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  • Purpose: This study explores the ethical issues that arise in building a community where humans can use smart technology to lead happier lives, a smart society. Method: Technology in a smart society is not unrelated to the human variable, no matter how advanced its level is. As humans pursue value, smart societies also need to be explored from an ethical perspective. This study provides the need for an ethical approach that emphasizes humanity in the process of building and maintaining a smart society. The research was conducted by contents based approach. Results: This research showed that the smart society was clarified by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and got two characteristics as follows: First, AI, which is the core of smart society in particular, fosters human nature and potentialility through automatic self-realization, human representation, personal and social skills, and social cohesion. Second, smart AI ethical standards include beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice, and explicability. Conclusion: This paper presented a normative and substantial directions to what preparations should be made for human-centered ethical coexistence in a future-oriented smart society. The ethical virtue or a way of living could be summarized as followed: love for humans, retrospective understanding, variable dialogue, selfsustainability, tarnsparency, explainability.
    Keyword:Smart Society, Ethical Approach, Smart Internet, Industrial Revolution, Smart Technology, Artificial Intelligence
  • Purpose: Current social and technical issues related AI Ethics take many different forms. Therefore, efforts to make ethical guidelines to cope with these issues are actively being developed. However, most kinds of ethical guidelines present general ethical principles and take a deductive method of solving individual problems in accordance. The purpose of this study is to propose creating ethical guidelines through an inductive method of deriving ethical principles based on ethical judgements on each individual AI-related cases. Method: At first, most representative cases of AI ethics-related guidelines would be investigated in domestic and international level, with collecting documents and literature review. After that, examine the commonalities and differences between cases as these basic data through comparative research methods. Accordingly, it would be revealed that each case is constituted by a deductive method. Finally, as an alternative to these methods, presenting the merits of establishing ethical principles related to AI through inductive cases and specific examples. Results: Most of the representative AI Code of Ethics that currently exist have the form of suggesting principles and then solving ethical problems by applying the principles to the actual events accordingly. This type of approach corresponds to the method of ethics which based on moral principles. However, complex and unpredictable problems are likely to arise when it comes to AI ethics. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to extract the principles of the AI Code of Ethics by establishing and presenting ethical principles through researching and analyzing various individual events related to AI Ethics using deep learning and Big Data Based AI. Conclusion: The following effects can be achieved by using deep learning techniques and Big Data Based AI that contains Ethical Issues together with sound and desirable Moral Judgement on each case, to derive the principles of the AI code of ethics. First, it is possible to extract and secure Big Data as basic resource of presenting Ethical Directions on various ethical problems arising in connection with the development of AI technology. Second, since the Ethical Principles as AI Code of Ethics are established based on empirical data, the validity of the principles can be secured. On the other hand, the AI Code of Ethics derived through deep learning based on such Big Data is likely to result in multiple tyranny or errors of majority due to certain limitations. So evaluation, verification and correction by Human Ethics Experts are essential to prevent these kinds of fault.
    Keyword:AI Ethics, AI Code of Ethics, Deep Learning, Big Data, Human Ethics Experts
  • Purpose: This study intends to examine the efficiency and limitations of AI-based cyber defense systems by applying game theory and to explore the direction of the development of an AI-based national cyber defense system. In cybersecurity attackers and defenders can choose strategies and make a decision based on their resources, to attain the rewards, while anticipating the actions from opposing players. Method: For better analysis, this article use Game theory an analytical framework to identify the position between the attacker and defender in the Cyber domain. Game theory has been used to observe competition among multiple competitors(players) fighting under preset rules. Game theory is appropriate for analyzing cyber interaction between defenders, attackers, and users and what happens as a result. Results: To respond to infringement incidents, first, for artificial intelligence to more efficiently detect and respond quickly to security threats, it is necessary to analyze vast amounts of security data with human experience and knowledge and enter accurate data for artificial intelligence to learn. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the self-learning ability of security solutions to apply signature analysis, behavior analysis technology, and machine learning technology to enable automated detection and response to AI-based cyber attacks. Conclusion: Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind. First, cybersecurity is directly related to national security, and the government has to enhance an AI-based cybersecurity system. Second, to cope with increasingly diverse and evolving external cyber-attacks. Third, it is necessary to develop R & D investment and professional human resources to build an AI-based cybersecurity system. Fourth, it is required to overhaul related legal systems to strengthen AI-based cybersecurity. Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind.
    Keyword:AI, Cyber Security, Benefits, Limitations, National Security
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate preliminary elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era. Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories; 1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology. Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand, they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI technology into their classroom. Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English education.
    Keyword:Preliminary Elementary School Teacher, Artificial Intelligence(AI), Technology, Future English Education, Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Purpose: The “Narrow” AI technologies and its application to different sectors in the U.S. have brought tremendous advantages to the country and its citizens. This paper attempts to examine the opportunities and risks of AI’s potential application to the military health care sector. Yet, some human rights concerns remain. This paper further argues that the new Biden administration should pursue policies that reinforce a human-centric AI to be more supportive of human rights. Method: This paper employs the politics of responsibility theory to examine the present and future of AI responsible governance in the Biden era. Based on resources from various AI related research by the U.S. government, scholars, and experts, this paper further attempts to examine the opportunities and challenges in the ethical area that will likely be generated by applying AI to the American system of military health care. Results: This paper finds that the application of AI in military health care would likely provide immense opportunities, especially in times of COVID-19. However, there are risks posed by the application of AI in various sectors as well as in military health care. Meanwhile, the new Biden administration’s future policymaking stage should emphasize ways in which AI may remain human-centric to be more supportive of human rights. Conclusion: In incorporating AI into virtually every economic sector and into daily life, the U.S. government, together with all sectors of society, should seek ways to maximize opportunities and minimize the risk of overdependence or unregulated exposure to an intelligence far beyond the human level. The new Biden administration should be at the forefront in promoting responsible AI policymaking to be more supportive of human rights.
    Keyword:The Politics of Responsibilities, The Biden Administration, The U.S. Department of Defense(DOD), Human Rights Challenges, Potential AI Applications to Military Health Care