smartphone game addiction and investigate as to what mediating effects of anxiety and ADHD tendency have in this process. Method: A survey was conducted targeting 654 elementary school students from two elementary schools in the capital area, and the levels of academic burnout, anxiety, ADHD tendency, and smartphone game addiction were surveyed. The collected data were analyzed based on the structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: The results were as follows. First, the academic burnout turned out to directly or indirectly increase the smartphone game addiction. Second, anxiety turned out to indirectly increase the smartphone game addiction, while the ADHD tendency directly increased the smartphone game addiction. Third, three pathways of academic burnout on the smartphone game addiction were verified, where the direct pathway of 'academic burnout → smartphone game addiction' and the two indirect pathways of ‘academic burnout → ADHD tendency, → smartphone game addiction’ and ‘academic burnout → anxiety → ADHD tendency → smartphone game addiction’ turned out to be significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that in order to prevent the smartphone game addiction of the elementary school students, the intervention for academic and emotional problems such as academic burnout, anxiety, and ADHD tendency ought to be conducted together.Keyword:Academic Burnout, Anxiety, ADHD Tendency, Smartphone Game Addiction
A Study on DPPH and ABTS Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Evaluation of Seolgitteok with Walnut and Health CRISIS(Juglans Regia)Purpose: Life expectancy of human beings has increased due to marked advancement of medical science. Along with this increase, people are becoming more interested in living longer in good health, which in turn has imparted significant effects on dietary life. As such, the advantageous physiological characteristics of food items are being highlighted and gaining in popularity. Therefore, this study is concerned with production of “tteok”(rice cake) with the addition of walnut, a functional ingredient capable of suppressing oxidation and thus having significant effects with regard to diseases. Method: Based on various research data, it is known that continuous walnut consumption is effective for inducing antioxidation in the human body. Moreover, from experimental results of studies on cancer and stress-mediated diseases, it is known that phenols and flavonoids are effective in inducing antioxidation. Accordingly, this study is aimed at examining the extent of the antioxidation effect from the addition of walnut when making Seolgitteok with non-glutinous rice, as well as the commercial value of that effect. Results: For this purpose, the correlation between walnut contents of 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 9%, as the control group, phenol and flavonoid The content was correlated with the dose through DPPH and ABTS elimination. The chromaticity and other properties of steamed Seolgitteok were quantified through sensory evaluation to identify the optimal walnut content for commercialization. Conclusion: Accordingly, the results of this study were deemed to be helpful for purposes of qualitative improvement of the tteok industry by disclosing the physiological characteristics of Seolgitteok containing walnut.Keyword:Walnut, Seolgitteok, Antioxidation, DPPH, ABTS
A Study to Enhance MULTICULTURAL Acceptance of Local Governments through Analysis of Factors Influencing Multicultural AcceptancePurpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the multicultural acceptance perception survey to verify the relationship between each demographic and social factor, contact factor, and multicultural education and multicultural acceptance, and to suggest measures to improve multicultural acceptance by region. Most of the preceding studies in Korea have proven simple relevance through multicultural acceptance analysis, but this study focuses on local autonomy and suggests the justification for multicultural acceptance education and central government budget allocation. Method: This study used the data from the 2018 General Public Multicultural Acceptance Survey, the most recent data of the General Public Multicultural Acceptance Survey conducted every three years by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family to verify variables affecting multicultural acceptance. This survey selected a total of 4,006 men and 1,970 women as a probability sample (multistage stratified sample by region, gender, and age) based on the 2016 Population and Housing Census(Statistics Office). The variables in this study were the dependent variables such as multicultural acceptance score(subordinate variable), demographic factor, contact factor, and multicultural education(independent variable), and regression analysis was conducted using SPSS 21.0, a statistical program. Results: As a result of the statistical analysis of this study, it was found that in the case of demographic factors, men, younger age, and higher education had a positive effect on multicultural acceptance. Looking at the contact factors, as direct contact, multicultural events, festivals, and strong relationships with foreigners could increase multicultural acceptance. In the case of indirect contact, multicultural acceptance could be increased when exposed to positive mass media content. In the case of the number of multicultural education sessions, the more education received, the more positive the acceptance was. On the other hand, it was found that household income, occupation and foreign contact, which were factors that had a significant influence in previous studies, did not have a significant effect in this study. Conclusion: This study, which identified the factors affecting multicultural acceptance by using statistical analysis, believes that it has a value to contribute to preparing measures to improve multicultural acceptance suitable for local governments. In the case of local governments, multicultural education can be conducted by selecting groups by gender, age and educational background. In addition, festivals and events with foreigners can be planned, and positive foreign-related broadcasts can be planned on YouTube videos promoted by local broadcasters or local governments.Keyword:Multicultural Acceptance, Multicultural Education, Local Governments, Contact Factor, Demographic and Social Factor
