On the Directions of Economic Education after Financial CRISIS: What to and How to Teach
Secondary school economic education aims to cultivate economic citizenship that can make rational decision based on economic knowledge in reality. Therefore, economics plays a very important role in economic education in terms of being its core content; economics having faced much criticism, economic education also has to set a new direction after the financial crisis.
Having recognized these problems, this study aims to discuss what economic education after the financial crisis should be and how it could be taught.
First is to introduce pluralism, which insists to depart from mainstream economics monoism and to deal with minor economic issues. Students will be able to develop critical thinking skills while learning a variety of compet-ing economic theories and analyzing and interpreting the real economy based on them.
Second is to start a full-fledged discussion on bringing economic ethics into classroom. The necessity of eco-nomic ethics has long been discussed, but it is not being handled in the actual education field due to various problems. Because financial crisis is closely related to ethical issues such as human greed and injustice, it is nec-essary to fully attempt to discuss economic ethics at school.
Finally, such changes in the content area of economic education inevitably lead to changes in the teaching method. The existing lecture-based education is not adequate for class based on pluralistic theories and has difficulties on addressing economic ethics related to affective attitude properly.
Therefore, it is necessary to break from lecture-based education that focuses on transferring economic knowledge and to introduce various learning methods such as discussion, cooperative learning, and project-based learning.
In face of criticism of economics, secondary school economic education centered on economic knowledge also faced new challenges. In order not to suffer repeated economic crises, it is necessary to prepare for the future based on reflection on past failures.
The best way is to educate students. In a society where complexity and uncertainties are prevalent, to raise students into economic entities that can make rational decisions based on various information, classroom eco-nomic education should be improved.
I hope that more concerns and discussions on the contents and methods of economic education will be actively pursued.
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Understanding the Role of Parkinson’s Disease Nurse Specialists in Providing Personalized Care for Individuals with Parkinson’s and Their FamiliesPurpose: Parkinson's Disease Nurse Specialists(PDNS) play a vital role in delivering personalized care to individuals affected by Parkinson's disease(PD) and their families. This paper explores the multifaceted responsibilities of PDNS in managing and providing comprehensive care for the unique needs of PD patients. Additionally, it delves deeper into the specialized qualifications and training opportunities available for PDNS, with a particular focus on the United Kingdom's National Health Service(NHS). Method: A systematic review of literature and publications from reputable sources, including PubMed, The Lancet, Parkinson's Europe, and Parkinson's UK, has been conducted to gather pertinent information and insights regarding the crucial role of PDNS in enhancing the quality of life for PD patients. It also includes reviewing the latest PDNS learning pathway guidelines and the EU’s PD care manifesto. Results: A growing number of PD patients and families face communication difficulties with healthcare professionals, particularly consultants. There is a lack of awareness about the disease and its symptoms, which results in delayed diagnosis and inconsistent care plans. During consultations, there is a mismatch between the information provided and the information desired. Publications emphasize the critical roles of PDNS in the delivery of personalized care plans, emphasizing the importance of effective patient-provider communication for optimal plans. Conclusion: Effective communication and understanding of PD patients' and their family members' circumstances and emotional well-being contribute to informed care plans. PDNS play diverse roles in providing comprehensive patient and family support. They serve as primary contacts, walking alongside patients in their PD journey. It is vital for PDNS to cultivate a trusted relationship and receive ongoing support to enhance their skills. Government and charities hold critical roles in raising awareness and creating learning opportunities for PDNS and healthcare professionals. Research shows low shared decision-making in European PD care plans, leading to treatment inconsistencies. The European Union recognizes the importance of funding further research, stressing knowledge sharing for well-informed and standardized care plans, benefiting PD patients and families.Keyword:Parkinson’s Nurse Specialist, PDNS, Personalized PD Care, Parkinson’s Care Plans, TCM in Parkinson's
