Assessment of Relative Kidney Function in KOREA NUCLEAR Medicine Study Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Geometric Mean According to Kidney Depth
In this study, we investigate d the usefulness of geometric mean in measuring the RRFR by applying a geometric mean after counting radiation using the anterior posterior detector when the depths of the left and right kidneys are different.
Kidney model studies and clinical studies were performed using the Symbia T16 gamma camera system to obtain anterior and posterior images. For RRFR calculations, RRFR was measured by applying arithmetic mean, once with information only counted by the posterior detector. Again, with the information cou nted by the anterior and posterior detectors, the geometric mean was applied to measure the RRFR.
The results of the kidney model study were y = 0.23 + 0.38x, R 2 = 0.986 (p = 0.000), and the clinical results were y = 0.25 + 0.16x and R 2 = 0.82 3 (p = 0.000). It can be seen that as the depth difference of the elongation increases,
the function ratio of the deeply located elongation increases gradually among the RRFRs in which the geometric mean is applied with the information counted by the anterior and posterior detectors.
In kidney examinations conducted by the nuclear medicine department, the RRFR is generally measured using only the posterior detector. However, when the RRFR was measured using the geometric mean with the information from the anterior and posterior detectors, it was confirmed that the function ratio of the deeply located kidney rises. The above results suggest that the attenuation between the kidney and the detector is corrected.
For patients with different depths of the left and right kidneys, it would be useful to measure the RRFR by applying a geometric mean with the both detectors.
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The Influence of the Knowledge of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Educational Experience on the Confidence of Nursing StudentsPurpose: This study is a descriptive research study intended to investigate the effect of the nursing students' knowledge and educational experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on their confidence. Method: The subjects of this study were 183 nursing students attending University V located in City J of Province J, and the study period ran from November 18 to November 29, 2019. As for the research tool, the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation related knowledge and confidence were used. As for the data analysis, confidence ac-cording to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge and educational experience of the nursing students was analyzed using the t-test, and knowledge was analyzed using the chi-square test. The relationship be-tween knowledge and educational experience and confidence of the nursing students was analyzed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge score was 9.6 points for 1st and 2nd years and 13.2 for 3rd and 4th years out of a total of 17 points, where the cardiopulmonary resuscitation related knowledge was measured higher among the 3rd and 4th years. The confidence in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 3rd and 4th years with the experience in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice and clinical practice was 6.72 points, which was higher than 3.84 points for the 1st and 2nd years, and there was a statistically significant difference(p<0.05). Conclusion: Hence, in order to facilitate the cardiopulmonary resuscitation education, the educational support should be provided to develop an educational program that includes knowledge and build confidence in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Keyword:Nursing Student, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Knowledge, Educational Experience, Confidence
Purpose: The cabin crew's in-flight work consists of safety and security-related tasks and requires specialized knowledge. With the popularization of air travel, the importance of safety-related work for cabin crew is becoming more and more important. Therefore, it is time to consider the work of cabin crew from a safety-oriented point of view and study to clarify the duties of cabin crew. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cabin crew knowledge pursuance on work self-efficacy and safety orientation, and the effect of cabin crew job regulation on work self-efficacy and safety orientation. The mediating effect of work self-efficacy is also verified. Method: The questionnaire, targeting Korean staff working as flight attendant in domestic and overseas airline companies, has been carried out for this study, and on-line questionnaire has been processed as to maximize their participation. In this study, the hypothesis was verified through a structural equation model using 22 observational variables and 4 latent variables whose reliability and validity were confirmed through the evaluation of the measurement. Results: First, both knowledge pursuance and job regulation have a significant effect on the work self-efficacy of airline cabin crew. Second, knowledge pursuance had a significant effect on safety orientation, but job regulation had no significant effect on safety orientation. Third, work self-efficacy has a significant effect on safety orientation. Fourth, work self-efficacy is partially mediated in the relationship between knowledge pursuance and safety-orientation of airline cabin crew. Fifth, work self-efficacy is completely mediated in the relationship between job regulation and safety orientation of airline cabin crew, and the mediating effect is statistically significant. Conclusion: Cabin crew's efforts to continuously acquire and maintain professional knowledge on the overall safety of aircraft and safety for each aircraft type are important factors that enable the professionalism of the cabin crew. Safety knowledge and safety motivation play an important role as antecedent variables for carrying out safety behaviors consisting of safety compliance and safety participation. Proposals for various programs that allow indirect experience of safety-related situations include in-house safety seminars, easy-to-use VR-based safety accident and incident case, and constructive individual feedback. This training method will provide an opportunity for cabin crew to gain confidence in their ability to respond well to a variety of safety-related accidents and accidents based on their aviation-related safety knowledge.Keyword:Safety Orientation, Knowledge Pursuance, Job Regulation, Work Self-Efficacy, Cabin Crew