Purpose: As the number of foreign plants adapted to the urban environment increased, urban plants that could grow and adapt to the city appeared. These plants invade the existing ecosystem and provide direct and indirect risk factors to plants and humans, such as vegetation disturbance in nature and cities and pollen allergy. This study is expected to be used as a standard for urbanization indicators by selecting indicator species through distribution analysis of naturalized plants. Method: This study was analyzed based on flora survey data for 12 years from 2006 to 2017, the 3rd to 4th National Natural Environment Survey period, including 1200 places(776 map index system numbers). For distribution analysis of naturalized plants, matrix analysis was applied. The researchers analyzed the number of species by frequency of appearance in 162 cities and counties and the number of species by frequency of appearance in 1200 places. In addition, this study classified the distribution grades by the matrix analysis and tried to select the urbanization indicator species by conducting the first and second stages of evaluation. Results: As a result of the second stage evaluation, 34 species were selected. There were 28 species with grades 2 to 3 in the distribution grade. There were 6 species with a naturalization rate of 15% or more and an appearance rate of 40% or more. Species with an urbanization index of 15% or more and an appearance rate of 40% or more were analyzed as 15 species. As a result of synthesizing the evaluation items, researchers selected 6 species as urbanization indicators species. Conclusion: The urbanization indicator species had a low distribution grade, and they had a high frequency of appearance in 17 administrative districts. Researchers selected species of high appearance rates in areas with high naturalization rates and species of high appearance rates in regions with high urbanization indexes. As a result, 6 species were selected, including Juncea, Supina, Coccinea, Great ragweed, Common groundsel, and Asper.Keyword:Urbanization Indicator Species, Exotic Plants, Naturalized Plants, Naturalization Rate, Urbanization Index
Probing the Relationship between Satisfaction with FLEXIBLE-WORK Arrangement and Performance: With a Focus on the Moderating Effect of Organizational CommitmentPurpose: There are two primary purposes of this study. The first of which is to examine and validate the relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and(individual) performance in the public sector. The second of which is to quantitatively validate the moderating effect of organizational commitment on the relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance. Recognizing that studies in Korea on the flexible work arrangement, especially most of the quantitative studies have been focused on the studies to validate the effect of the flexible work arrangement, and given the inadequacy of the studies statistically validating the relationship with the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement, the goal lies with contributing to the development of the flexible work arrangement related studies. Method: To validate the hypothesis of this study, the data of the 2020 Public Service Life Survey provided by the Korea Institute of Public Administration was utilized. The target of this study was civil servants serving at general(administrative/technical/managemental) duties affiliated with central administrative agencies and self governing governments. Variables for this study include performance(dependent variable), satisfaction with flexible work arrangement(independent variable), organizational commitment(control variable), gender, age, marital status, educational background, and position(control variable), etc. To validate the hypothesis, a statistical analysis was performed to validate the moderating effect by using the regression analysis. Results: The key contents of the results of the statistical analysis of this study are as follows. First, the more the civil servant perceived greater satisfaction with the flexible work arrangement, the higher the individual's perceived performance level. Second, it was confirmed that the organizational commitment variable has had the effect of partially adjusting the positive relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance. In conclusion, both the first and second hypotheses used in this study were statistically verified. In connection with the control variables, the perceived(individual) performance of the older civil servant also turned out to be higher, and it was analyzed that the perceived performance of the unmarried civil servants was higher than that of the married. Furthermore, it turned out that there is a positive relationship of influence between the level of education and performance. Conclusion: This study, which presented a positive relationship of influence through the quantitative analysis between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance, is determined to be capable of making contribution to the development of domestic flexible work arrangement related studies to date. Furthermore, in order to further expand the positive relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance, it was confirmed through the validation of the hypothesis of this study that the extent of organizational commitment of the members is crucial.Keyword:Flexible-Work Arrangement, Satisfaction with Flexible-Work Arrangement, Performance, Organizational Commitment, Public Sector
Purpose: Currently, the number of single person households worldwide is increasing. Lifestyle-related diseases are increasing due to changes in consumption patterns, excessive intake of fat and cholesterol, and increased intake of processed foods. Therefore, modern people have increased their interest in health, and as they are more interested in vegetarian diets and exercise, the purchase and intake of protein useful for health is increasing. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the reasons for purchasing plant protein, expenditure cost, purchase type, etc. for consumers who have purchased plant-based protein, and to provide basic data when developing plant-based protein products. Method: From April 1 to 20, 2021, FGI(Focus Group Interview) was conducted with 12 people in their 20s and 12 people in their 30s.One person's interview took about 2 hours, and after recording, the contents were organized. Questions are the reasons for purchasing vegetable protein supplements, one-time purchase cost, type of vegetable protein supplement, and importance when purchasing vegetable protein supplements. Results: The ratio of men and women in their 20s and 30s was 50%, 12 people in their 20s and 12 people in their 30s.There were 10 students and 14 working people. Reasons to buy vegetable protein supplements include increased muscle mass, lower fat and cholesterol content than animal protein, and diet. The one-time purchase cost was 20,000 to 30,000 won, and the most common purchase of powdered vegetable protein supplements was the development of snacks, noodles, and confectionery. In addition, protein content, fat and cholesterol content, trusted brands, diet and help in increasing muscle mass were also considered important. Conclusion: It is best to develop vegetable protein products that consumers want, such as snacks, noodles, and bakery products addition, onetime cost is 20,000 to 30,000 won, and it is recommended to develop a products that can increase muscle mass and has low fat and low cholesterol content. Therefore, this study is thought to be helpful in the development of plant protein intake products suitable for the tastes of consumers in their 20s and 30s who are dieting and vegetarian.Keyword:Vegetable Protein, FGI(Focus Group Interview), Purchasing Behavior, Product Development, Consumer Demand