The Effect of ADHD Tendency on Depression and Anxiety in Elementary School Students: Mediating Effects of Friend SupportPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine the influences of elementary school students' ADHD tendency on their emotional problems such as depression and anxiety, and to verify the mediating effects of social relation-ships, specifically friend support, on these influences. Method: This study involved 456 students from two elementary schools in the capital area. The participants were surveyed regarding their ADHD tendency, friend support, depression, and anxiety levels. The data gathered were subsequently analyzed using a Structural Equation Model. Results: The results of the study are as follows: first, it was discovered that ADHD tendency in elementary school students directly affect friend support negatively. Second, the ADHD tendency was found to increase their levels of depression and anxiety, either directly or indirectly. Third, the ADHD tendency was shown to augment depression and anxiety via the route of friend support. Specifically, it was found that the paths of ‘ADHD tendency → friend support → depression’, ‘ADHD tendency → depression → anxiety’, ‘ADHD tendency → friend support → depression → anxiety’ were statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of this study can serve as basic data for developing effective emotional intervention programs for students with ADHD tendency, by identifying the specific paths through which these students' ADHD tendency influence their emotional difficulties.Keyword:ADHD, ADHD Tendency, Friend Support, Depression, Anxiety
Purpose: This study is a descriptive survey to determine the impact of stress experienced by hospital nurses on their work performance. Method: The research method was a survey of 122 nurses working in a more 300 bed hospital in J city in October 2022. As a research tool, the WPBE-TI, a 16-item measure of workplace stress developed by Lee(2014), was used, and the WPBE-CI, a 13-item measure of workplace stress outcomes, was used. Work performance was measured with the WPBE-CI, a 17-item instrument developed by Ko(2007) and others. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS Window 24.0 program. The effect of occupational stress on job performance was analyzed using simple regression analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that occupational stress has a significant effect on work performance, and the more occupational stress, the lower the work performance. Conclusion: It is recommended to develop an awareness program to create an environment that reduces occupational stress.Keyword:Nurses, Stress, Occupation, Performance, Work
Purpose: In urban society, street trees are closely related to our lives. However, many people do not recognize the existence and necessity of street trees on ordinary days. This study investigated the changes in the growth of street trees exposed to environmental damage and artificial management due to street maintenance. This paper aims to provide necessary data for street tree management by analyzing changes in the growth of street trees according to the road size in terms of temporal change and management of street trees. Method: Field surveys were conducted from June to September 2021 to identify the direction of maintenance for street trees by road size. The researchers collected and analyzed data on street tree roads and basic plan data on street trees in Suseong-gu in 1997. This paper conducted One-way ANOVA by six items(tree height, root-collar diameter, crown width, diameter at breast height, degree of tree health, and degree of environmental damage). Microsoft Office Excel 2007 program and Spss Statistics 21 statistical program were used for statistical analysis. Results: As a result of analyzing the current state of street trees in 2021 and the change amount by road size in 1997 data, on average, the tree height increased by 5.4m, the root-collar diameter increased by 22.3cm, the crown width increased by 2.1m, and the diameter at breast height increased by 12.8cm. The degree of tree health decreased by 0.2 points, and the degree of environmental damage decreased by 1.1 points. Conclusion: The tree form of street trees did not have a natural tree shape due to artificial management, and street trees were damaged due to lack of management and damage from surrounding shops. The analysis results show that the appearance of street trees has grown, but street trees' growth aspects(tree health, environmental damage) have regressed due to incorrect pruning work with tall trees according to laws and ordinances. This pa-per suggests that street trees' species selection and improvement supplement work should be done through continuous research in the future, and systematic and efficient management should be continuously carried out for satisfaction with street trees and pedestrians.Keyword:Street Trees, Roads, Tree Form, Degree of Tree Health, Degree of Environmental Damage
Purpose: Most processed wild vegetable products are dried, aged, and pickled vegetables. Developing processed wild vegetable foods is necessary to create new high-added value. Therefore, in this study, researchers tried to prepare basic data that can be utilized in various food manufacturing fields in the future through a survey of the awareness and use of edible wild vegetables that require the development of processed wild plants. Method: This paper investigated the awareness and use of wild vegetables, targeting adult men and women aged 20 or older residing in Daegu and Gyeongbuk. The survey consisted of questions about the perception, the degree of recognition, and the actual use of wild vegetables. As for the wild vegetable items of the awareness survey, 20 kinds of wild vegetables were selected with high awareness and mainly growing naturally in the Gyeongbuk area. Wild vegetable crops' perception and recognition degree were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 27.0 program. Results: Regarding the degree of recognition of wild vegetables, 'Wild vegetables have a unique scent and taste' was the highest at 4.25. As a result of the knowledge survey for wild vegetable crops, 'Artemisia princeps,' 'Capsella bursa-pastoris,' 'Aralia elata', 'Allium monanthum,' 'Aster scaber', and 'Sedum sarmentosum' showed high awareness in the order. For purchase consideration, the 20s respondents of 61.3% considered 'freshness' the most. For purchase purposes, 'for salads' was the highest at 15.1% in the 30s, and 'for bibimbap' was 42.6% in the 60s and older. Most respondents did not use wild vegetables for 'green juice' and 'decoration.' 'For side dish-es' was 70.4% in their 40s, the highest among all age groups(p<0.05). Conclusion: By investigating consumers' use and awareness of wild vegetables, the survey data can be used for distribution and marketing plans for edible wild vegetables, which are special forest products. In addition, the research results on the purchase purpose of wild vegetables, the actual use of wild vegetable products, and the degree of preference provide basic data for developing high-added-value products by using them in various processed foods and menu development.Keyword:Forest Products, Wild Vegetables, Awareness, Processed Wild Vegetable Foods, Use of Wild Vegetables