Analysis of Prior Research Trends on the Financial Safety for Components of Public Spending and Economic GrowthPurpose: The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the main content of discussions on the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth. Furthermore, the secondary purpose of this study is to analyze the main discussion content of the papers that studied the relationship between different items of government expenditure and economic growth. In this way, this study can contribute to exploring the research flow and direction between government spending and economic growth. Method: This study systematically collected and investigated quantitative and qualitative studies that analyzed the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth and the relationship between government spending items and economic growth. In addition, policy reports and related data on economic data and impact analysis between government spending and economic growth were additionally utilized in addition to the analysis of previous studies. Results: Most of the research so far has focused on the relationship between the size of government spending and economic growth. In other words, it was confirmed that there were not many studies that recognized the differences between government expenditure items and analyzed the different quantitative relationships between different expenditure items and economic growth. Conclusion: In future research, it is necessary to analyze the different impact relationships between government spending items and economic growth, and follow-up studies that can suggest more specific and practical policy implications according to the results. It is also needed to analyze the quantitative relationship between different expenditure items and economic growth at the local government level and to draw implications for the different influence relationships between government spending and economic growth at different levels of government.Keyword:Financial Safety, Public Spending, Economic Growth, Government Expenditure, Components of Public Spending
Purpose: This is a single group related ex ante and ex post design study intended to examine and understand the effect of caffeine education on the cognitive improvement of college students. Method: From November 1, 2019 to November 29, 2019, a preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted with 103 junior year students from 2 health related departments at a university located in J city, Jeollabuk-do, once a week for 3 weeks, after which a total of 3 education sessions were conducted. The collected data were analyzed by using the frequency analysis and the paired sample t-test using the SPSS Win 18.0 program. Results: The mean for intake before education was 1.47±.40, and the mean for intake after education was 1.77± .47. The preeducational knowledge was 0.58± .23 and the post-educational knowledge was 0.89± .10. When the intake and knowledge levels were compared with those before the education, the mean score increased after the education. Through which, it is evident that the level of caffeine knowledge increased after the education. Conclusion: The caffeine education program reduced the frequency of the caffeine intake, and after the education, the rate of correct response for knowledge questions increased, thereby confirming the fact that the caffeine knowledge level was improved. Furthermore, after checking the caffeine content in the recognition and behavior, it was confirmed that there was an improvement in the positive direction of selecting beverages and selecting alternative foods. However, in order to generalize university students and expand and interpret the effects of the education, it is considered that a wide range of subjects and long-term education will be needed.Keyword:Caffeine, Education, Recognition, Knowledge, College Student
Analysis of the Difference and Correlation by Altitude in the Species Number of Vascular Plants and Naturalized Plants in KoreaPurpose: By analyzing 1,441 flora survey data of the 3rd to 5th data of the National Natural Environment Survey, the differences by region and altitude were analyzed in the species number of vascular plants and naturalized plants distributed throughout Korea, and the naturalization index. This study aimed to reveal the correlation by altitude in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. Method: This study utilized the flora survey data for 14 years from 2006 to 2019 in the 3rd to 5th National Natural Environment Survey. One-way ANOVA analysis was performed by region and altitude to examine the differences in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. Researchers performed curvilinear estimation regression analysis to find the correlation, and SPSS Statistics 21 statistical program was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were differences by region and altitude in the species number of vascular plants, the species number of naturalized plants, and the naturalization index. The species number of vascular plants had a positive correlation with an increase in the number of species as the altitude increased. The species number of naturalized plants had a negative correlation with a decrease in the number of species as the altitude increased. The naturalization index had a negative correlation that decreased up to a certain altitude, increased after that point, and then decreased again. Conclusion: As for vascular plants, the higher the altitude, the greater the species number of vascular plants, and the lower the altitude, the fewer vascular plant species. Conversely, as for naturalized plants, the lower the altitude, the greater the species number of naturalized plants, and the higher the altitude, the fewer naturalized plant species. In addition, as for the naturalization index, the lower the altitude, the higher the naturalization index, and the higher the altitude, the lower the naturalization index. This study is expected to be utilized as basic data for managing naturalized plants.Keyword:Vascular Plants, Naturalized Plants, Naturalization Index, Flora, Correlation