The Influence of the Knowledge of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Educational Experience on the Confidence of Nursing StudentsPurpose: This study is a descriptive research study intended to investigate the effect of the nursing students' knowledge and educational experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on their confidence. Method: The subjects of this study were 183 nursing students attending University V located in City J of Province J, and the study period ran from November 18 to November 29, 2019. As for the research tool, the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation related knowledge and confidence were used. As for the data analysis, confidence according to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge and educational experience of the nursing students was analyzed using the t-test, and knowledge was analyzed using the chi-square test. The relationship be-tween knowledge and educational experience and confidence of the nursing students was analyzed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge score was 9.6 points for 1st and 2nd years and 13.2 for 3rd and 4th years out of a total of 17 points, where the cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge was measured higher among the 3rd and 4th years. The confidence in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 3rd and 4th years with the experience in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice and clinical practice was 6.72 points, which was higher than 3.84 points for the 1st and 2nd years, and there was a statistically significant difference(p<0.05). Conclusion: Hence, in order to facilitate the cardiopulmonary resuscitation education, the educational support should be provided to develop an educational program that includes knowledge and build confidence in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Keyword:Nursing Student, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Knowledge, Educational Experience, Confidence
Purpose: The cabin crew's in-flight work consists of safety and security-related tasks and requires specialized knowledge. With the popularization of air travel, the importance of safety-related work for cabin crew is becoming more and more important. Therefore, it is time to consider the work of cabin crew from a safety-oriented point of view and study to clarify the duties of cabin crew. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cabin crew knowledge pursuance on work self-efficacy and safety orientation, and the effect of cabin crew job regulation on work self-efficacy and safety orientation. The mediating effect of work self-efficacy is also verified. Method: The questionnaire, targeting Korean staff working as flight attendant in domestic and overseas airline companies, has been carried out for this study, and on-line questionnaire has been processed as to maximize their participation. In this study, the hypothesis was verified through a structural equation model using 22 observational variables and 4 latent variables whose reliability and validity were confirmed through the evaluation of the measurement. Results: First, both knowledge pursuance and job regulation have a significant effect on the work self-efficacy of airline cabin crew. Second, knowledge pursuance had a significant effect on safety orientation, but job regulation had no significant effect on safety orientation. Third, work self-efficacy has a significant effect on safety orientation. Fourth, work self-efficacy is partially mediated in the relationship between knowledge pursuance and safety-orientation of airline cabin crew. Fifth, work self-efficacy is completely mediated in the relationship between job regulation and safety orientation of airline cabin crew, and the mediating effect is statistically significant. Conclusion: Cabin crew's efforts to continuously acquire and maintain professional knowledge on the overall safety of aircraft and safety for each aircraft type are important factors that enable the professionalism of the cabin crew. Safety knowledge and safety motivation play an important role as antecedent variables for carrying out safety behaviors consisting of safety compliance and safety participation. Proposals for various programs that allow indirect experience of safety-related situations include in-house safety seminars, easy-to-use VR-based safety accident and incident case, and constructive individual feedback. This training method will provide an opportunity for cabin crew to gain confidence in their ability to respond well to a variety of safety-related accidents and accidents based on their aviation-related safety knowledge.Keyword:Safety Orientation, Knowledge Pursuance, Job Regulation, Work Self-Efficacy, Cabin Crew
Analysis of Prior Research Trends on the Financial Safety for Components of Public Spending and Economic GrowthPurpose: The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the main content of discussions on the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth. Furthermore, the secondary purpose of this study is to analyze the main discussion content of the papers that studied the relationship between different items of government expenditure and economic growth. In this way, this study can contribute to exploring the research flow and direction between government spending and economic growth. Method: This study systematically collected and investigated quantitative and qualitative studies that analyzed the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth and the relationship between government spending items and economic growth. In addition, policy reports and related data on economic data and impact analysis between government spending and economic growth were additionally utilized in addition to the analysis of previous studies. Results: Most of the research so far has focused on the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth. In other words, it was confirmed that there were not many studies that recognized the differences between government expenditure items and analyzed the different quantitative relationships between different expenditure items and economic growth. Conclusion: In future research, it is necessary to analyze the different impact relationships between government spending items and economic growth, and follow-up studies that can suggest more specific and practical policy implications according to the results. It is also needed to analyze the quantitative relationship between different expenditure items and economic growth at the local government level and to draw implications for the different influence relationships between government spending and economic growth at different levels of government.Keyword:Financial Safety, Public Spending, Economic Growth, Government Expenditure, Components of Public Spending
Purpose: This is a single group related ex ante and ex post design study intended to examine and understand the effect of caffeine education on the cognitive improvement of college students. Method: From November 1, 2019 to November 29, 2019, a preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted with 103 junior year students from 2 health related departments at a university located in J city, Jeollabuk-do, once a week for 3 weeks, after which a total of 3 education sessions were conducted. The collected data were analyzed by using the frequency analysis and the paired sample t-test using the SPSS Win 18.0 program. Results: The mean for intake before education was 1.47±.40, and the mean for intake after education was 1.77± .47. The preeducational knowledge was 0.58± .23 and the post-educational knowledge was 0.89± .10. When the intake and knowledge levels were compared with those before the education, the mean score increased after the education. Through which, it is evident that the level of caffeine knowledge increased after the education. Conclusion: The caffeine education program reduced the frequency of the caffeine intake, and after the education, the rate of correct response for knowledge questions increased, thereby confirming the fact that the caffeine knowledge level was improved. Furthermore, after checking the caffeine content in the recognition and behavior, it was confirmed that there was an improvement in the positive direction of selecting beverages and selecting alternative foods. However, in order to generalize university students and expand and interpret the effects of the education, it is considered that a wide range of subjects and long-term education will be needed.Keyword:Caffeine, Education, Recognition, Knowledge, College Student
Analysis of the Difference and Correlation by Altitude in the Species Number of Vascular Plants and Naturalized Plants in KoreaPurpose: By analyzing 1,441 flora survey data of the 3rd to 5th data of the National Natural Environment Survey, the differences by region and altitude were analyzed in the species number of vascular plants and naturalized plants distributed throughout Korea, and the naturalization index. This study aimed to reveal the correlation by altitude in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. Method: This study utilized the flora survey data for 14 years from 2006 to 2019 in the 3rd to 5th National Natural Environment Survey. One-way ANOVA analysis was performed by region and altitude to examine the differences in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. Researchers performed curvilinear estimation regression analysis to find the correlation, and SPSS Statistics 21 statistical program was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were differences by region and altitude in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. The species number of vascular plants had a positive correlation with an increase in the number of species as the altitude increased. The species number of naturalized plants had a negative correlation with a decrease in the number of species as the altitude increased. The naturalization index had a negative correlation that decreased up to a certain altitude, increased after that point, and then decreased again. Conclusion: As for vascular plants, the higher the altitude, the greater the species number of vascular plants, and the lower the altitude, the fewer vascular plant species. Conversely, as for naturalized plants, the lower the altitude, the greater the species number of naturalized plants, and the higher the altitude, the fewer naturalized plant species. In addition, as for the naturalization index, the lower the altitude, the higher the naturalization index, and the higher the altitude, the lower the naturalization index. This study is expected to be utilized as basic data for managing naturalized plants.Keyword:Vascular Plants, Naturalized Plants, Naturalization Index, Flora, Correlation