Crisis of Kim Jong-Un Regime of North Korea and the Safety of North Korean Defectors: An Analysis of Job Involvement of the South Korean Security PolicePurpose: The purpose of this study is to recognize the importance of the security police officers' work or job involvement by examining the difference in terms of the job involvement according to the general characteristics of the South Korean security police, and furthermore, present the basic data for the organizational operation and improving the work efficiency of members. Method: In this study, 100 trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, a police institute of education in Korea in 2020, were surveyed and the convenience sampling method was used for the sampling method, followed by the Self-Administration Method. An investigation was conducted. Among the collected questionnaires, 91 questionnaires were used as valid samples, except for the data with insincere responses or omission of some of the details of the survey. The measurement tool is a questionnaire, and the data processing is a statistical package program, SPSS 23.0 Program, and the frequency analysis was performed to examine and understand the general characteristics, while the Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to validate the reliability of the questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed to classify the job involvement related factors, and the t-Test and the one-way ANOVA were performed to examine and understand the difference in terms of the job involvement of the security police according to the general characteristics. Results: In this study, the confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the conceptual validity of the measurement tool, and the concept reliability was all over 0.8, and the mean variance (AVE) values all exceeded 0.5, and hence, the concentration validity for all variables was evidently secured. Furthermore, the reliability of the questionnaire turned out to be .798 of Cronbach's α coefficient. As an empirical result, the difference in the job involvement according to general characteristics is, first, the difference in terms of the job involvement of the security police according to gender is higher in women than in men. Second, there was no significant difference in the job involvement of the security police according to age in the difference in terms of the job involvement of the security police according to age. Third, the difference in the job involvement of the security police according to educational background is higher than high school graduates with community college, 4 year college, and graduate degrees. Fourth, the difference in terms of the job involvement of the security police according to the number of employees in the affiliated organization is higher than that of 21 or more people than 10 people or less, 11 or more people and 15 people or less, and 15 or more people and 20 people or less. Fifth, there is no difference in the job involvement of the security police according to the area of service. Conclusion: As a result of the research process it turned out that there was a difference in the job involvement of the security police according to gender, educational background, and the number of employees in the affiliated organization, and there was no difference in terms of the job involvement according to age and the area of service. Hence, based on the in-depth and various studies related to job involvement according to the characteristics of the study subjects, a plan ought to be presented to enable the security police to more fully perform their original duties.Keyword:South Korea, Security, Police, Security Police, Job Involvement
Difference in Treatment Outcome according to Oxygen Supply Time in Patients with Myocardial InfarctionPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oxygen therapy on cardiac status and therapeutic outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to reduce unnecessary oxygen supply. Our intervention focused on reducing the six hours of oxygen therapy that was previously available to two hours. Method: A non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design was used. After IRB approval, we started experimental study. Total 42 patients participated in this study, 12 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. The experimental group received oxygen for 2 hours and the control group was compared to the experimental group by chart review of patients who maintained oxygen for 6 hours. We measured Ejection Fraction (EF) by Echo-cardiogram and Myocardial Condition by Myocardium SPECT. We also checked hospital days by reviewing medical chart. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, X2 test, and t-test were used for statistical analysis with SPSS 23.0 program. Results: The test in Myocardium SPECT showed no significant difference in Myocardial condition between the experimental group and the control group. Especially, ‘stress defect’ among the test items was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (t=2.118, p=.040). In addition, there was no significant difference in the hospital day in the experimental group and the control group(t=-0.341, p=.735). Conclusion: Therefore, it is recommend to maintain oxygen therapy for 2 hours reduced and compared previous oxygen therapy protocol.Keyword:Myocardial Infarction, Oxygenation, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Oxygen Supply Time, Treatment
The Influence of Open Parental Communication Ability and Child Ego Resiliency on Children’s Anger Expression: A Study on Children in CrisisPurpose: The purpose of this study is to explore variables related to children’s anger expression and prevent improper style of anger expressing style, which provides theoretical data in developing programs to train children to express anger appropriately. Method: The survey was conducted self-reporting among 862 students in 5th and 6th grades from 5 elementary schools in D city. These collected data using STAXI-K(State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), PACI(Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory), and ER (Ego-Resiliency Scale), were statistically processed and analyzed based on SPSS24.0 and AMOS 24.0. Results: The results were as follows: First, parental open communication ability and children's ego resiliency directly affect their anger expression(anger-out) and suppression(anger-in). Second, children's ego resiliency has an indirect influence on anger management. Also, parents' open communication skills directly impact child ego resiliency. Finally, this study identified the variables influencing children's anger expression. In contrast, the influence of these variables was different respectively on anger expression(anger-out), anger suppression(anger-in), and anger management. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the variables, including parental open communication ability, the environmental factor, and children’s ego resilience, the individual factor, play a significant role in children's anger expressing style, which they can describe, explain, predict, and control their emotion. Among these variables, open parental communication had the most decisive influence directly on anger-out, and anger suppression(anger-in), which indicates that parents need to talk with their child smoothly for their child to express their anger effectively.Keyword:Anger Expression(Anger-Out), Anger Suppression(Anger-In), Anger Management, Open Parental Communication, Children's Ego Resiliency
Purpose: Recently, domestic and foreign food consumers are pursuing the minimization of meal time and convenience of cooking, and the consumption behavior is increasing take out, delivery, and HMR purchases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the opinions of the expert group on the commercially available meal kit to help a lot with the eating habits of modern people and to suggest the development direction of the meal kit in the future. Method: Create a questionnaire and make up a group of experts consisting of 4 cooking and food service management professors, a sales manager of a meal kit related developer, a menu development manager, and 13 other meal kit operators, for a total of 17 people, January 3-6th 2022, Individual surveys were conducted for about 2 hours, and the results were derived using spss program. Results: As a result of an interview with an expert group, it is necessary to develop a granular health friendly meal kit for the low salt, high protein, low fat, low sugar, vegan, dieter, exerciser, and the elderly using ecofriendly materials. Conclusion: This study aims to present the development direction of meal kit as low sugar, low salt, high protein, low fat, vegan, dieter, exercise machine, and elderly meal kit. In addition, in order to develop meal kit products that are beneficial to consumers' health and environment, product development using eco-friendly packaging containers should be carried out. It is also important to understand the segmented needs of consumers.Keyword:Meal Kits, Development Direction, Organic Food, Low Salt, Low Sugar
A Study on the Relationship between Employment Period and Organizational Satisfaction of Indefinite-Term Contract Workers in Governments: Focusing on Indefinite-Term Contract Worker at the National Agricultural Products Quality Management ServicePurpose: The primary purpose of this study is to empirically validate the relationship between the employment period and the organizational satisfaction of the indefinite term contract workers of the National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service, which is an agency operating under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Meanwhile, studies on the organizational satisfaction in Korea have focused on public servants or employees of general companies, and the purpose lies with recognizing that there is a lack of studies which statistically validate the relationship between the employment period and the organizational satis-faction of indefinite term contract workers, and making contribution to the improvement of the organizational satisfaction of indefinite term contract workers. Method: The National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service utilized the results of the 2020 or-ganizational satisfaction survey conducted by Hyundai Research for indefinite term contract workers, and the or-ganizational satisfaction was measured with the average value of all questions of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational communication, fair evaluation and compensation, and by making reference to previous studies, a hypothesis was established that “the number of years of continued service of indefinite term con-tract workers of the National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service will have a positive (+) effect on the organizational satisfaction”. Results: As a result of the analysis performed of this study, the correlation between the dependent variable for the independent variable (employment period) turned out to have a correlation of approximately -0.218. while the employment period has an effect on the organizational satisfaction, it has a negative (-) effect rather than a positive (+) effect as hypothesized, which suggests that the longer the number of years of continued service, the lower the organizational satisfaction, and which also suggests that the satisfaction with organization is not simply increased by the mission of job and job performance satisfaction which arises the longer one serves for the organization. Conclusion: The average score of overall job satisfaction excluding the employment period turned out to yield a lower average score for the organizational commitment, communication, and fairness of evaluation and compensation. However, as a result of analyzing the organizational satisfaction of the in-definite term contract workers of the National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service by the section of employment period, it was verified that the organizational commitment and communication and the fair evaluation and compensation were even more correlated with the organizational satisfaction than the job satisfaction such as satisfaction of job and workload.Keyword:Non-Term Contract Workers, Indefinite Contract Workers, Organizational Satisfaction, National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service, Employment Period